History by Country . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . HI . JK . L . M . N . OP . QR . S . TUV . WXYZ

Uzbekistan Iran
First posted on May 29th 2002, last revised on March 22nd 2008

Turkmenistan independent, since 1991

Turkmenistan 1945-1991
Turkmenistan 1925-1945

Turkmenistan 1917-1925 . Russian Turkestan 1918-1924

Governorate Transcaspia 1879-1918 . General Governorate Turkestan 1867-1918

Students' Papers : Lee, Hyejin, Russian/Soviet Central Asia in Political Transition, 1800-1945 : a Collage of Biographies of Persons (2012)
Students' Paper : Lee, Dahyeon, History of Textiles in Western Central Asia (2009)

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook Country : Turkmenistan
Library of Congress Country Studies : Turkmenistan
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from dmoz; from oxuscom, from Center for the Study of Global Change; on the Turkmen, from SEELRC; on Turkmenistan from REENIC
on History from Eurasianet
Organizations International Institute for Central Asian Studies
History Institute, Turkmen Academy of Science
State Institute of Cultural Heritage of peoples of Turkmenistan, Central Asia and Orient
Institute of Written Heritage, Ashgabad, Turkmenistan
British Museum Research Project : Merv, Turkmenistan
The Joint Italian Archaeological Project in Turkmenistan, University of Bologna
Historical Dictionary Encyclopaedia Iranica
Timelines from BBC News, from timelines.ws; Major Events relevant to Central Asian History (since 1600), from oxuscom
Accounts of History Current History of Turkmenistan, by slava1 (maps); from Turkmenistan Embassy; from Turkmenistan on the Web; from Times of Central Asia
Article History of Turkmenistan, from Wikipedia; from Crime and Society, A Comparative Criminology of the World (Robert Winslow)
Specific Periods
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Turkmenistan; Turkmenistan, from Polity IV; Governments on the WWW : Turkmenistan
Article Politics of Turkmenistan, from Wikipedia
For the Record 2000 : Turkmenistan, from UN Human Rights System
Military Wars of Turkmenistan 1800-1999, from ACED
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Turkmenistan; Article Economy of Turkmenistan, from Wikipedia
Social History
Ethnography Languages of Turkmenistan (4), from Ethnologue
Country Report Turkmenistan, from U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (1997-2004)
Turkmenistan, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Turkmenistan
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Turkmenistan, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in Turkmenistan, from Wikipedia
Merv Monastery, from Monastic Asia
History of Regions Provinces of Turkmenistan, Districts of Turkmenistan, from www.statoids.com
Local History History of Ashgabat (Ashqabat), from Wikipedia
Institutions Turkmenistan Airlines, from Wikipedia
Turkmenistan, from Airline History
Structurae : Turkmenistan
Others Disaster History by Country : Turkmenistan, from Relief Web
Crime and Society : A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Turkmenistan
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); Regnal Chronologies : Central Asia, scroll down for Turkmenistan; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated); Political Leaders, from ZPC
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors of the United Kingdom to Turkmenistan, from Wikipedia ; Liste der Deutschen Botschafter in Turkmenistan (Aschgabad), from Wikipedia German edition
U.S. Ambassadors to Turkmenistan, from NNDB; Heads of Post, from MOFA Canada
Chinese Ambassadors to Turkmenistan, from PRC MOFA
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Turkmenistan Statistics; site in Turkmen
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Turkmenistan, from Population Statistics
City Population : Turkmenistan, from City Population
Central Asian Population in Historical Perspective, by Bakhtior Islamov
Historical Abortion Statistics, Turkmenistan, from Johnston's Archive
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Election Results from Psephos ; from IFES Election Guide (since 1999)
Documents Historical Newspapers History of Turkmenistan, from World History Archives
Central Asian Serials, Late 19th to Early 20th Century (1871-1991, Russian language), published by ProQuest
Turkmenistan Article Archives, Ashkhabad Article Archives, by Keepmedia
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
History Tour, from Turkmenistan Picture Gallery
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Oriental Collections
Items on Turkmenistan
Contemporary Views of Central Asia (late 1970s-early 1980s)
Universal Collections
Items on Turkmenistan
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Airline Timetable Images : Turkmenistan
Archival Deposits British Intelligence Reports on Russia in Central Asia, published by IDC Publishers
Resources for Central Asian Studies in the British Library
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Turkmenistan, from ILO, 6 docs. since 1993
Internet Law Library : Turkmenistan
Document Collections
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Map Agencies, Turkmenistan : Turkmen Map Production Entreprise (Turkmengeodezija), Ashkhabad
collections History of Turkmenistan, by slava1 (maps)
Atlas of Turkmenistan, from Wikimedia Commons
Category : Old Maps of Turkmenistan, Maps of the History of Turkmenistan, Wikimedia Commons
Category : Old Maps of Russian Turkestan
Turkmenistan Maps, PCL, UTexas
Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan & Kirghizstan, from Asian Linguistic Maps
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for Turkmenistan
U.S. Army Map Service, Topographical Maps Eastern Europe 1:250,000, PCL, UTexas
U.S. National Imagery and Mapping Agency, Topographical Maps Russia 1:250,000, PCL, UTexas
M. Hauser, Old Maps of Russian Asia
The Tajikistan Update, Historical Maps of Central Asia (links)
Russian/Soviet Central Asia, hindsight Map : Turkic Languages, from Titus
Russian/Soviet Central Asia, contemporary Turkestan 1888, 1938, Probert Encycloperdia
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary
Encyclopedia Artiucles Ethnological The Turkomans pp.180-181 in A.H. Keane, The World's Peoples: A Popular Account of Their Bodily & Mental Characters , 1908, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives
Musea National Museum of Turkmenistan
Worldwide Museums Directory - Turkmenistan, from Global Sources
Monuments Turkmenistan Cultural Heritage, from UNESCO.KZ
UNESCO World Heritage List, scroll down for Turkmenistan; Tentative List : Turkmenistan
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Turkmenistan from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; from Zeno
Banknotes of Turkestan, from Zeno
Coins of Turkmenistan, from Zeno

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Turkmenistan survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies M. Denison, Open Society Turkmenistan Project, Bibliography of English Language Materials 2005
Bibliography, from Library of Congress, Country Studies : Turkmenistan
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies
serial publications Central and Inner Asia Studies, publications
Publications, from Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, St. Petersburg (most in Russian)
Publications, from Sinor Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, Indiana University
New Asia Books : Turkmenistan
general bibliographies
Turkmenistan entries
Resources for Central Asian Studies in the British Library
booksellers King Bulan's Turkic Bookstore
Online Libraries general Project Gutenberg, Online Catalogue
Internet Archive
International Boundary Studies
on Turkmenistan Silk Road Papers, from Central Asia - Caucasus Institute
Thesis Server English Language (Abstracts of Russian Language) Dissertations from the CIS
IFESCCO - Digital Library of Dissertations, maintained at Russian State Library
Online Journals full text online Silk Road Journal 2003-
Transoxiana 2000-
Central Eurasian Studies Review (CESR) 2002-
Journal of Modern Turkish Studies, Ankara 2004-
Table of Contents online International Journal of Central Asian Studies, 1996-2009
Historiography Article : Central Asian Historiography, by M.R. Drompp, pp.150-151 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.15, pp.715h-715k Article Central Asia : Turkmenistan. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.15
Historical Atlasses Yuri Bregel, An Historical Atlas of Central Asia, (HACA) Leiden : Brill 2003 (defines Central Asia as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Xinjiang)

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