First posted on November 17th 2012, last revised on January 28th 2014

Literature on the History of Central Asia

Relevant Institutions . Reference Material . Primary Sources . Secondary Sources : Surveys . Secondary Sources : Specific Topics . WHKMLA Pages . WHKMLA Student Papers

Digital Libraries . Hemerotheques . Archives . Academic Journals

Relevant Institutions : Organizations :
Central Eurasian Studies Society

Relevant Institutions : Digital Libraries :
Tibetan & Himalayan Digital Library
American Center for Mongolian Studies, Digital Collections
Odias Database of Xinjiang Studies
Russian State Library, Digital Library
National Digital Library of China
Digitized Afghanistan Materials in English from the Arthur Paul Afghanistan Collection, University of Nebraska
CARRIE Eurasia Collection, donated ebooks online

Relevant Institutions : Hemerotheques (Digital Newspaper Archives) :
ICON: International Coalition on Newspapers, Newspaper digitization projects, scroll down for Afghanistan, Mongolia, Tibet; also look for China, Russia

Relevant Institutions : Archives :
The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online
National Archives of Mongolia
National Archives of Important Powers : State Archive of the Russian Federation, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Second Historical Archive of China
Endangered Archives Programme: EAP010: rare periodical publications in Mongolia, EAP031: The Treasures of Danzan Ravjaa, EAP140: Tangut collection at the Institute of Oriental Studies, St Petersburg Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, EAP164: Preservation, storage and accessibility for archives of the pre-industrial rural society of the Ukrainian Steppe, EAP264: rare photographic negatives from Mongolia, EAP630: Manuscripts from Kokand Khanate (1710-1876) court library from the museum sources of Kokand and Fergana valley and private collections, EAP687: manuscripts held by the Tibetan Yungdrung Bön Library of Menri Monastery, Dolanji, India

Relevant Institutions : Journals :
Silk Road Journal 2003-
Transoxiana 2000-
Central Eurasian Studies Review (CESR) 2002-
Journal of Modern Turkish Studies, Ankara 2004-
Journal Asiatique (in French) 1822-1897, 1903-1938, 1940, Gallica
Cahiers d'Asie Centrale 1996-2011
International Journal of Central Asian Studies 1996-
CNKI Journal : Dunhuang Research 1982-

Relevant Institutions . Reference Material . Primary Sources . Secondary Sources : Surveys . Secondary Sources : Specific Topics . WHKMLA Pages . WHKMLA Student Papers

Bibliography . Atlases, Maps . Statistical Data . Historical Dictionaries . National Biographies . Databases . Lists of Rulers

Reference Material : Bibliography :
The Scarecrow Historical Dictionary series by country contains extensive bibliography sections. See under Historical Dictionaries
Caucasus and Central Asia Program, Berkeley Program in Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies, University of California, Berkeley English-Language Bibliography of Central Asia by Subject, 2005
Yale University Library, Library Research and Bibliographic Guide for Central Asian Studies: English Language Materials
N. Light, Annotated Bibliography of the History and Culture of Eastern Turkistan, Jungharia/Zungaria/Dzungaria, Chinese Central Asia, and Sinkiang/Xinjiang (for the 16th-20th centuries CE, excluding most travel narratives)
Univ. Halle, Select Bibliography on Buddhism in Western Central Asia
M. Dickens, Syriac Christianity in Central Asia, Bibliography
American Center for Mongolian Studies Library, Holdings
Univ. of Maine at Farmington, Tibet, History, Religion, and Modern Politics, Bibliography
Warburg Institute, Islam - Tibet Bibliography
H.B. Paksoy, Essays on Central Asia (i.e. Eurasia; in Engl., linked)
Tibetan Bibliography Database
S. Wahab, Arthur Paul Afghanistan Collection Bibliography, vol.II : English and European Languages 2000, Univ. of Nebraska
Turkestan Library
K.A. Brook, Bibliography of Khazar Studies since 1901

Reference Material : Atlases, Maps :
Yuri Bregel, An Historical Atlas of Central Asia, (HACA) Leiden : Brill 2003, [G] (defines Central Asia as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Xinjiang) IA
I. Barnes, R. Hudson, The History Atlas of Asia (MacMillan), 1998 [G]
T. Lessman's Atlas of World History (-1500)
Maps of Russian History, from Global Security
Central Asian Maps, from Tajikistan Update
University of Texas, Perry Castaneda Library, Map Collection Topographical Maps, Asia
Distribution of Asian Languages, map from Muturzikin; Linguistic Maps from Titus Didactica, scroll down for Asia
J.G. Bartholomew, A Literary and Historical Atlas of Asia 1912, Sejarah Melayu Library
From Tibet to Altai - Russian Historical Maps of China
L., Brion de la Tour, Maps of Tartary 1780, Columbia

Reference Material : Statistical Data :
IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Jan Lahmeyer, Population Statistics : Asia; has tables showing historical data

Reference Material : Historical Dictionaries :
Encyclopaedia Iranica
Alan J.K. Sanders, Historical Dictionary of Mongolia, London : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Jamil Hanifi, Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1976 [G]
Paul D. Buell, Historical Dictionary of the Mongol World Empire, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 2003 KMLA ib. Call Sign R 909.0494201 B928h
E. Balfour, Cyclopaedia of India, 2nd ed. n.d. [1873], [G]; 3rd ed. 1885, IA vol.1 A-G, vol.2 H-N, vol.3 O-Z
C.F.W. Higham, Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations 2004
Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim World, both volumes, 2004, Sejarah Melayu Library
Silk Road Encyclopedia

Reference Material : Databases :
Monastic Asia, Mapping Buddhist Monasteries. Databank, work in progress.

Reference Material : Lists of Rulers (Archontology) :
Ben Cahoon, World Statesmen
I. Mladjov, Monarchs

Relevant Institutions . Reference Material . Primary Sources . Secondary Sources : Surveys . Secondary Sources : Specific Topics . WHKMLA Pages . WHKMLA Student Papers

Primary Sources : Surveys . Compilations . Travelogues . Tour Guides . Historiography . Mission Journals . Yearbooks . Oral History .Image Collections . Coins . Religious Literature . Commercial Directories . Office Lists . Other

Primary Sources : surveys
Silk Road Narratives
WHKMLA : Online Catalogues of Oriental Manuscripts, Codices, Early Printed Books; numerous relevant entries
S.C. Raschmann, The Berlin Turfan Collection
H.B. Paksoy, Central Asian Monuments (introduction of pieces of historiography)
Monumenta Altaica, Mongolian Monuments, Turkic Monuments, Manchu-Tungus Monuments (Monuments = documents in the respective language)
Bibliography of Khazar Studies, 1901 to the present : Primary Sources
History of Turkistan in the medieval manuscripts and written sources (refers to the city of Yassy-Turkestan in Kazakhstan)
British Library : Afghanistan : Sources in the India Office Records
S. Gorshenina, The Private Collections of Russian Turkestan in the Second Half of the 19th and Early 20th Century 2004
Sogdiana Books : The Turkestan Gazette (Turkestanskie Vedomosti 1870-1917)
N. Kawyani, Newspaper Bukhara¡©ye sharif, IISG
I. Tunkina, Materials of the Personal Papers of Sergey F. Oldenburg as a Source on History of the Russian Expeditions to East Turkestan

Primary Sources : compilations
Internet Islamic History Sourcebook
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Outer Mongolia, Treaties and Agreements 1921, IA
GB Foreign Office, Further correspondence respecting Central Asia 1879, IA
Claude Arpi, Treaties with Tibet, The 1959 Tibetan Uprising and its Consequences, Was Tibet an Independent Nation ? Some Documents, Select Documents on the Tibet Issue
Tibetan Parliamentary and Policy Research Centre, Document Archive
S. Radchenko (trsl.), New Documents on Mongolia and the Cold War , Cold War International History Project Bulletin, Issue 16
Digitized Afghanistan Materials in English from the Arthur Paul Afghanistan Collection
Historic Documents of Kalat State (Balochistan)
N. Sims-Williams (trsl.), Sogdian Ancient Letters
Titus : Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection
Monumenta Altaica
J. Skaff (trsl.), The Turfan Documents at Princeton's Gest Library, 2000
Digitales Turfan-Archiv, BBAW
Digitized Tibetan Archives Material at Bonn University
Old Tibetan Documents Online (OTDO)
X. Honim (trsl.), The document on the history of Turkmen archive khans of Khiva 2013

Primary Sources : explorers' travelogues
600 BCE TO 600 CE
The Story of Chang K'ien, China's Pioneer in Western Asia: Text and Translation of Chapter 123 of Ssi-Ma Ts'ien's Shi-Ki, Journal of the American Oriental Society 37, 1917, IA
600 CE TO 1450 CE William of Rubruck's Account of the Mongols, Silk Road Narratives
M. Komroff (ed.), Contemporaries of Marco Polo, NY : Boni & Liveright 1928 [G] (W. of Rubrick, J. of Pian de Carpini, Friar Odoric, B. of Tudela)
The bondage and travels of Johann Schiltberger, a native of Bavaria, in Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1396-1427, 1879, IA
Narrative of the Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the Court of Timour at Samarcand, 1403-1406, Engl. trsl. 1859, GB
1450 CE TO 1750 CE
1750 CE TO 1914 CE
J. Cook, Voyages and Travels through the Russian Empire, Tartary, and Part of the Kingdom of Persia 1770, GB
Benjamin Bergmann's Nomadische Streifereien unter den Kalmüken in den Jahren 1802 und 1803, vol.1 1804, vol.2 1804, vol.3 1804, vol.4 1805, IA
J.D. Cochrane, Narrative of a pedestrian journey through Russia and Siberian Tartary 1824, GB
N.N. Muravyev, Des kaiserlichen russischen Gesandten Nicolaus von Murawiew Reise durch Turkomanien nach Chiwa 1824, IA
E.F. Timkovskii, Travels of the Russian Mission through Mongolia to China 1820-1821, vol.1 1827, vol.2 1827, GB
A. Burnes, Travels into Bokhara, vol.1 1834, vol.2 1834, GB
Y.F. Meiendorf, Journey of the Russian Mission from Orenbourg to Bokhara 1840, GB
W. Moorcroft, Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and Panjab, in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz and Bokhara vol.1 1841, vol.2 1841, GB
A. Burnes, Cabool, being a Personal Narrative of a Journey 1842, GB
J. Wolff, Narrative of a Mission to Bokhara in the Years 1843-1845, vol.1 1845, vol.2 1845, GB
M. Lal, Travels in the Panjab, Afghanistan and Turkistan, to Balk, Bokhara and Herat, 1846, GB
E.R. Huc, Travels in Tartary, Thibet and China [1844-1846], vol.1 n.d., vol.2 n.d., GB
W. Griffith, Journals of travels in Assam, Burma, Bootan, Affghanistan and the Neighbouring Countries, 1847, GB
Mrs. Hervey, The Adventures of a Lady in Tartary, Thibet, China and Kashmir vol.1 1853, vol.2 1853, GB
T.W. Atkinson, Oriental and western Siberia: a narrative of seven years' explorations and adventures in Mongolia, the Kirghis Steppes, Tartary and Parts of Central Asia 1858, GB
P. Collins, A Voyage down the Amoor 1860, GB
H. Torrens, Travels in Ladak, Tartary and Kashmir 1862, GB
G. Fleming, Travels on Horseback in Manchu Tartary 1863, GB
P. Collins, Overland Explorations in Siberia, Northern Asia, and the Great Amoor River Country 1864, GB
A. Michie, The Siberian Overland Route from Peking to Petersburg, 1864, Gb
A. Vambery, Travels in Central Asia 1865, GB
A. Williamson, Journeys in north China, Manchuria, and eastern Mongolia 1870, IA
R. Shaw, Visit to High Tartary, Yarkand and Kashgar 1871, GB
N.M. Przhevalskii, Mongolia, the Tangut country, and the solitudes of northern Tibet vol.1, vol.2 1876, IA
P.I. Piassetski, Russian Travellers in Mongolia and China, vol.1 1884, IA
H. Lansdell, Russian Central Asia 1885, IA
W.W. Rockhill, Diary of a journey through Mongolia and Thibet in 1891 and 1892 1894, IA
S.A. Hedin, Central Asia and Tibet vol.1 1903, vol.2 1903, IA
J.H. Roberts, A flight for life and an inside view of Mongolia 1903, IA
R. Pumpelly, Explorations in Turkestan, 1908, IA
J.M.P. Wood, Travel and Sport in Turkestan 1910, IA
E.G. Kemp, The face of Manchuria, Korea and Russian Turkestan 1911, IA
E.K. Kendall, A Wayfarer in China: Impressions of a Trip Across West China and Mongolia 1913, IA
D. Carruthers, Unknown Mongolia; a record of travel and exploration in north-west Mongolia and Dzungaria 1914, IA
S. Graham, Through Russian Central Asia 1916, IA

Primary Sources : Historiography
L.S. Zhu, The foundation legend of Khotan:Translation and annotations to Li yul chos kyi lo rgyus (Part II), Dunhuang Research 2011-02
R.N. Frye, The History of Bukhara by Narshaki (book review; c.950)
Sabuktigin [1186], The Kitab-i-Yamini: Historical Memoirs of the Amir Sabaktagin, and the Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna 1858, IA
E. Browne (trsl.), A Rare Thirteenth Century History of the Seljuqs, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1902), IA
The Secret History of the Mongols [c.1240], Monumenta Altaica (has several translations); ed. P. Kahn 1984, ed. U. Onon 2001
Tabakat-i-Nasiri - A General History of the Muhammadan Dynasties of Asia Including Hindustan [1260] (2 Volume Set) trsl. by H.G. Raverty, 1881, IA
Timur Lenk [-1405], The Mulfuzat Timury: or, Autobiographical memoirs of the Moghul emperor Timur 1830, GB; ditto, IA
Book of Dede Korkut [early 15th century], Wikipedia Article, Wikisource edition
al-Yazdi [1456], The history of Timur-Bec: known by the name of Tamerlain the Great, emperor of the Moguls and Tartars: being an historical journal of his conquests in Asia and Europe, 1723, GB
Mirkhond (= Mir-Khvand) [-1497/1523] Le Jardin de la Purete (history, from the beginnings to Alexander, Muhammed, the Caliphs, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Saljuqs, .., Mongols, Tamerlane, introduction, Histoire des Sultans Ghourides, Fr. trsl.
Mir-Khvand, The Garden of Purity, Eng. trsl., in vol.4 of The History of India as told by its own historians, 1871, IA; here related Wikipedia Article
Tarikh-i-Rashidi [Kashmir 1541-1546, on Central Asia], trsl. 1898, IA
al-Harawi, History of the Afghans [1613-1630] vol.4 1836, GB
Abulghazi Bahadur [1643-1663], A general history of the Turks, Moguls and Tatars, vulgarly called Tartars: together with a description of the countries they inhabit, in two volumes: I. The genealogical history of the Tatars, translated from the Tatar manuscript written in the Mogul language by Abu'l Ghazi Bahader, Khan of Khowarazm ; II. An account of the present state of the Northern Asia, as it includes Grand Tatary, (or the countries possess'd by the Moguls and Tatars) and Siberia: with some observations relating to great Russia, Turky, Arabia, Persia, India and China, with two maps exhibiting the antient and present state of Grand Tatary ; the whole made English from the French, with several improvements and additions 1730, GB
The chronicles of a traveller: or, A history of the Afghan wars with Persia, in the beginning of the last century, from their commencement to the accession of Sultan Ashruf. Being a translation of the "Tareekh-i-Seeah," from the Latin of J.C. Clodius 1840, IA
R.B. Shaw, The History of the Khojas of Eastern Turkistan summarized from the Tazkira-i-Khwajagan of Muhammad Sadiq Kashghari 1897
R. Bedrosian (trsl.), T'ovma Metsobets'i's History of Tamerlane and His Successors
G. Sale et al., The Modern Part of an Universal History vol.4 : General History of the Turks and the empires founded by them in Tartary and Lower Asia (until death of Kublai Khan), 1759, GB; vol.5 The History of the Mongols and Tatars from the Time of Jenghiz Khan pp.1-207, Book 6 : The History of Timur Bek, commonly called Tamerlan, and his successors (History of the Moguls and Tartars) pp.208-417, Book 7 : The History of the Shahs reigning in Persia pp.417-489, 1759, GB; vol.6 The History of the Shahs reigning in Persia pp.1-91, Book 8 : The History of the Turkmans and Uzbeks pp.92-203, 1759, GB; vol.7 Book 12 : History of the Eastern Tartars pp.511-578, 1759, GB
D. Ramsay, Universal History Americanized, vol.2 1819, GB : Chinese Tartary, Thibet, Independent Tartary pp.319-328

Primary Sources : oral history
The Walther Heissig Collection of Mongolian Oral Literature
Tibet Oral History Project
Goh Tschikitu, trsl. into German by Benjamin Bergmann, 1805, IA also contains "ein Heldengesang aus der Dschangariade" (= an Epic of the Jangar cycle)
Buryat Mongol Homepage, Translation of the Geser Epic into English

Primary Sources : Photos, Images
M. Dikovitskaya, Central Asia in Early Photographs: Russian Colonial Attitudes and Visual Culture
Exhibition of early color photographs from Russian Empire by S. M. Prokudin-Gorsky : Samarkand
The Tibet Album. British Photography in Central Tibet 1920-1950
Tibet House, US, Old Tibet Photo Archive
Afghanistan Old Photos
Phototheca Afghanica
Mongolian Views, Mongolian Photos around 1900s

Primary Sources : yearbooks
Britannica Book of the Year 1913, 1942-1997, 1999, 2002 [G]; KMLA Library has vol. 1998, 2006
Statesman's Yearbook 1878, 1889, 1895, 1898, 1901-1902, 1904-1907, 1910, 1912, 1918, 1919, 1924-1926, 1928-1929, 1932-1933, 1937, 1942-1943, 1961-1962, 1962-1963, 1970-1971, 1973-1974, 1975-1976 to 1976-1977, 1978-1979 to 2011
Statesman's Yearbook 1867 IA, 1868 IA, 1869 IA, 1871 IA, 1872 IA, 1873 IA, 1874 IA, 1875 IA, 1876 IA, 1877 IA, 1878 IA, 1879 IA, 1880 IA, 1881 IA, 1882 IA, 1883 IA, 1884 IA, 1885 IA, 1886 IA, 1887 IA, 1888 IA, 1889 IA, 1890 IA, 1891 IA, 1892 IA, 1894 IA, 1895 IA, 1896 IA, 1899 IA, 1903 IA, 1913 IA, 1919 IA, 1921 IA
Americana Annual 1927-1928, 1930-1941, 1943-1947, 1950-1954, 1957-1981, 1983-1990, 1992-1995, 1997-1998, 2000-2002, 2005-2006, 2008
(New) International Yearbook 1898-1900, 1907-1910, 1913-1914, 1916-1926, 1928-1935, 1937-1946, 1954, 1957, 1959, 1961-1962 [G]; Internet Archive provides links to scans of volumes of 1925-1959
Yearbook on International Communist Affairs 1968, 1973, 1974, 1976, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1989 [G]

Primary Sources : historic commercial directories etc.
W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva; or, The merchant's directory. 1754 ed. IA, Great Tartary pp.634-639, Lassa, Boutan, Chaoul pp.642-643; 1792 ed. IA, Great Tartary pp.796-802, Lassa, Boutan, Chaoul pp.806-807

Primary Sources : coins
Oriental Coins Database
Mongolian Coins : Coins of the Mongol Empire
B. Nyamaa, The coins of Mongol Empire and Clan Tamgha of Khans (XIII-XIV) 2005
P. Donovan, The Coinage of the Mangit Dynasty of Bukhara, American Numismatic Society 2007
Kroraina, Central Asia in the Middle Ages, mostly on coins; trsl. excerpts from Brykina 1999
T. Mallon, Early Central Asian Kingdoms (Coins); Hephthalites (Coinage of 'Iranian Huns')
V. Belyaev, Sogdian Coins 1, 1998, 2, 1998, Sogdian Silver Coins 1999
Sogdcoins, Coins of Central Asia
E. Rtveladze, Monetary circulation in ancient Tokharistan, 2004
Xinjiang Coins
Tibetan Coins
K. Khromov, The Successors of Chingiz Khan and their Coins 2012
Odessa Numismatic Museum
Museum of Money of Feodosia, Coins of the Golden Horde, Crimea

Primary Sources : religious literature
C.F. Horne, The sacred books and early literature of the East; with an historical survey and descriptions Vol.7 Ancient Persia: The Zendavesta, or Persian holy scripture, The empire of Cyrus, The later religious books, The Pahlavi historical romances, The final Persian tradition of the past. 1917, IA, Vol.8 Medieval Persia: Omar Khayyam, the first great mystic poet, Nizami, Persia's chief romantic poet, Jalal Ad-din Rumi, the leader of Sufism, Sadi, the famous poet philosopher, Hafiz, the "poet of love", Jami, the last great mystic; Jackson, A.V.W. Bibliography, 1917, IA

Primary Sources : other
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1861-1960
Archnet Historic Sites; special focus on the Muslim World
G. Aknertsi, History of the Nation of Archers (Mongols 1229-1273), n.d.

Relevant Institutions . Reference Material . Primary Sources . Secondary Sources : Surveys . Secondary Sources : Specific Topics . WHKMLA Pages . WHKMLA Student Papers

B. Taylor, Central Asia 1892, IA
F.H. Skrine, The heart of Asia : a history of Russian Turkestan and the Central Asian Khanates from the earliest times 1899, IA
Viscount Bryce, The Book of history; a history of all nations from the earliest times to the present vol.4 : The Middle East, 1915, IA (cont. Central Asia)
M.A. Czaplicka, The Turks of Central Asia in history and at the present day, an ethnological inquiry into the Pan-Turanian problem, and bibliographical material relating to the early Turks and the present Turks of Central Asia 1918, IA
UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia,
Vol.1 : Dawn of Civilization to 700 B.C.
Vol.2 : The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250
Vol.3 : The Crossroads of Civilizations : AD 250 to 750
Vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : 750 to the End of the 15th Century, IA, UNESCO Pt.1, UNESCO Pt.2
Vol.5 : Development in Contrast : From the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century
Vol.6 : Towards the contemporary Period : from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century
Encyclopaedia Iranica, Central Asia : R.N. Frye, In Pre-Islamic Times, C.E. Bosworth, In the Islamic Period up to the Mongols, B. Spuler, The Mongol and Timurid Periods, R.D. McChesney, In the 16th-18th Centuries, Y. Bregel, In the 18th-19th Centuries, E. Allworth, In the 20th Century

Relevant Institutions . Reference Material . Primary Sources . Secondary Sources : Surveys . Secondary Sources : Specific Topics . WHKMLA Pages . WHKMLA Student Papers

Specific Topics : by Period . Historiography . Economic History . Environmental History . Social History . History of Religion . Cultural History . Geographic Literature . History by Country

Specific Topics : by period
To 600 BCE
Nomads and the shaping of Central Asia - from the early Iron Age to the Kushan period, n.d., IA
Penn Museum lectures : J.P. Mallory, Indo-European Dispersals and the Eurasian Steppe, videotaped lecture on youtube
Penn Museum lectures : D.W. Anthony, Horseback Riding and Bronze Age Pastoralism in the Eurasian Steppes, videotaped lecture on youtube
Penn Museum lectures : Colin Renfrew, Before Silk: Unsolved Mysteries of the Silk Road, videotaped lecture on youtube
GeoCurrents : Mismodeling Indo-European Origins: The Assault On Historical Linguistics, critical review, videotaped lecture on youtube
J. Romgard, Ancient Human Settlements in Xinjiang and the Early Silk Road Trade, Sino-Platonic Papers 185, 2008
J.D. Kimball et al., Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Settlements: Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age 2000
J. Cassin, Archaeological Prehistory of Turkmenistan, 1989/2000
600 BCE TO 600 CE
Nomads and the shaping of Central Asia - from the early Iron Age to the Kushan period, n.d., IA
Penn Museum lectures : Peter Brown, The Silk Road in Late Antiquity, videotaped lecture on youtube
600 CE TO 1450 CE
H.M.J. Loewe, The Mongols (12th to 15th c.), 1923 (vol.4 ch.20 Cambridge Medieval History) IA
J. Curtin, The Mongols in Russia 1908, IA
The Cambridge History of Iran, vol.5 : The Mongol and Saljuq Periods, 1968 [G]
R.G. Mukminova, The Timurid States in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, UNESCO Silk Road Knowledge Bank
H.B. Paksoy, S.V. Togan : The Origin of the Kazakhs and Ozbeks, 1992, Carrie
R. Finch, Christianity among the Cumans 2008
Sokolov, Byzantium and the Pechenegs from the 9th to the 12th Century 2012
1450 CE TO 1750 CE
I. Vasary, The Crimean Khanate and the Great Horde (1440s-1500s) A Fight for Primacy
1750 CE TO 1914 CE
M.J. Thrasher, How to Make a Colony: Reform and Resistance in Russian Turkestan, 1865-1917 2010
Melvyn C. Goldstein, A History of Modern Tibet. The Demise of the Lamaist State 1913-1951, Berkeley : University of California Press 1989, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 951.5 G624h
Zev Katz et al. (ed.), Handbook of Major Soviet Nationalities, NY : The Free Press 1975 [G]
G. Wheeler, The Modern History of Soviet Central Asia, 1964 [G]
H.B. Paksoy, "Basmachi". Turkistan National Liberation Movement, 1916-1930 , 1991, Carrie
H.B. Paksoy, Alpamysh. Central Asian Identity under Russian Rule, 1989, Carrie
Duishembieva, Central Asian Intellectuals of Semirech'e Oblast of Russian Turkestan 2013, IREX
S. Öztürk, The Bukharan Emirate and Turkestan under Russian Rule in the Revolutionary Era (1917-1924), thesis 2012
D. Croner, Ja Lama of Mongolia. Life and Death of Dambijantsan, 2010 (a monk turned into a rebel)

Specific Topics : historiography
Encyclopaedia Iranica : Historiography : Central Asia; Historiography : Afghanistan
Article : Central Asian Historiography, by M.R. Drompp, pp.150-151 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
L.W.J. van der Kuijp, Tibetan Historiography
A. Zverev, 'The Patience of a Nation is Measured in Centuries'. National Revival in Tatarstan and Historiography
I. Morozova, Truth, History and Politics in Mongolia, IIAS Newsletter 2004 (Review)
D. Klein, Tatar and Ottoman History Writing: The Case of the Nogay Rebellion (1699-1701) 2012
J. Shir, Afghan Nationalism: State-Elites and Historiography: 1901-1929 2010
A. Tarzi, The Maturation of Afghan Historiography, International Journal of Middle East Studies 45 2013

Specific Topics : archaeology
Bonn Contributions to Asian Archaeology vol.4 : Current Archaeological Research in Mongolia, 2009
National Archaeology Institutes : Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Crimean Branch

Specific Topics : social history
Jin Hui et al. (ed.), Social History of Tibet, China, Beijing : China Intercontinental Press 1995 [G] published in the PRC
A. Marey, Socio-Political Structure of the Pechenegs 2000
O. Pritsak, The Pechenegs. A Case of Social and Economic Transformation 1976
Gazimzyanov, Physical anthropology from Huns to present Volga Bulgars: From the 6-th to 15-th century AD. How they looked and how they measured
W. Holzwarth, Community Elders ans State Agents : Ilbegis in the Emirate of Bukhara around 1900 n.d.

Specific Topics : economic history
Penn Museum lectures : E.W. Barber, The Xinjiang Textiles: More Corridors in the Goldmine, videotaped lecture on youtube
Penn Museum lectures : At the Limits: Long Distance Trade in the time of Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic, videotaped lecture on youtube
Global Security, Railroads - 1880-1899 Transcaspian Railway / Central Asian Railway
S. Otsuka, Central Asia's Rail Network and the Eurasian Land Bridge
J.O. Pohl, The History of Cotton in Uzbekistan 2005
M. Spoor, Transition to Market Economies in Former Soviet Central Asia : Dependency, Cotton, and Water, 1993
A. Dinc et al., The importance of Silk Road, and Merv in the great Seljuk state's commercial life 2012
M. Nesbitt et al., History of Rice in Western and Central Asia
M. Kurasz, Strewn along Ancient Shores. Economic History of Turkestan, 2010

Specific Topics : environmental history
J.M. Conrad et al., The Economics of an Environmental Disaster: The Aral Sea 2011
The Aral Sea Crisis
D. Sagatova, Semipalatinsk Polygon, a Nuclear Test Site

Specific Topics : military history
Morris Rossabi, All the Khan's Horses 1994

Specific Topics : history of religion
Berzin Archives, on Buddhism in Central Asia
P.M. Holt et al. (ed.), The Cambridge History of Islam : vol.I, The Central Islamic Lands, Cambridge : UP 1970 [G]
A.R. Vine, The Nestorian churches [microform] ; a concise history of Nestorian Christianity in Asia from the Persian schism to the modern Assyrians 1937, IA
S. Mendelssohn, The Jews of Asia : especially in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 1920, IA
S.A. Missick, The Assyrian Church in the Mongolian Empire as Observed by World Travelers in the Late 13th and Early 14th Centuries, Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies 13/2 1999 pp.85-104
G. Mako, The Islamization of the Volga Bulgars : A Question Reconsidered 2011
G. Mullin, History of Buddhism in Mongolia

Specific Topics : cultural history
David L. Snellgrove, Hugh Richardson, A Cultural History of Tibet, Bangkok : Orchid Press 2003 [G]
M. Tatar Fosse, The Khotons of Western Mongolia, 1979
Languages of Asia, from Ethnologue; click on country
K. Ismatulla, Central Asian Literature (historical overview, 14th century to today), Islamicus
A. Kayumov et al., Turkic and Mongolian Literature
THL, Tibetan Literary Encyclopedia, Overview
Chao Gejin, Mongolian Oral Epic Poetry: An Overview 1997
Chao Gejin, The Oirat Epic Cycle of Jangar, 2001
I.V. Kulganek, Manuscripts and Sound Records of the Mongol-Oirat Heroic Epic "Jangar" in the Archives of St. Petersburg 1997
ARTS Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History : Central and North Asia
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thematic Essays : Decopration of Tibetan Arms and Armor, The Legacy of Genghis Khan, Tibetan Buddhist Art
M.E. Subtelny, The Timurid Legacy: A Reaffirmation and a Reassessment, Cahiers d'Asie Centrale 1997 pp.9-19
U. Schamiloglu, The Islamic High Culture of the Golden Horde

Specific Topics : Geographic/Ethnographic Compendia, Central Asia coverage
A. du Bois, La Geographie moderne, naturelle historique & politique, vol.3 : Asia, 1736, GB; ch.II Tartarie Moscovite pp.538-554; ch.III Grand Tartarie pp.554-565
Thomas Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744-1746 edition vol.1 pp.400-408 Present State of Asiatick Tartary 1744, GB
T.G. Smollett, The Present State of all Nations, vol.7 Asia 1769, GB
W. Guthrie, A new system of modern geography : or, A geographical, historical, and commercial grammar ; and present state of the several nations of the world ... vol.2 1794, IA; Tartary in Asia pp.54-61
T.F. Ehrmann, Neueste Länder- und Völkerkunde, vol.10, West- und Mittelasien, 1810, GB
C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, vol.2, 1827, GB; Central Asia pp.23-36, Mantchooria pp.36-39, Thibet pp.95-108
H. Murray et al., An Encyclopaedia of Geography 1834, GB; Thibet pp.1045-1052, Tartary pp.1052-1064
H.T. Prinsep, Tibet, Tartary, and Mongolia ; their social and political condition, and the religion of Boodh, as there existing 1852, IA
E. Reclus, Universal Geography, The Earth and its Inhabitants, vol.6 Asiatic Russia, vol.7 : East Asia n.d., GB, Tibet pp.13-58, Chinese Turkestan pp.58-75, Mongolia pp.75-128,
F. von Hellwald, The Russians in Central Asia; a critical examination down to the present time of the geography and history of Central Asia 1874, IA
World Geography Encyclopedia, vol.3 : Asia, 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 910.3 P238w v.3

Specific Topics : history by country
C.D. Bruce, Chinese Turkestan, 1907, IA
M. Hartmann, Chinesisch-Turkestan: Geschichte, Verwaltung, Geistesleben, und Wirtschaft 1910, IA
Jack Chen, The Sinkiang Story, London : MacMillan 1977 [G] views the historical influence of China in the region as positive
L. Zhang, Maximizing Soviet Interests in Xinjiang. The USSR's Penetration in Xinjiang from the Mid-1930s to the Early 1940s, thesis 2012
Xinhuanet, History and Development of Xinjiang
Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa, Tibet : A Political History, NY : Potala Publications (1967) 1984 [G] author exile Tibetan
H.H. Howorth, History of the Mongols, from the 9th to the 19th century vol.1 1876. vol.2 pt.1 1880, vol.2 pt.2 1876, vol.3 1876, IA
J. Curtin, The Mongols, a History 1908, IA
L. Forbath, The New Mongolia 1936, IA
Buryat Mongol Homepage : Buryat History
B.M. Knauft et al., Mongolia after Socialism. Politics, Economy, Religion, 2012
H. Spalding, Khiva and Turkestan, 1874, IA
F.H. Skrine, The Heart of Asia: A History of Russian Turkestan and the Central Asian Khanates 1899, IA
W.E. Curtis, Turkestan, the Heart of Asia n.d. (c. 1911) IA
F. Machatschek, Landeskunde von Russisch-Turkestan 1921, IA
G. Wheeler, The Modern History of Soviet Central Asia, NY : Praeger 1964 [G]
M. Hancock-Parmer, Historiography of the Bare-Footed Flight: Dynamics of a National History (Kazakh H.)
J.A. Boyle, The Saljuq and Mongol Periods, vol.5 of The Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge : UP 1968 [G]

Specific Topics : Other
E. Bretschneider, Mediaeval researches from Eastern Asiatic sources : fragments towards the knowledge of the geography and history of Central and Western Asia from the 13th to the 17th century, vol.2 1888, IA
D. Christian, "Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History." Journal of World History 11, no.1 2000 pp.1-26.
Y. Tanaka et al., The Horses of the Steppe: The Mongolian Horse and the Blood-Sweating Stallions , Digital Silk Road

Relevant Institutions . Reference Material . Primary Sources . Secondary Sources : Surveys . Secondary Sources : Specific Topics . WHKMLA Pages . WHKMLA Student Papers

WHKMLA Pages : by Country . Subregions

Since 1936 : Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Mongolia, Tibet, Touva, Xinjiang
19th Century : Emirate of Afghanistan, Russian Turkestan, Emirate of Bukhara, Emirate of Khiva, Emirate of Kokand, Manchuria, Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet
18th Century : Emirate of Bukhara, Crimea, Durrani Empire, Emirate of Khiva, Emirate of Kokand, Manchuria, Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet


Relevant Institutions . Reference Material . Primary Sources . Secondary Sources : Surveys . Secondary Sources : Specific Topics . WHKMLA Pages . WHKMLA Student Papers
KMLA History Program Papers on Central Asian History
Lee, Eunji, Transfer of Knowledge and Skills between the World of Islam and South Asia (2013)
Yoon, Jaewon, The Image of Attila in Legend, Movie and Historiography (2010)
Song, Jeeun, A Dissection of the National Historiography of Kazakhstan (2010)
Lee, Dahyeon, History of Textiles in Western Central Asia (2009)
Choi Eunsol, The History of Kazakhstan as Reflected in the New York Times, 1920-1969 (2007)

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