China 1860-1894
China 1911-1916
First posted on December 12th 2004, last revised on November 1st 2007

Timeline : Qing China 1894-1911

1894-1895 Sino-Japanese War
1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki; China ceded Taiwan to Japan
1895 Reformist mandarins Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao published Zhong Wai Ji Wen (World Bulletin, magazine); founded Qiang Xue Hui (Learn to be Strong Society); both magazine, society banned in 1896
1896 Chinese-Russian treaty on routing of Transiberian railroad through N. Manchuria
1897 Korea proclaimed to be an Empire, i.e. renounced recognition of Chinese sovereignty over the country
1898 China leased Kiautschou to Germany, Kwangchowan to France, Port Arthur to Russia, New Territories, Weihaiwei to Britain
1898 Hundred Days Reform; terminated by a coup led by Empress Dowager Cixi
1899 Yi He Tuan Rebellion in NW Shandong, first directed against Manchu Dynasty; after defeat by Qing troops turned on foreigners (Boxers)
1900-1901 Boxer Rebellion (Yi He Tuan)
1900 U.S. Secretary of State announced that the powers except Japan had agreed to the Open Door Policy (regarding China) suggested by the U.S.
1901 Death of Li Hongzhang
1901 Educational reform; girls admitted to schools; western subjects introduced into curriculum
1901 Zongli Yamen renamed Ministry of Foreign Affairs
1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance
1903 Aurora University founded by French Jesuits, near Shanghai
1903 Military reform; Military Academy established
1904 British invasion of Tibet, occupation of Lhasa
1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War; Russia ceded concession at Port Arthur; southern Manchuria became Japanese sphere of interest
1905-1906 China abolished Confucian state examinations
1906 Anglo-Chinese convention regarding Tibet
1908 Death of Empress Dowager Cixi; child Pu Yi proclaimed Emperor
1910 A national elected Consultative Assembly established
1910 Chinese Olympic Committee formed
1911 Tsinghua University in Beijing founded
1911 Wuchang Uprising triggered Chinese Revolution

Chinese History, PRC website, detailed
Timeline of Chinese-European Cultural Relations, posted by Institute of Asian Affairs, Hamburg
Article Li Hung Chang, from Columbia Encyclopedia; from EB 1911
The Qing Dynasty, from Wikipedia, History of China
Yuan Shi Kai, from World War I Document Archive
Article China, from EB 1911
Backgrounder : Sino-British Relations, from Chinese Embassy London
World Statesmen : China, posted by Ben Cahoon
Tz'u Hsi or Cixi - the Empress Dowager of China, from Women's History
Article Empress Dowager Cixi, from Wikipedia
Article Boxer Rebellion, from Wikipedia
Article Tsinghua University, from Wikipedia
Article Open Door Policy, from Wikipedia
Boxer Rebellion, from World Civilization at WSU
Article Emperor Guangxu, from Wikipedia
Article Hundred days Reform, from Wikipedia

Article National Olympic Committee, from Wikipedia
DOCUMENTS The Boxer Rebellion 1900, from Modern History Sourcebook
News from China, from "The Great Round World and What is Going on in it", Vol.1 No.22, April 1897, Vol.2 No.10, March 1898, Vol.2 No.11, March 1898, posted by Gutenberg Library Online
Series of Dutch-language magazine articles on China, the Far East 1911-1913, from Ons Volk Ontwaakt (Flanders, Belgium)
Source : The End of Guangxu (Beltran Rozpide), posted by Kalebeul
REFERENCE Ong Jin Hui, Chinese Indentured Labour : Coolies and Colonies, pp.51-56 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Leung, Edwin Pak-Wah, Historical Dictionary of Revolutionary China 1839-1976, Westport CT : Greenwood 1992, KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 951 L653h
Article : China, in : Statesman's Year Book 1895 pp.419-432, 1898 pp.419-433, 1901 pp.481-497, 1905 pp.521-544, 1910 pp.684-705 [G]
Article : China, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1902 pp.108-121 [G]
Article : Chinese Empire, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.184-195, 1899 pp.184-195, 1900 pp.195-216 [G]
Article : China, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.164-172, 1908 pp.149-160, Chinese Empire 1909 pp.158-164 [G]
G. Lynch, Impressions of a War Correspondent (n.d., c.1900, most on the expedition against the Boxers), posted by Gutenberg Library Online
B.L. Putnam Weale, Indiscreet Letters from Peking (1922; on the Boxer Rebellion), posted by Gutenberg Library Online
News from China, from "The Great Round World and What is Going on in it", Vol.III No.14, April 1899, pp.461-465, Vol.III No.15, April 1899, pp.510-511, Vol.III No.16, April 1899, pp.559-564 [G]

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