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Siberia China
First posted on June 7th 2002, last revised on September 24th 2010

Core region of the 13th century Mongol Empire, then until 1368 part of the territory of the Yuan Dynasty. Until into the early 18th century contested by the Khalkha and Oyrat tribes. In the early 18th century conquered by Qing China. The Treaties of Nerchinsk 1689 and Kiakhta 1727 delineated the border between Qing China and the Russian Empire, divided Mongol lands into Russian Mongolia (Buryatia) and Chinese Mongolia (Inner and Outer Mongolia).
In 1912 (Outer) Mongolia proclaimed independence. In 1921 Tannu Tuva declared independence from Mongolia. In 1924 in Outer Mongolia the Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed. Mongolia de facto was a satellite of the USSR. In 1961 Mongolia was admitted to the UN. In 1990 Communism was abolished and Mongolia became a democratic republic.

Mongolia since 1990 . Mongolia 1966-1990 . Mongolia 1945-1966 . Mongolia 1924-1945 . Mongolia 1911-1924

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook, Countries : Mongolia
from World Wide Gazetteer
Library of Congress Country Studies : Mongolia
Mongolia Today, English language online magazine
Historic L. Forbath, The New Mongolia (1936), posted on Internet Archive
M. Cable, The challenge of Central Asia [microform] : a brief survey of Tibet and its borderlands, Mongolia, north-west Kansu, Chinese Turkistan, and Russian Central Asia (1929), posted on Internet Archive
N.M. Przhevalskii, Mongolia, the Tangut country, and the solitudes of northern Tibet (1876), posted on Internet Archive
H.Th. Prinsep, Tibet, Tartary and Mongolia: Their Social and Political Condition (1852), posted on Internet Archive
N.Y. Bichurin, Denkwürdigkeiten über die Mongolei (1832) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World
from BUBL
from East and Southeast Asia, An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources, at UOregon; from Mongolia on the Web
Asia Portal : Mongolia
on History Links on Mongolian History, from Eurasia Net; from University of Oregon; from Mongolia on the Web
Organizations Institute of History, Mongolian Academy of Sciences ; Institute of Archaeology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences
Tibetan-Mongolian Rare Books & Manuscripts Project
Center for Mongol History, at Mongolia International University
Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Mongolica
American Center for Mongolian Studies
Historical Dictionary
Timelines from timelines.ws, a website exploiting US newspaper articles, very detailed on the 20th century; from BBC News
] Timeline : Major Events relevant to Central Asian History (since 1600), from oxuscom
Timeline of Mongolian History, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History Central Asia Historical Perspective J. de Guignes, Histoire generale des Huns, des Turcs, des Mongols et des autres Tartares vol.1 pt.1, 1756, vol.1 pt.2, 1756, vol.2, 1756, vol.3, 1757, vol.4, 1758, vol.5, 1758, in French, GB
H.H. Howorth, History of the Mongols : from the 9th to the 19th century , 1830, GB
Alexandre A. Jardot, Revolutions des peuples de l'Asie Moyenne, vol.1, vol.2, 1839, in French, GB
Mongolia, Current History of Mongolia, from Oyunbilig's Great Mongol Home Page; from Discover Mongolia (very brief); from Lonely Planet; from Wikipedia
Mongolia, Historical Ebülgazi Bahadir Han, A general history of the Turks, Moguls and Tatars, vulgarly called Tartars, vol.1, 1730, GB
J. de Guignes, Histoire generale des Huns, des Turcs, des Mongols et des autres Tartares vol.1 pt.1, 1756, vol.1 pt.2, 1756, vol.2, 1756, vol.3, 1757, vol.4, 1758, vol.5, 1758, in French, GB
H.H. Howorth, History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th century (1876), vol.2, vol.3 (of 4), posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods Articles : Zunghar Khanate, Mongolia during Qing Rule, Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1911, Outer Mongolia 1911-1919, Occupation of Mongolia 1919-1921, Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921, Mongolian People's Republic 1924-1992, 1990 Democratic Revolution in Mongolia, from Wikipedia
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Mongolia; Governments on the WWW : Mongolia; Article Politics of Mongolia, from Wikipedia
Concentration Camps Today : Mongolia, from ATTAC
Military Wars of Mongolia, from Armed Conflict Events Data, 7 entries, 1911-1948
Medals of the Second World War : Mongolian People's Republic; Orders, Decorations and Medals : Mongolia
Article : Soviet-Japanese Border Wars 1938-1939, Battles of Khalkhin Gol, 1939, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Mongolia
Article Economy of Mongolia, from Wikipedia
History, of Mongolian National Chamber of Commerce and Industry
History of Erdenet Mining Co.
F.A. Dolph, Balancing debts and credits in the Far East; China--Mongolia-- Manchuria--Siberia--Korea--Japan (1920), posted on Internet Archive
Social History Mongolia, from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World
Ethnography Languages of Mongolia (12), from Ethnologue
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Mongolia
The Chinese Empire : Mongolia, pp.572-575 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Mongolia, pp.3519-3532 in vol.5B of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Mongolia, from Kirken i Norge
Mongolian Religion : A Course in Mongolian Shamanism from Golomt Center for Shamanist Studies, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; Tibetan Buddhism, the Mongolian Religion, by Sechin Jagchid, posted by innermongolia.org
Category Religion in Mongolia, from Wikipedia
G. Kuth, Geschichte des Buddhismus in der Mongolei (1892) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Th.J. Cochrane, Survey of the missionary occupation of China (1913), posted on Internet Archive, on Mongolia pp.333-336
M. Broomhall, The Chinese empire: a general & missionary survey .. (1907), posted on Internet Archive, on Mongolia pp.338-359
Monasteries and Temples in Mongolia, from mongoluls.net
Category : Monasteries in Mongolia, from Wikipedia
Documentation of Mongolian Monasteries, from Mongolian Temples
W. Heissig, The Religions of Mongolia, 1980, GB
History of Regions Provinces of Mongolia, Soums of Mongolia, from www.statoids.com
Mongolia, Administrative Division, from Geo Names
Entry Kobdo, from Footnotes to History, by James L. Erwin
Article : Administrative divisions of Mongolia during Qing, from Wikipedia
Local History History of Ulan Bator (Ulan Bataar, Urga), from Wikipedia
Institutions Mongolia, from Airline History
Category : Education in Mongolia, Article National University of Mongolia, from Wikipedia; History of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences
Structurae : Mongolia
Culture The Mongolian Language and Scripts, by Tseveliin Shagdarsuren
History, from Mongolian Art and Culture
Article Mongolia at the Olympics, Category Sport in Mongolia, from Wikipedia
A. de C. Sowerby, Sport and science on the Sino-Mongolian frontier (1918), posted on Internet Archive
Sh. Bold, Brief History and Development of Traditional Mongolian Medicine
Biography Famous Mongolians, by Daniel Roy
Others International Boundary Studies, Mongolia
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Mongolia
Disaster History by Country : Mongolia, from Relief Web
Ch.M. Sheldon, Under the Chinese dragon; a tale of Mongolia (1912), posted on Internet Archive

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Country Profile Mongolia, from Index Mundi
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Mongolia, from Wikipedia; Liste der deutschen Botschafter : Mongolei (Ulaanbaatar), from Wikipedia German edition
U.S. Ambassadors to Mongolia, from NNDB; Heads of post, from MOFA Canada
Chinese Ambassadors to Mongolia, from PRC MOFA
Statistical Data Responsible Institution National Statistical Office of Mongolia
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Mongolia, from Population Statistics
City Population : Mongolia, from City Population
Historical Abortion Statistics, Mongolia, from Johnston's Archive
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Election Results from Psephos (since 2001); from IFES Election Guide (since 2000)
Norway, from Elections and Electoral Systems (links)
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques ICON, International Coalition on Newspapers, Newspaper Digitization Projects, scroll down for Mongolia
Specific Newspapers Central Asian Serials, Late 19th to Early 20th Century (1871-1991, Russian language), published by ProQuest
Selected Articles History of Mongolia, from World History Archives
Life Magazine, Articles on Mongolia 1936-1972 : 203 articles
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Photo Gallery Mongolia : Religion, History, People, from Visit Mongolia
Mongolian Views : Mongolian historic photos around 1900s
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Oriental Collections
Items on Mongolia
AGSL Digital Photo Archive : Asia and Middle East
Historic Camel Photos - China, Mongolia and India
Universal Collections
Items on Mongolia
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Mongolia
Archival Deposits British Intelligence Reports on Russia in Central Asia, published by IDC Publishers
News Archive, from
Constitutions, Laws Mongolia's Constitution of 1992, from ICL, at Univ. Würzburg ; also from Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, from Indiana Univ.; all 3 texts in English translation
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Mongolia, from ILO, 13 docs. since 1968
Internet Law Library : Mongolia
Treaties Carnegie Endowment, Outer Mongolia, Treaties and Agreements (1921), posted on Internet Archive
Consular Reports Commerce Reports, 19th year vol.3, July, August and September 1916, IA; p.359 : Russian Commercial High School in Mongolia, June 27 1916
21st year vol.3, July, August and September 1918, IA, p.717 : New Trading Places in Manchuria and Mongolia, n.d.
Document Collections
Historical Maps Responsible Authority Search International Cartographic Association : National Members for Mongolia
links Historical Maps, from The Tajikistan Update
information Article : Mongolian Manuscript Maps, from Wikipedia
collections : Asia Historical Map Archive : Historical Maps of Asia
collections : Mongolia Search David Rumsey Map Collection for Mongolia
Mongolische Karten, from Staatsbibliothek Berlin
Mongolia Maps, PCL, UTexas
Atlas of Mongolia, Wikimedia Commons
Category : Old Maps of Mongolia, Maps of the History of Mongolia, from Wikimedia Commons
Friends of Tuva, Maps of Tuva
Cartographia Neerlandica : Ortelius Maps : Northeast (Asia), China
Asia, Historical Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 550 B.C., 527 BC, 500 BC, 400 BC, 335 BC, 323 BC, 300 BC, 200 BC, 100 BC, 050 BC, 050 AD, 200 AD, 300 AD, 400 AD, 450 AD, 565 AD, 600 AD, 610 AD, 900 AD, 1000 AD, 1025 AD, 1100 AD, 1200 AD, 1300 AD, 1400 AD, 1500 AD, Asia 700 AD, 800 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Asia, Historical Asia : Güssefeld/Homann 1793, Güssefeld/Homann 1805, Schmidt/Schropp 1820, Herisson 1848, GDZ
Asia 1892, PCL, UTexas
Mongolia, Modern Ethnic & Administrative Map of Mongolia, posted by Chris Kaplonski
Mongolia, from Asian Linguistic Maps
Map : Paleoasiatic Languages of Northeast Asia, from Titus
Map of Ming Dynasty (in Chinese), from History of China
Map of Qing Dynasty (in Chinese), from Cultural China
Map of Qing Dynasty 1616 [!], Qing Dynasty 1757, Qing Dynasty 1911, from Wikipedia Chinese edition
History of China, has Chinese language maps per dynasty; most of them feature Mongolia
Mongolia, Historical Tartary, J. Thomson 1817, Osaka Univ.
FEEFHS Maps : Russia in Asia 1887, Asiatic Russia Siberia West, Siberia East 1908
Library of Congress, Russian Map of Russia and China, 1889
Map : Mongolia 1906, Mongolia 1922, Mongolia 1932, from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
Detail, Modern
Detail, Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article : Mongolia, pp.328-330 in vol.15 of The Penny cyclop?ia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge 1839, GB
from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German (Mongolei)
Article Mongolei, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon 1894-1896, in German
from EB 1911
Religious from Catholic Encyclopedia 1909;
Economic E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Mongolia
Article Mongols, from Cyclopedia of Political Economy, Political Science and Political History of the United States (J.J. Lalor 1899)
Geographical Mongolia, pp.483-488 in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography: or a description of all parts of the world, 1824, GB
Mongolia, pp.92-120 in vol.5 of J. Bell, A system of geography, popular and scientific, 1831, GB
Mongolia, pp.77-82 in R. Brown, The Countries of the World 1892, IA
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues A. Williamson, Journeys in north China, Manchuria, and eastern Mongolia (1870), posted on Internet Archive
D. Carruthers, Unknown Mongolia : a record of travel and exploration in north-west Mongolia and Dzungaria (1914), posted on Internet Archive
B.M. Gull, A Tour in Mongolia (1920), posted on Internet Archive
E.F. Timkovski, Travels of the Russian mission through Mongolia to China (1820-1821), vol.1, 1827, vol.2, 1827, GB
W.W. Rockhill, Diary of a Journey Through Mongolia and Thibet in 1891 and 1892 (1894), posted on Internet Archive
W.W. Rockhill, The Land of the Lamas: Notes of a Journey Through China, Mongolia and Tibet (1892), posted on Internet Archive
Residence Memoirs J. Gilmore, R. Lovett, James Gilmour of Mongolia : his diaries, letters, and reports (1892), posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party Archive, from LSE
Musea National Museum of Mongolia ; The National Museum of Mongolian History, Ulanbataar (Image collection by period)
Monuments Tentative Lists : Mongolia, World Heritage List, scroll down for Mongolia; from UNESCO World Heritage
Libraries Mongolian National Library, site in Cyrillic
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from Wikipedia; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Mongolia from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; from Zeno; Mongolian Banknote History, from Bank of Mongolia
Mongolia Coins, from Collections of Coins, 20th century coins, bilingual Russian & English page (non-commercial); Old Coins (since 1925), from Bank of Mongolia; from World Coin Dot Net, 1981 set; from Zeno
Medals of the Second World War : Mongolian People's Republic; Orders, Decorations and Medals : Mongolia
Stamps Rare Mongolia Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Mongolia survey of bibliographies T. Jigdengombo, Tradition and Development of Mongolian Bibliography 2011
bibliographic database
general bibliographies pp.222-262 in A.J.K. Sanders, Historical Dictionary of Mongolia, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Bibliography, from Library of Congress Country Studies : Mongolia
Mongolia, from The Online Books Page
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Mongolia Holdings in WWU Libraries : Primary Title index (pp.2381-2616, in Mongolian/Chinese, transcribed, over 10,000 entries, as of 2009), Secondary Title Index (pp.2616-2725, as of 2009), Western Washington University
Mongoluls, Short Bibliography on Mongolia and its Buddhism
serial publications Central and Inner Asia Studies, publications
Publications, from Sinor Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, Indiana University
Publications, from Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, St. Petersburg (most in Russian)
New Asia Books : Mongolia
general bibliographies
Mongolia entries
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for Mongolia
International Journal of Central Asian Studies, 1996-2009
Resources for Central Asian Studies in the British Library
Search NIAS Catalogue for Mongolia
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on Central Asia
Online Libraries general Project Gutenberg, Online Catalogue
Internet Archive
International Boundary Studies
on Mongolia American Center for Mongolian Studies, Digital Collections
Silk Road Papers, from Central Asia - Caucasus Institute
Online Journals full text online Silk Road Journal 2003-
Transoxiana 2000-
Central Eurasian Studies Review (CESR) 2002-
Table of Contents online International Journal of Central Asian Studies, 1996-2009
Historiography Article : Central Asian Historiography, by M.R. Drompp, pp.150-151 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
Article : Mongolian Historiography, by C.P. Atwood, pp.629-631, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.24, pp.330-342 Article Mongolia. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.24
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries Alan J.K. Sanders, Historical Dictionary of Mongolia, London : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Paul D. Buell, Historical Dictionary of the Mongol World Empire, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 2003 KMLA ib. Call Sign R 909.0494201 B928h
Historical Atlasses Yuri Bregel, An Historical Atlas of Central Asia, (HACA) Leiden : Brill 2003 (defines Central Asia as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Xinjiang)

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