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Ottoman Empire Mughal Empire
First posted on June 19th 2010

Click here for the history of Iran 644-1500.

Established in 1501, conquered the state of the Ak Koyunlu (White Sheep Turks) by 1508. Established Shia Islam as state religion. Lost Iraq and eastern Anatolia to the Ottoman Empire, but was able to stop their further eastward expansion. Conquered Hormuz in 1622. Capital first Tabriz 1501-1555, later Qazwin 1555-1598, then Esfahan 1598-1722.
In 1722 toppled by the Afghan or Hotaki Dynasty. Formally disestablished in 1736, when Nader Shah took the crown for himself (Afsharid Dynasty).

Historical Atlas : Iran Page, Western Central Asia Page, Western Asia Page
List of Wars : Iran

Students' Papers : Kim, Sun Hoo, History of Food and Nutrition in West Asia (2009)

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Country Profiles Current Article : Safavid Dynasty from Wikipedia
Historical Der allerneueste Staat von Casan, Astracan, Georgien, und vieler andern dem Czaren, Sultan und Schach zinsbaren und unterthanen Tatarn Landschaften und Provinzien samt einer kurzen Nachricht von der Caspischen See / dem Daria Strom, ingleichen von dem Persischen Hof und dessen allerneuesten Staats- und Kriegsverfassung zur Erläuterung der Russisch- und Persischen Kriegsoperationen entworfen, 1723, in German, GB
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from dmoz; List of Iran-related Topics, from Wikipedia; Category : Safavids, from Wikipedia
Virtual Library Iran
on History from Virtual Library History; from Virtual Library Women's History; from persia.org; from Pars Times
Category : Persian History; Category : History of Iran, from Wikipedia
Articles in the Category "History of Persia", from EB 1911
History-Related Articles, from Kurdistanica
Organizations Iran Heritage Foundation
Foundation for Iranian Studies
British Institute of Persian Studies
Institut français de recherche en Iran (IFRI)
Institute of Iranian Studies, Univ. of St. Andrews; Centre for Iranian Studies, Durham Univ.
International Society for Iranian Studies (ISIS)
DIWAN, Association des doctorants en histoire des mondes musulmans medievaux
Historical Dictionary Encyclopaedia Iranica
Kurdistanica, Digital Encyclopedia of Kurdistan
A Shi'ite Encyclopedia, from DILP
Iranian History Glossary
Timelines from Encyclopedia of the Orient; from BBC News, from timelines.ws; from Perry Castaneda Library, UTexas (scan, covers 20th century); from mage.com; from On the Matrix
Accounts of History modern, on Iran, Afg. from Salam Iran, Iran's History in Brief, from Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Ottawa, Canada
from Iran Photo Album, from Iransaga, 11 chapters; from Tamasha, 12 chapters, from Lonely Planet, from Iran Chamber Society
Article History of Iran, from Wikipedia
History of Afghanistan, from Afghanistan Online (4 chapters); from Afghanistan dot net (40 chapters, 2 links not working); from Times of Central Asia; Historical Guide to Afghanistan, by Nancy Dupree; History of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia; from Global Security
modern, on Safavids History of Iran : the Safavids, 1491-1722, from Global Security
J. Malek, La Renaissance Sefevide
historical P. Teixeira, Mir Khwand, The history of Persia: Containing, the lives and memorable action of its kings from the first erecting of that monarchy to this time; an exact description of all its dominions; a curious account of India, China, Tartary, Kermon, Arabia, Nixabur, and the islands of Ceylon and Timor; as also of all cities occasionally mention'd, as Schiras, Samarkand, Bokara, &c. Manners and customs of those people, Persian worshippers of fire; plants, beasts, product, and trade ... To which is added, an abridgment of the lives of the kings of Harmuz, or Ormuz. The Persian history, 1715, GB
Memoires secrets pour servir à l'histoire de Perse, 1759, in French, GB
J. Malcolm, The history of Persia, from the most early period to the present time: containing an account of the religion, government, usages, and character of the inhabitants of that kingdom vol.2 1815, vol.1 1829, vol.2 1829, GB
J.B. Frasier, Historical and descriptive account of Persia: from the earliest ages to the present time, 1834, GB
P.M. Sykes, A History of Persia (1915), v.1, v.2, posted on IA
Specific Periods T.J. Krusinski, The history of the late revolutions of Persia, vol.1 IA 1733, GB 1728, vol.2 IA 1733, GB 1728
J. Fraser, The history of Nadir Shah, formerly called Thamas Kuli Khan, the present Emperor of Persia, 1740, GB
J. Hanway, The Revolutions of Persia, containing the Reign of Shah Sultan Hussein; the Invasion of the Afghans and the Reigns of Sultan Mir Maghmud and his successor Sultan Ashreff, with the History of his celebrated Successor Nadir Kouli from his birth in 1687 to his death in 1747, and some particulars of the unfortunate reign of his successor Adil Shah, vol.1, 1753, vol.2 1762, GB
John Foran, The Long Fall of the Safavid Dynasty : Moving Beyond the Standard Views, Int. J. Middle East Stud. 24 (1992), pp.281-304.
L.A. de la Mamie de Clairac, Histoire de Perse depuis le commencement de ce siècle vol.1, 1750, vol.2, 1750, vol.3, 1750,
Historiography S. Quinn, Historiography : Safavid Period, from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Problems in Kurdish Historiography, from Kurdistanica
Foreign Policy, Foreign Relations R.R. Dawes, A History of the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations with Persia (1887), posted on Internet Archive
G. Berchet, La Repubblica di Venezia e la Persia (1865) in Italian, posted on Internet Archive
R.R. Davies, A History of the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations with Persia (1887), posted on Internet Archive
Arnold van Wickeren, Geschiedenis van Portugal en van de Portugezen overzee, Deel 4 chapter 3 subch.4 : De kust van Oman; de aanval op Ormoez (1507-1508), Deel 5 chapter 6 subch.3 : Problemen bij de kolonisatie; betrekkingen met Perzië Deel 5, chapter 6, subch.6 : Bezetting van Ormoez; bondgenootschap met Perzië, Deel 16 chapter 2 subch.3 : De val van Ormoez, Deel 16 chapter 2 subch.1 : Expedities naar Perzië en China; de stad Goa en verlening van steun aan de Portugezen in Syriam, Deel 16 chapter 2 subch.2 : Een Perzisch gezantschap naar Europa; de capitaes gerais Dom Frei Aleixo de Menezes, Andre Furtado de Mendoça en Ruy Lourenço de Tavora (1607-1612),in Dutch, posted on Colonial Voyage
Get Iranian History Today : 1609 : An Ottoman Messenger to Persia, 1614 : Spain offer for Bahrain rejected, 1623 : Pope offers Support against Ottomans, 1704 : Louis XIV offers French-Iranian Treaty, 1715 : Persian ambassador in Paris
Article : Dutch-Persian Relations, from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Article : Portugal i. Relations with Persia in the Early Modern Age (1500-1750), from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Article : Ottoman-Persian Relations Part I : Safavids, from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Military Category : Battles Involving the Safavid Empire, from Wikipedia
See WHKMLA, List of Wars : Iran
Military History of Iran, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances General Economy : From the Safavids to the Zands, from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Money & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Iran
Persia : Money, from Marteau Platform in Economic History
Trade J. Hanway, An historical account of the British trade over the Caspian sea vol.1, 1753, vol.2, 1753, GB
R. Matthee, Anti-Ottoman politics and transit rights : The seventeenth-century trade in silk between Safavid Iran and Muscovy, Cahiers du monde russe : Russie, Empire russe, Union sovietique, Etats independants Annee 1994 Volume 35 Numero 35-4 pp.739-761, Persee
Gewest Perzië, from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum, in Dutch
VOC in Perzië, from Historizon, in Dutch
Article : Handelsposten van de V.O.C. in het Midden-Oosten : Iran-Perzië, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Handelsposten : Perzië, from De V.O.C. Site, in Dutch
Textile Industry History of Persian Carpets, from Iran Chamber Society
Dar Anahita, Safavid floral textiles of the 16th and 17th centuries, Safavid figurative textiles, Safavid Garment Textiles of the 16th Century,
Louvre, Three Empires of Islam, Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal textile art
The history of brocaded silk-weaving in Iran, from CAIS
R.F. Shazadeh, The History of Persian Embroidery
Ceramic Industry Louvre, Three Empires of Islam, Safavid ceramics and tiles
Metal Industry Louvre, Three Empires of Islam, Metalwork, arms and armor: regional interactions and local specificities
Mining Iranian Oil History in Brief, from Iranian Journalist
Social History History of Iran : Women in the Safavid Era, from Iran Chamber Society
F. Barth, Nomads of South Persia (1961), posted on IA
Ethnography Languages of Iran (69), from Ethnologue
Minorities at Risk, scroll down for Iran - Arabs, Azerbaijanis, Bakhtiari, Baluchis, Kurds, Turkmen
Country Report Iran, from U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (1997-2006)
Migration Information Source : Iran
Article Iranian Kurdistan, from Wikipedia
Armenians in Iran, from Iran Chamber Society
Category : Languages of Iran, from Wikipedia
Article : Demographics of Iran, from Wikipedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Iran
Search Encyclopaedia Iranica
P.M. Zehi, A Cultural Anthropology of Baluchis, posted by Iran Chamber Society
Religion General Religion in Iran, from netiran; Category Religion in Iran, from Wikipedia
Islam Article : Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism, Safaviya (Sufi Order), from Wikipedia
Mosques of Iran, from Iran Page (images only, locations not given)
R. Ja'afariyan, Four Centuries of Influence of Iraqi Shi'ism on Pre-Safavid Iran, 1998, DILP
A. Shariati, Red Shi'ism, DILP
Zoroastrianism Zoroaster and Zoroastrians in Iran, from Iran Chamber Society; Zoroastrian Sacred Sites in Iran, from Places of Peace and Power
Judaism Jews of Iran, from Jewish Virtual Library; M. Price, A brief history of Iranian Jews, 2001, posted by Iran Chamber Society; Iran, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Christianity A Brief History of Christianity in Iran, from Farsinet; Historical Churches in Iran, from Iran Chamber Society
History of Regions General Provinces of Iran, Counties of Iran, from www.statoids.com
Iranian Provinces, from Iran Chamber Society
Article : Provinces of Iran, from Wikipedia
Category : Provinces of Iran, from Wikipedia
Khuzestan History of Khuzestan, from Wikipedia
History of Khuzestan Part 1, Part 2, from Tebyan
Tabaristan/Mazandaran M.B. al Hasan B. Isfandiyar, History of Tabaristan; computer may have difficulty displaying characters properly; transcribed into English
Gulf Islands Abu Musa and the Tunbs, from The Persian Gulf
Khorasan St. John Lovett and Euan Smith, Eastern Persia (Vol I) (1876), posted on Internet Archive
Georgia Article : Georgia-Persia Relations : Safavid Period, from Wikipedia
J. Bacque-Grammont, Notes et documents sur les Ottomans, les Safavides et la Georgie, 1516-1521, Cahiers du monde russe et sovietique Annee 1979 Volume 20 Numero 20-2 pp.239-272, in French, Persee
Azerbaijan Article : History of Azerbaijan : Safavids and the rise of Shi'a Islam, from Wikipedia
A. Kazem-Bek, Derbend-nâmeh: or, The history of Derbend, trsl. from the Turkish, 1851 GB
Iranian Kurdistan Article : Iranian Kurdistan : Safavid Period, from Wikipedia
Local History General Article : Cities of Iran, from Wikipedia
Abadan Article : History of Abadan, from Wikipedia
Baghdad Safavid 1508-1534, 1623-1638
Article : Baghdad : From the Mongol Invasion to the Ottoman Occupation , from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Basra Safavid 1508-1534, 1623-1638
Article : Basra, from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Herat with brief interruptions, Safavid 1510-1716
Article : History of Herat, from Wikipedia
Article : Herat, History : Medieval Period, from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Article : Herat, from Iranian History Glossary
Isfahan Article : History of Isfahan, from Wikipedia
Article : Isfahan : Safavid Period, from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Julfa I. Bashiri, Julfa
Article : Julfa, Safavid Period, from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Kandahar Safavid 1556-1595, 1622-1641, 1649-1709
Article : History of Kandahar, from Wikipedia
Article : Kandahar : from the Mongol Invasion through the Safavid Era, from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Mashhad Article : History of Mashhad, from Wikipedia
The History of the Shrine of Imam Ali B. Musa al-Ridha, from DILP 1995 (shrine in Mashhad)
Qazvin Article : Qazwin : History, from Wikipedia
Qom Article : Qom, History, from Wikipedia
M. Jagger, Lady Fatima Masuma of Qum, 2003, DILP
Historical Caravansaries, Qom, from Tebyan
Article : Qom, from Iranian History Glossary
Shiraz Article : History of Shiraz : Islamic Period, from Wikipedia
A.S. Shahbazi, Shiraz : History to 1940, from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Tabriz Article : History of Tabriz, from Wikipedia
Tehran History of Tehran, from greatestcities.com, Article : History of Tehran, from Wikipedia
Article : Tehran, from Iranian History Glossary
Structures, Institutions
Culture & Science Online Publications on the History of Iranian Architecture, posted by ArchNet
History of Painting in Iran, from Farhangsara
The Art of the Safavids before 1600, The Arts of Iran 1600-1800, from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
Article : Safavid Art, from Wikipedia
Article History of Contemporary Medicine in Iran, from Wikipedia
The Persian Calendar, by Holger Oertel
A History of Muslim Philosophy, Ch. LIII : Persian Literature, Ch. LXXVII : Renaissance in Iran, Ch. LXVIII : renaissance in Iran (Cont.)
Safavid Dynasty Carpets and Rugs, from Nazmiyal Collection
Biographies List of Iranians, from Wikipedia; Iranian Personalities, from Iran Chamber Society
Iran, from Executed Today
Articles Mir Wais Hotak, Mir Mahmud Shah Hotaki, Ashraf Khan, from Wikipedia
N. Hanif, Biographical Encyclopedia of Sufis, 2000, GB
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Iran
Crime and Society : A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Iran
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Iran; Epidemiology of Drug Use in Iran, from UNODC
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Article Rulers of Iran, from Wikipedia
Exchange Rates The Marteau Early 18th-Century Currency Converter
Documents Online Yearbook Entries Historical Register : Persia no.46 1727 pp.89-117, no.65 1732 pp.1-7, GB
The Political state of Great Britain, Advices from Turky and Persia, vol.34 1727 pp.588-589
Image Databanks Iranian Historical Photographs Gallery
Wikimedia Commons : Iran
Archival Deposits Guide to India Office Records relating to Iran, from British Library
Iran Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Search Your Archives for Iran (UK National Archives)
TANAP, Reconstructie van het archief van de VOC-vestiging Perzië, in Dutch
Constitutions, Laws
Treaty Collections Pertaining to Iran
Document Surveys Ch.11 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Orientalium atque Asiaticarum, Par.4 : Persicarum rerum scriptores, pp.237-239 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Document Collections Digital Persian Archive, Universität Marburg
Individual Documents
Historical Maps click WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Iran Page
Atlas of Iran, from Wikimedia Commons
Category : Safavid Empire Maps, from Wikimedia Commons
Search Atlas of Mutual Heritage for Iran, Bushehr, Esfahan, Kerman, Fort Mosselstein, Shiraz
Map : Turkic Languages, from Titus
Maps : Languages of the Caucasus, Iranian Languages from Titus
Map : Linguistic Composition of Iran, from FarsiNet
Iran Historical Maps : Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, Qajar, Pahlavi Eras, from Iran Politics Club
Map : Safavid Persia, from Wikipedia
Map : Bowen 1747, Afghanistan, posted by Wikipedia
Map : Bowen 1747, Persia, from Wikimedia Commons
Encyclopedia Entries
Political De l'Estat du Sophy de Perse, pp.934-1025 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, 1613, in French, GB
De l'Estat du Sophy de Perse, pp.932- in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, 1614, in French, GB
De l'Estat du Sophy de Perse, pp.192- in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, empires royaumes, seigneuries, duchez, et principautez du monde, 1621, in French, GB
De l'Estat du Sophy de Perse, pp.934- in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, 1628, in French, GB
De l'Estat du Sophi de Perse, pp.749-887 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, empires et principautez du monde representez par la description des pays et moeurs des habitans, richesses des provinces, les forces, le gouvernement, la religion, et les princes qui ont gouverne chacun estat , 1630, in French, GB
Estats du Sophi de Perse, pp.290-444 in P. d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, 1643, in French, GB
Estats de Sophi du Perse, pp.656- in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, empires, royaumes et principautez du monde , 1659, in French, GB
Estats de Sophi du Perse, pp.1014- in P. d'Avity, Nouveau theatre du monde: contenant les estats, empires, royaumes, et principautez, representez par l'ordre et veritable description des pays, moeurs des peuples, forces, 1661, in French, GB
De l'Estat du Sophy de Perse, pp.656- in P. d'Avity, Les estats, empires, royaumes et principautez du monde, 1665, in French, GB
Interets du Sophy de Perse sur Ormus, la Chaldee ou Babylone, l'Idumee et l'Arabie, Caramanie pp.230-240 in H. de Rohan, Intérêts et maximes des principes et des estats souverains, 1666, in French, GB
Geographical Persia, pp.90-115 in vol.1 of A. Hamilton, A New Account of the East Indies, 1744, GB
on History Entry : The Present State of Persia, pp.305- in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern History or the Present State of All Nations, 1744, GB
Institutions Archives National Archives of Iran
UNESCO Archives Portal : National Archives Asia Pacific, has one entry for Iran (Nov. 15th 2006), scroll down
Musea Lists, Links Museums in Iran, from Caroun; Category : Museums in Iran, from Wikipedia
Musea Museum Websites National Museum of Iran
Monuments Category : Monuments and memorials in Iran, from Wikipedia
UNESCO World Heritage Site, List (search for Iran), Tentative Lists : Iran
Article : Ali Qapu (Grand Palace, Isfahan), from Wikipedia
Libraries National Library of Iran
Libraries in Iran, from LibDex
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Safavid Flag, from Wikipedia
Safavid Symbols, from Georgian Heraldry
Category : Safavid Empire Flags, from Wikimedia Commons
Coins, Banknotes on Iran Coin Catalog of Iran, from Numismaticon; search Coin Archives for Persia, Iran; Numismatic Collections of Coins - Iran, bilingual Russian-English site; Iran, from World Coin Gallery
British Museum, The coins of the shahs of Persia, Safavis, Afghans, Efsharis, Zands, and Kajars (1887), posted on Internet Archive
on Safavid Dyn. Coins of the Safavid Dynasty, from Oriental Coins Database
Safavid Coins, from NeoCollect
Category : Coins of the Safavid Empire, from Wikipedia
Safavid and Sassanian Coins in Fujairah, Tribulus 1995
Coins : The Safavids and their Successors, from The David Collection
Persian Coins : Safavid Coinage

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Iran Iran Oral History Project, (printed memoirs), IBEX Publishers
NNDB Bibliography : Iran
Persian Academy; in Farsi; English language version does not work (Sept. 21st 09)
Iran, from The Online Books Page
from IAAB
on specific issues Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South West Asia
Bibliography, from Kurdistanica
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
International Boundary Studies
on Iran Iran Online Library, from Iran Politics Club
Iran Digital Library
Digital Islamic Library Project (DILP)
Online Journals full text online Journal of Iranian Research and Analysis 1997-2004
Iran Analysis Quarterly 2003-2007
Abstracta Iranica (in French) 1999-2007
Goftogu 1992-
Kurdish Life 1991-, cumulative index
International Journal of Kurdish Studies 1988-2002, cumulative index
Etudes Kurdes 2000-
Table of Contents
Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, ToCs vol.30-
Historiography Article : Persian Historiography, by H. Shambayati, pp.703-705, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
On the Middle East
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.21, pp.930-971 Article Iran. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.21
Elton L. Daniel, The History of Iran, Greenwood 2000, 320 pp., KMLA Lib.Sign. 955 D 184t
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries John H. Lorenz, Historical Dictionary of Iran, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 1995, KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 955.003 L868h

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