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Afghanistan Sindh
First posted on October 27th 2004, last revised on June 8th 2010






The term Baluchistan has been coined by foreigners to describe a region inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups (Balochi, Brahui, Pashto, Hazaragi) and which historically was divided into several feudal states, the most important ones being Kalat, Makran and Las Bela.
In 1872 the British and Persians agreed on the border partitioning Baluchistan into Western Baluchistan (to Persia, presently Iran) and into larger (eastern) Balochistan which was regarded British sphere of influence, since 1843. Quetta was acquired by the British in 1879, the border with Afghanistan drawn in 1879/1893, resulting in yet another part of Balochistan having been split off.
British interest in Baluchistan lay mainly in securing the western border of British India; in most of British Baluchistan, indirect rule was applied.
When British India was released into independence (1947), the princes were expected to opt for Pakistan. When the Sultan of Kalat showed reluctance, Pakistan used armed force.

Spelling varieties : Baluchistanb, Balochistan, Beloochistan, Baloochistan

Pakistani Balochistan, 1977-1988 . Pakistan
Pakistani Baluchistan, 1970-1977 . Pakistan
Pakistani Baluchistan, 1955-1970 . Pakistan
Pakistani Baluchistan, 1947-1955 . Pakistan

British Baluchistan, 1871-1947 . British India

Timeline : Baluchistan

Historical Atlas : Western Central Asia, South Asia, Baluchistan, Iran, Pakistan






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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Article Baluchistan, from Wikipedia
Article Balochistan, from Pakistran Information
The Baluch and Baluchistan, from Peyman Planet
Historical
Links
on History Category : History of Balochistan, from Wikipedia
History links, from Baloch Unity (tendentious site)
Organizations National Fund for Cultural Heritage, Pakistan
Historical Dictionaries PakistanPaedia
Timelines at WHKMLA
Timeline Balochistan since 2002, from SATP
Search Google News Archive for Baluchistan, Baloochistan, Beluchistan, Beloochstan, Balochistan, click Timeline
Accounts of History Current from History of Pakistan, from Balochwarna, Articles History of Balochistan, History of the Baloch People, from Wikipedia
Balochis of Pakistan : On the Margin of History, from Foreign Policy Centre (British); online book
The Baluchistan Issue, from Chapati Mystery
Search Encyclopaedia Iranica for Baluchistan
Historical Th.H. Holdich, The gates of India, being an historical narrative (1910), posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods Articles : Baluchistan Agency, Baluchistan States Union, from Wikipedia
Politics The Baluch
Government of Balochistan in Exile, readers' discretion advised
Baloch Society of North America, readers' discretion advised
M.U. Khan, Tribal Politics in Balochistan 1947-1990, posted by PRR
Article Balochistan National Party, from Wikipedia
Statement on the Question of the Baloch in Iran, and Political Solution, posted by UNPO
R.I. Khan, Impact of Political Culture on Political Development of Balochistan, posted by PRR
Baluchistan National Movement - Iran
Article Provincial Assembly of Balochistan, from Wikipedia
Quetta Institutional History, from gjtmap Balochistan
Selig S. Harrison, Baluch Nationalism and Superpower Rivalry, posted on Balochwarna (1980es ?)
Military Baluchistan 1839-1841, from Sirgarnet, on Baluchistan front in First Anglo-Afghan War
The Conquest of Sindh 1843, from Sirgarnet
Baluchistan's History of Insurgency, from Green Left, posted by World Press
126th Baluchistan Infantry, from British Empire
129th Duke of Connaught's Own Baluchis, from British Empire
4th Quetta Division, from 1914-1918.net
Abubakr Siddique : Pakistan/Iran : The Baluchi's Forgotten Conflict (2007), Ayesha Khan, Pakistan: Simmering Baluchi Insurgency Complicates Regional Relations, (2006), Baluchistan Insurgency, from Global Security
Balochistan Conflict Papers, from Balochistan National Party (tendentious site)
Economy & Finances Baluchistan, Economy and Infrastructure, from Horses and Words
Economic Potential of Balochistan, from The Government of Balochistan in Exile (tendentious site)
Social History
Ethnography Articles Bugti, Baloch People, Balochi Language, Brahui People, Brahui Language, Dehwari, Khetrani Language, Lasi; Waneci : see Pashto Language, Jadgal, Category : Baloch Tribes, Category : Ethnic Groups in Pakistan, from Wikipedia
Balochi Language in Focus
Carina Jahani, State Control and its Impact on Balochistan
Languages of Pakistan, from Ethnologue; see Balochi (Eastern, Southern, Western), Brahui, Dehwari, Jadgali, Khetrani, Lasi, Southern Pashto, Waneci
Entries Baluchi, Brahui, from World Cultures Encyclopedia
Entries Balochi, Eastern, Balochi, Southern, Balochi, Western, Brahui, Dehwari, Jadgali (Sindhi), Khetrani, Lasi, Waneci, from The Linguist
Iran : Baluchis, from Global Security
Beluchistan, pp.433-434 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Religion Minorities in Balochistan, from Baloch 2000
Hinglaj Maragee Temple, Balochistan, from Travel Culture
History of Regions Articles Makran (Princely State), Kalat (Princely State), Las Bela (Princely State), Kharan (Princely State), Marri-Bugti Country, from Wikipedia
Awaran District, Barkhan District, Chagai District, Dera Bugti, Gwadar District, Jaffarabad District, Jhall Magsi District, Kalat District, Kech District, Kharan District, Khuzdar District, Killa Abdullah, Killa Saifullah, Kohlu District, Lasbela District, Loralai District, Mastung District, Musakhail, Nasirabad District, Panjgur, Pishin District, Quetta District, Sibi District, Zhob District, from balochistan.gov.pk
Local History Quetta, Home of the Legends, posted by M. Sharaini
Articles Gwadar, History of Quetta, from Wikipedia
History of Gwadar, from Gwadar Rabia City; Gwadar Background, from Gwadar SDNPK, from Gwadar Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Beatrice Nicolini, International Trade Networks : The Omani Enclave of Gwadar (abstract, 1998)
Institutions Article University of Balochistan from Wikipedia
Balochistan University of Engineering and Technology
Culture
Biographies A.L.P. Tucker, Sir Robert G. Sandeman, K.C.S.I., peaceful conqueror of Baluchistan (1921), posted on Internet Archive
Others

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Pakistan Princely States : Baluchistan, from World Statesmen
Indian Princely States : Las Bela, Kalat, Kharan; lists of rulers
Pakistan Provinces : Baluchistan, from World Statesmen
Population Figures Current Population of Towns and Cities in Baluchistan, Pakistan, from World Gazetteer
Historical Population Figures : Pakistan, Provinces, from Population Statistics
Historical Population Figures : Iran, Provinces, from Population Statistics
Article Balukistan, posted by F.W. Smitha, mainly population figures at various dates in the 20th century
Documents Historical Newspapers Baluchistan Article Archives, from Keepmedia
Image Databanks Photos, from Trek Earth
Photo : Quetta after the 1935 Earthquake, from Webshots
Search Delcampe Picture Postcards for Baluchistan
Marrott's Baluchistan, from Early Postcards of India and Ceylon
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK)
Search Janus
Resources for Central Asian Studies in the British Library
Constitutions, Laws Muhammad Ali Jinnah speech on the Constitutional Position of Baluchistan, 1948, posted by Quaid i Azam Website
Treaties C.U. Aitchison, A Collection of treaties, engagements, and sunnuds, relating to India and neighbouring countries, vol.1 (1892), vol.2 (1892), vol.3 (1863), vol.3 (1909), vol.4 (1893), vol.5 (1876), vol.5 (1892), vol.6 (1892), vol.7 (1862), vol.7 (1892), vol.8 (1892), vol.9 (1892), vol.10 (1892), vol.11 (1892), vol.13 (1909), posted on Internet Archive
Document Collections
Historical Maps at WHKMLA
Baluchistan, Pakistan, Map & Placename Index
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 550 B.C., Eastern Hemisphere 527 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 500 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 400 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 335 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 323 BC, Easern Hemisphere 300 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 200 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 100 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 050 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 001 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 050 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 450 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 500 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 565 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 600 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 610 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 700 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 800 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 900 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1000 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1025 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Pakistan : Major Ethnic Groups, from Pakistanpaedia
Ethnic Groups in Pakistan, Languages of Pakistan, from The Gulf 2000 Project
Afghanistan & Pakistan, from Asian Linguistic Maps
Maps : Iranian Languages from Titus
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Beludschistan, Cities : Basman, Bela, Bhag, Bhakkan, Bumischk, Bunpur, Dadur, Gaih, Gundawa, Hurrund, Kedsche, Khewadir, Kohuk, Nuschky, Puhra, Punscher, Sonmeany, Surhud, Wudd, Zuhri, Territories : Buschkurd, Ihalawan, Kelat, Khubar, Kuhistan, Kutsch-Gundawa, Lus, Makran, Mustung, Sarawan; Urbu, from Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, in German
Article : Belutschistan, Kelat, Mekran, Quetta, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892 , in German
Article : Baluchistan, British India; Baluchistan, Persia, Kalat, Makran, Quetta, Gwadar, Bela, Las, from EB 1911
Religious
Economic E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Baluchistan
Geographical Article : Beloochistan, pp.98-99 in J. Morse, A new universal gazetteer, or, Geographical dictionary, 1821, GB
Beloochistan, pp.351-352 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, or a Description of All the Parts of the World, 1822, GB
Article : Beloochistan, pp.534-535 in vol.1 of G.N. Wright, A New and Comprehensive Gazetteer, 1834, GB
Articles Beludschistan, Dauder, Bela, Gwattar, Ketsch, Bunpur, from Stefan Ankjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish
G.G. Chisholm, The Two Hemispheres (1882), posted on IA; search for Baluchistan
Article Baluchistan, Quetta-Pishin, Gwadar, Makran, Kalat, Kharan, Las Bela, Marri-Bugti Country, Sibi District, from Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909-1931)
Beloochistan, p.370 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Ethnographical Beloutchistan, p.391 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues H. de Windt, A ride to India across Persia and Baluchistan (1891), posted on Internet Archive
E.A. Floyer, Unexplored Baluchistan, a survey of a route through Mekran, Bashkurd, Persia, Kurdistan and Turkey (1882), posted on Internet Archive
E.E. Oliver, Across the border : or Pathan and Biloch (1890), posted on Internet Archive
Ch. Masson, Narrative Of Various Journeys In Balochistan Afghanistan The Panjab And Kalat (1844), vol.4, posted on Internet Archive
Ch.M. MacGregor, Wanderings in Balochistan (1882), posted on Internet Archive
P.J. Maitland, Diary of a journey from Jacobabad to Panjgur, and exploration of Eastern Mekran, 1881-82 (1883), posted on Internet Archive
H. Pottinger, Travels in Beloochistan and Sinde, 1816, GB
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives
Musea Archaeological Museum Quetta, from Pakistani Exporters, scroll down
Monuments
Libraries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Entries Baluchistan Agency, Kalat, Kharan, Las Bela from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Coin Catalog of Bela, from Numismaticon; Coin Catalog of Kalat, from Numismaticon; Search Coin Archive for Kalat

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Baluchistan Balochistan Bibliography, from Balochwarna
Bibliographi, of Balochi Language in Focus
Online Libraries general Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
e-corpus
International Boundary Studies
Gallica
on Baluchistan Publications, from Balochwarna
Pakistan Research Repository
Online Journals
Online Yearbooks
General Accounts Christophe Jaffrelot (ed.), A History of Pakistan and its Origins, translated from the French, London : Anthem Press (2002) 2004, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 954.91 J23h
Specific Topics
Yearbooks Article : Baluchistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1913 p.613 [G]
Article : Baluchistan, in : Statesman's Year Book 1895 pp.154-156, 1898 pp.154-156, 1901 pp.167-169, 1905 pp.174-178, 1910 pp.152-155, 1919 pp.159-163, 1925 pp.160-164, 1928 pp.147-149, 1937 pp.156-158 [G]
Article : India and Dependencies : Baluchistan States, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1928 p.164; 1937 pp.175-176 [G]
Article : Baluchistan, in : Americana Annual 1927 p.85, 1928 p.76, 1930 p.90, 1931 p.92, 1932 pp.90-91, 1933 p.81, 1934 pp.77-78, 1935 p.82, 1936 p.76, 1937 p.63, 1938 p.67, 1939 pp.72-73, 1940 pp.58-59, 1943 p.88, 1944 pp.80-81, 1945 p.83 [G]
Article : Baluchistan, in : The International Year Book 1898 p.83, 1899 p.96, 1900 p.103 [G]
Articles : Baluchistan pp.57-59, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]