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Russian Turkestan Bukhara
First posted on April 5th 2005, last revised on June 10th 2010

Spelling varieties : Khiva, Khivie, Khiwa, Chiwa
Spelling varieties : Chorasmia, Khwarism, Kharism, Khowaresm
For the History since 1925, see History of Uzbekistan

Khiva 1917-1925
Khiva 1873-1917

Historical Atlas : Uzbek Khanates / Uzbekistan

Students' Papers : Lee, Hyejin, Russian/Soviet Central Asia in Political Transition, 1800-1945 : a Collage of Biographies of Persons (2012)
Students' Papers : Kim, Jae Yun, Turkestan in Historic Encyclopedias (2009)

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles from Current Perspective Article : Khanate of Khiva, from Wikipedia
Article : Khanate de Khiva, from Encyclopedie Française
from Historical Perspective H. Lansdell, Russian Central Asia, including Kuldja, Bokhara, Khiva and Merv (1885) vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
Links History of Khiva, from Advantour
Timelines Timeline : Major Events relevant to Central Asian History (since 1600), from oxuscom
Accounts of History Central Asia Current Perspective Encyclopaedia Iranica : Central Asia
Le Kharezm et les Khanats Ouzbeks, from Imago Mundi, in French; scroll down for Le Khanat de Khiva
Article : Khwarezm, from Wikipedia
Historical Perspective J. de Guignes, Histoire generale des Huns, des Turcs, des Mongols et des autres Tartares vol.1 pt.1, 1756, vol.1 pt.2, 1756, vol.2, 1756, vol.3, 1757, vol.4, 1758, vol.5, 1758, in French, GB
Alexandre A. Jardot, Revolutions des peuples de l'Asie Moyenne, vol.1, vol.2, 1839, in French, GB
Khiva Current Perspective Article : Khanate of Khiva, from Wikipedia; Khanate of Khiva 1511-1920, anonymous; Khiva, Bukhara, Khokand, from Ferghana.ru
Encyclopaedia Iranica : Chorasmia
Khiva Historical Perspective
Central Asia Specific Periods M.A. al-Karim Bukhari, Ch.H.A. Schefer, Histoire de l'Asie centrale, Afghanistan, Boukhara, Khiva, Khoqand, depuis les dernieres annees du regne de Nadir Chah, 1153, jusqu'en 1233 de l'Hegire, 1740-1818 (1876) in French, posted on Internet Archive
Khiva Specific Periods
Foreign Policy, Foreign Relations
Military Wars of Khiva 1800-1920, from ACED
Verevkin, N.A., General in the 1873 Khivan Campaign, from Russian Military History
Conquest by Khiva, from Karakalpak.com
Economy & Finances Global Currency History
Trade in Khiva, The Craft Industry in Khiva, from Advantour
The Khiva Khanate and the Chodor, from The Richard E. Wright Research Reports. A Compilation of Notes Concerning the Nature and Origin of Textiles
Social History
Ethnography Article Karakalpaks, from Wikipedia
The Karakalpaks, from Karakalpak.com
Karakalpaks, from World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples
Khiva, pp.399-400 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Khiva, pp.3225-3236 in vol.5A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Khiva, from GAMEO
History of Regions Article Karakalpakstan, from Wikipedia
The History of the Karakalpaks, from Karakalpak.com
Local History Article Khiva, from Wikipedia
Structures, Institutions
Culture & Science Khalid, Adeeb. The Politics of Muslim Cultural Reform: Jadidism in Central Asia., Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
Biographies Character of Allah Kolle Khan, King of Khiva, pp.172-173 in J. Wolff, Researches and missionary labours among the Jews, Mohammedans, and other sects, 1835, GB
Others George de Lacy Evans, On the Practicability of an Invasion of British India; and on the Commercial and Financial Prospects and Resources of the Empire, 1829, GB; numerous Khiva entries

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Khorazm (Khiva) by Ben Cahoon; Rulers : Uzbekistan by B. Schemmel
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Uzbekistan, from Population Statistics
Documents Historical Newspapers Bukhara ye-sharif (Persian lnguage newspaper 1912-), held by IISG
Yearbooks Statesman's Year-Book, 1890, pp.895-896, IA, 1891, pp.898-899, IA, 1892, pp.912-913, IA, 1894, pp.914-915, IA, 1895, pp.913-914, IA, 1896, pp.913-914, IA, 1898, pp.913-914, IA, 1899, pp.973-974, IA, 1903, p.1055, IA, 1913, p.1227, IA, 1919, pp.1214-1215, IA, 1921, p.1243, IA
Image Databanks Search Delcampe Picture Postcards for Khiva
Archival Deposits British Intelligence Reports on Russia in Central Asia, published by IDC Publishers
Search Your Archives for Khiva (UK National Archives)
Constitutions, Laws
Treaty Collections Pertaining to Khiva
Document Collections Regarding the Release of Russian Captives from Khiva, 1837, from Russian Military History
W.H. MacNaghten, Views and Prospects of Russia in Central Asia, Particularly in Khiva and Herat, pp.23-27 ; W.H. MacNaghten, Supplementary Notice on the States of Toorkistan, pp.46-50 in Reports and Papers, Political, Geographical, & Commercial Submitted to Government, 1839, GB
Lt.-Col. Chesney, Observations on Persia as an Ally and as the Cheapest as well as Most Important Frontier Line of the British Empire in India, Drawn up in the Year 1833, pp.467-502 in : The Portfolio, vol.4, 1836, GB ; numerous references to Khiva
Christian Martin Fraehn, Ibn-Foszlan's und anderer Araber Berichte über die Russen älterer Zeit, 1823, in German, GB ; reference to Chiwa
Historical Maps Map : Turkestan 1888, Bokhara 1906, Bokhara 1922, from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article : Tartary, pp.205-207 in vol.20 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, reference to Khiva, 1823, GB
Article : Turkestan, pp.376-377 in vol.12 of Encyclopaedia Americana, reference to Khiva, 1832, GB
Articles Turan (West-Turkestan), Khiwa, Cities : Anbari, Asaris, Hadschi, Hanka, Hannabad, Hurljan, Orgonge, Urgantschi, Peoples : Karakalpaken, Konrater, from Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, in German
Article Chiwa, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Article Khiva, from EB 1902
Article Khiva (Khanate), Khiva (Capital), from EB 1911
Economic Der Staat Chiwa, p.501-503 in vol.1 of Chr. Noback, Vollständiges Handbuch der Münz-, Bank- und Wechselverhältnisse, 1833, in German, GB
Geographical A.Chr. Borheck, Charesm oder Chiwa, pp.270-275 in vol.2 of Erdbeschreibung von Asien, 1793, in German, GB
Khiva, pp.298-300 in J. Pinkerton, Modern Geography, 1804, GB
Kharism, pp.223-224 in B. Davies, A New System of Modern Geography , 1813, GB
Khiwa, pp.469-470 in vol.1 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1829, GB
Article : Khiva, pp.585-587 in vol.5 of Dictionnaire Geographique Universel, 1829, in French, GB
Khiva, pp.395-396 in A. Balbi, An Abridgement of Universal Geography , 1835, GB
G.Th. Landmann, A universal gazetteer; or, Geographical dictionary of the world (1835), posted on Internet Archive; search for Khiva
Entry : Khiva, p.446 in vol.2 of H. Murray, The Encyclopaedia of Geography, 1839, GB
Article Khiva (Khanat), Khiva (City), from Stefan Ankjaer, Geografisk-Statistik Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish
Ethnographical Turkestan, pp.384-385 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
on History Entry : Usbeck Tartary pp.32-, The Kingdom of Korasm pp.32-37, in : T.G. Smoillett, The Present State of the World, vol.7 1769, posted on Google Books
Von Chiwa und den Chiwanesen, pp.467-470; Von den Araliern pp.470-471, Von den Karakalpaken p.471 in vol.5 of Magazin für die neue Historie und Geographie Angelegt, 1770, in German, GB
Khiwa : Genealogisches Staats-Handbuch, vol.65 1827 p.308, vol.66 1835 pp.356-357, vol.67 1839 p.381, in German, GB
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues A. Vambery, Voyages d'un faux derviche dans l'Asie Centrale de Teheran a Khiva, Bokhara (1879) in French, posted on IA
D. Ker, On the Road to Khiva (1874), posted on Internet Archive
H. Spalding, Khiva and Turkestan (1874), posted on IA
F.G. Burnaby, A ride to Khiva, travels and adventures in central Asia (1877), posted on Internet Archive
N.N. Muraviev, Muraviev's Journey to Khiva Through the Turcoman Country, 1819-20 (1871), posted on Internet Archive; French edition of 1823 from same site
J. Abbott, Narrative of a journey from Heraut to Khiva, Moscow and St. Petersburgh .. (1843), posted on Internet Archive
A. Vambery, Voyages d'un faux derviche dans l'Asie Centrale de Teheran a Khiva, Bokhara (1879) in French, posted on Internet Archive
G.Th. Vigne, A personal narrative of a visit to Ghuzni, Kabul and Afghanistan, and of a residence at the court of Dost Mohamed: with notices of Runjit Sing, Khiva, and the Russian expedition (1843), IA
Residence Memoirs V. Mikhailov, Adventures of Michailow: a Russian captive among the Kalmucs, Kirghiz, and Kiwenses, 1822, GB
Institutions Archives
Musea Khiva - the City Museum, from Malika Khiva
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Coin Catalog of Khiva, from Numismaticon; search Coin Archives for Chiwa, Khiva; Khiva, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Khans of Khiva, from Zeno

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Khiva
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
International Boundary Studies
on Central Asia
Thesis Server English Language (Abstracts of Russian Language) Dissertations from the CIS
IFESCCO - Digital Library of Dissertations, maintained at Russian State Library
Online Journals full text online Silk Road Journal
International Journal of Central Asian Studies, 1996-2009
Central Eurasian Studies Review (CESR) 2002-
Turkistan Newsletter, from SOTA
Journal of Modern Turkish Studies, Ankara 2004-
Historiography Article : Central Asian Historiography, by M.R. Drompp, pp.150-151 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts
Specific Topics
Historical Atlasses Yuri Bregel, An Historical Atlas of Central Asia, (HACA) Leiden : Brill 2003 (defines Central Asia as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Xinjiang)

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