History by Country . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . HI . JK . L . M . N . OP . QR . S . TUV . WXYZ

Literature on the History of East Asia
Gobi Region Southern China
First posted on January 2nd 2014






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Introduction . Prehistory . Shang, 1600-1046 . Zhou, 1046-711 . Spring and Autumn, 711-486 . Warring States, 486-221 . Qin, 221-206 . Han, 206 BCE-220 CE . 220-589 . 589-907 . 907-971 . 960-1127 . 1127-1234 . 1234-1386 . 1386-1644 . 1644-1800 . 1800-1911 . 1911-1949 . since 1949




Introduction
Core Han China is a geographic region defined here, understood as the Yellow River and Yangtse valleys, or the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Henan, Anhwei, Hubei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, southern Gansu and Sichuan.

Prehistory
Homo erectus pekinensis ("Peking Man", bones of whom have been found at Zhoukoudian site) has inhabited the region in c.750,000 BP. Zhoukoudian site later was also inhabited by Homo sapiens sapiens. Rice was cultivated in the Yangtze valley. Chinese mythology records the beginning of state formation as having taken place on the middle Huanghe River (Yellow River).

Shang Dynasty, c.1600-c.1046 BCE
The early Shang Dynasty is recorded in Chinese mythology; for the later Shang Dynasty we have historical evidence. Its capital was at Anyang (modern Yinxu). Shang Dynasty bronze artefacts were found in quantity and superb quality; bronze working technology may have been introduced from/through South China, from where much of the copper was acquired by trade.

Zhou Dynasty, c.1046-771 BCE
The Zhou Dynasty introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven. It expanded its territory and introduced the Fengjian system, a decentralized feudal administration.

Spring and Autumn, 771-476 BCE
The feudal structure of administration resulted in regional dynasties emerging. Confucius lived during the latter part of the period, and compiled its history in the Spring and Autumn Annals.

Warring States, 476-221 BCE
While the Zhou Dynasty continued until 221, its authority was only nominal. Han China had broken up into several states which fought each other.

Qin, 221-206 BCE
In 221, the Qin Dynasty (which had conquered the non-Han Ba and Shu kingdoms in Sichuan) conquered and annexed the other Han kingdoms and reunified China.

Han, 206 BCE-220 CE
In 206, the Han Dynasty replaced the Qin Dynasty. Its capital was Chang'an (modern Xi'an, Shaanxi). Han expanded its territory by acquiring Gansu and establishing at least nominal suzerainty over much of Southern China and part of Korea. The Han Dynasty was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty (Wang Mang, 9-23 CE) who is credited with the beginning of the construction of the Great Wall of China, and who is responsible for the Burning of the Books. Under the Han Dynasty, China's economy developed. Archaeological findings suggest that wheat joined rice and millet as staple food in Northern China. Silk Road treade connections with Western Asia, and further on with the Roman Empire, are first recorded during the Han Dynasty.

220-589
220-280 Three Kingdoms period (Cao Wei, Shu Han, Wu); 280-420 Jin Dynasty; Sixteen Kingdoms; 420-589 Southern and Northern Dynasties. During this era, Mahayana Buddhism reached China, and by the means of translation was transformed into a Chinese adaptation.

589-907
In 589 the Sui Dynasty reunited China, in 618 succeeded by the Tang Dynasty. Confucianism became the dominant philosophy. Taoism gained importance; under Emperor Gaozong (649-683), the Tao Te Ching was added to the canon of books students taking the Confucian state examination had to read. Under Emperor Wuzong in 845-846, Buddhists, Nestorian Christians, Manichaeists, Muslims, Jews and Taoists suffered persecution.
The Sui Dynasty connected the Yangtze and Huanghe river basins by completing the Grand Canal.

907-971
Five Nations and Ten Kingdoms Period. After the fall of Tang, the Chinese Empire disintegrated. Much of Northern China came under foreign rule.

960-1127
Northern Song 960-1127, capital Kaifeng. The Song Dynasty is regarded a climax in Chinese history, having produced innovations which got China to the brink of an industrial revolution. As inventions were sponsored by the monarchy and not triggered by a self-regulating market, this development has concentrated around the capital (which is located outside of Soputhern China. The Song administration thus introduced a two-time taxation per year. During the Song Dynasty, Neo-Confucianism became official philosophy; access to positions in the state bureaucracy required passing the state examinations.
Following a 1004 invasion of the Liao, Northern Song in a 1005 treaty agreed to pay a regular, hefty tribute to Liao, which in effect meant that its authority over several Northern provinces had been ceded.

1127-1234
In 1127 the Liao Dynasty was conquered by the Jurchen Jin Dynasty; the Song capital was moved to Hangzhou (Southern Song). In 1215-1234 the Mongols conquered Jin.

1253-1368
The Mongols conquered Northern Song in 1234, Southern Song in 1279. The Yuan Dynasty had been proclaimed in 1271. The Yuan administration employed many foreigners, was distrustful of Confucian literati. Economically, Yuan rule was devastating; the population of China in 1200 is estimated at 115 million, in 1290 at 77 million, in 1400 at 89 million. The eruption of Mount Rinjani in 1257/1258 and the Bubonic Plague, which struck in the 1340s, contributed to this development. Migration of Han Chinese into the southern provinces continued. Taiwan remained outside the Chinese sphere.

1368-1644
The Red Turban Rebellion ousted the Mongols from China in 1368. The new Ming Dynasty at first established their capital in Nanjing; it took measures to revive agriculture, to repair the country's irrigation system, to engage in reforestation.
Ming shut down Silk Road trade and promoted maritime trade, channeled through ports located in Southern China.

1644-1800
In the Mid-17th Century, the Qing Dynasty ousted the Ming. Under Qing rule, China saw a dramatic population increase, from an estimated 123 million in 1650 to an estimated 260 million in 1800; immigration provinces like Sichuan saw a markedly higher population increase. <

1800-1911
China during the later 17th and the 18th century had experienced extraordinary population growth. The eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815 caused severe damage to harvests; defeat in the Opium War forced China to follow western rules of trade, to open up ports, to permit missionaries to enter the country. In mid 19th century Qing lost control of most of the country, where various rebel organizatyions had established control. Qing entered on a policy of modernization in 1860, with British support. The defeat in the Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895 ruined China's finances, the country went from crisis to crisis until the Chinese Revolution of 1911 ended the monarchy.

1911-1949
The Chinese Revolution of 1911 ended the Qing Dynasty. . During the 1920s, China had broken up into numerous regions ruled by warlords; Sun Yat Sen's successor, Chiang Kai Shek, in military campaigns extended the control exercized by the KMT, and in 1928 moved the capital of the Republic of China from Guangzhou to Nanjing. The Communist Party had established a communist state in rural Hunan-Jiangxi, which found itself under attack by Nationalist forces from 1927 to 1934; in 1934 the Communists, in the Long March, moved from their southern strongholds to Yenan (Shaanxi). In 1937 the Japanese invaded China; the Nationalist administration moved to Chongqing.
The end of U.S. subsidies, the costs of the war and a corrupt administration resulted in rampant inflation. An attempt to stop the advancing Communist forces at the Yangtse River failed.

since 1949
In 1949 the People's Republic of China was declared. Privately owned land and businesses were nationalized, communes established. The Great Leap Forward (1958) and the Cultural Revolution (1966-1967) resulted in temporary havoc. The One Country Two Systems Policy created zones within China where capitalist rules prevailed; these zones attracted foreign investment and brought modern technology into the country; they became focal points of the economic modernization of China which continues today. Simultaneously, China has entered on a policy of providing cultural autonomy to its national minorities and spends effort in preserving their historical heritage. China's one-child-policy has resulted in slowing down the country's population growth; the country's industrialization over the last half century has resulted in severe environmental problems.






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern
Historical C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), posted on Internet Archive (includes data of 1913)
Links Virtual Library : Internet Guide for Chinese Studies (IGCS)
Organizations Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute for Archaeology, IA CASS
Society for East Asian Archaeology
International Society for the History of East Asian Science, Technology and Medicine
Association for East Asian Environmental History
Early Medieval China Group, Society for Song, Yuan and Conquest Dynasties Studies, Society for Ming Studies, Society for Qing Studies
Historical Dictionary U. Theobald, China Knowledge
Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
Digital Gazetteer of the Song Dynasty
Timelines CHSN : World Civilizations : China
Accounts of History General Open Learning Initiative, Chinese Studies: Video Lectures with Harvard Faculty
Specific Periods
Until 600 BCE
Neolithic List of Neolithic Cultures in China, Wikipedia
R. Eno, Neolithic China - Before the Shang Dynasty, 2010
S.N. Ren, Several Major Achievements in Early Neolithic China, ca.5000 BC , Kaogu - Archaeology 1996 pp.37-49, Engl. trsl. n.d. [2002 ?]; lists sites in Southern China
Princeton University Art Museum, Museum Asian Art Collection, China Neolithic Period ca. 8000-ca. 2000 B.C.
W.X. Wu et al., Possible role of the "Holocene Event 3" on the collapse of Neolithic Cultures around the Central Plain of China, Quaternary International 117 (2004) pp.153-166
C.C. Huang et al., Charcoal records of fire history in the Holocene loess-soil sequences over the southern Loess Plateau of China, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 239 (2006) pp.28-44
Bronze Age W.Fong (ed.), The Great Bronze Age of China, Exhibition Catalogue, 1980; Asia for Educators, The Great Bronze Age of China, Teachers' Guide
J.L. Jin, Chronological and Cultural Framework of Bronzes in Northern China during the 4th to the 3rd Millennia B.P., thesis Tübingen 2009
Mythical China Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.03 The Confucian Myth Cycle on the Formation of the Chinese State, ch.05 Archaeological Evidence on Early State Formation in China
Shang R. Eno, Shang Kingship and Shang Kinship, 2010
R. Eno, The Shang Dynasty (c.1500-1045 B.C.) Oracle Texts and Ritual Bronzes 2008
Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.06 Shang Politics, Domestic and Foreign
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Shang Dynasty
Zhou Asia for Educators : Zhou Dynasty (c.1050-256 BCE)
R. Eno, Zhou Ritual Culture and its Rationalization, 2010
Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.07 The Religion of Heaven and the Zhou Conquest, ch.08 The Zhou Empire : Feudalization, ch.09 Defeudalization: Border Peoples and Hegemon-Kings , ch.10 High Civilization Begins: The Ruling Classes
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Zhou Dynasty
Spring and Autumn R. Eno, Spring and Autumn China (771-453), 2010
Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.11 Confucius: The Last Sage and First Political Philosopher, ch.12 Reactions to Zhou High Civilization: The Mohists and the Daoists
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), The Spring and Autumn Period
600 BCE-600 CE
Warring States Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.13 The Evolution of Bureaucracy during the Warring States Era, ch.14 Warring States Balance of Power International Politics, ch.15 Mencius, Heaven, State and Society, ch.16 Confucian Administrators, Legalists, or Traditional Socialists ?, ch.17 Hard Legalists and Hard Confucians
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), The Warring States Period
Qin Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.18 The Rise and Rapid Fall of Qin
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Qin Dynasty
Western Han W.S. Tong, A study on the Chao-hsun period, 86-49 B.C., of the Western Han dynasty, thesis Hong Kong 1987
Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.19 The Rise of Han : Liu Bang, Empress Lü, and Emperor Wen, ch.20 The Age of Emperor Wu : Interventionism at Home and Abroad, ch.21 The Quarrels between Reformers and Modernists
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Han Dynasty
R. Eno, The Han Dynasty, 2008
Xin Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.22 Wang Mang, Eastern Han, and the Disintegration of the Universal State
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Han Dynasty : The Reign of Wang Mang (the Xin Dynasty)
R. Eno, The Han Dynasty, 2008
Eastern Han H. Bielenstein, The restoration of the Han dynasty : with prolegomena on the historiography of the Hou Han Shu, thesis Göteborg 1953
Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.22 Wang Mang, Eastern Han, and the Disintegration of the Universal State
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Han Dynasty
R. Eno, The Han Dynasty, 2008
Three Kingdoms China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Three Kingdoms (220-280)
Jin, Sixteen States China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Jin period (265-420) , Political History of the Sixteen States (300-430)
Northern, Southern Dynasties China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Southern Dynasties (420-589), Political history of the Northern Wei (386-534)
J.M. Wu, Mortuary Art in the Northern Zhou China (557-581 CE): Visualization of Class, Role, and Cultural Identity, thesis Pittsburgh 2010
600-1450
Sui China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Sui Dynasty (581-618)
Tang M.L. Tsui, A re-evaluation of the accomplishments of Emperor Gaozu (566-635) of the Tang Dynasty, thesis Hong Kong 2001
L. Chamney, The An Shi Rebellion and Rejection of the Other in Tang China, 618-763, thesis Univ. of Alberta 2012
K.Y. Lo, The political and social conditions of the Tang dynasty during the An Lushan rebellion as reflected in Du Fu's Poems, thesis Hong Kong 2008
J.M. Rhee, Empress Wu of the Tang dynasty: becoming the only female emperor in China, thesis Univ. of Southern California 2008
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Tang Dynasty (618-907)
R. Eno, The Culture of the Tang Dynasty, 2008
Five Dynasties, 10 States China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Five Dynasties (907-960) , Ten States Event History
Song Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.27 Neo-Confucian Political Philosophy, ch.28 The Age of Wang Anshi and its Aftermath
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Song Dynasty (960-1279)
Asia for Educators, The Song Dynasty in China
R. Eno, Song Dynasty Culture: Political Crisis and the Great Turn, 2008
S.L. Tsang, War and peace in northern Sung China: Violence and strategy in flux, 960-1104 A.D., thesis Univ. of Arizona 1997
Liao, Jin Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.29 The "Barbarian" States : Liao, Jin and Yuan
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Liao Dynasty (907-1125) , Poltical History of the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234)
Yuan Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.29 The "Barbarian" States : Liao, Jin and Yuan
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368)
A. Batbold, Globalization During the Yuan Dynasty Under Khubilai Khan's Rule and Lessons for Modern Globalzation Effort, thesis Tufts 2002
Z. Fisch, Khublai Khan's Yuan Dynasty: A Pragmatic Approach to Governing China , thesis Haverford 2013
1450-1750
Ming W.C. Ho, Eunuch politics in early Ming dynasty, thesis Hong Kong 1995
K.W. Chiu, The role of Prince Tang in the Southern Ming dynasty (1644-1683), thesis Hong Kong 1970
Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.31 The Decline of the Ming and the Rise of the Manchus
1450-1750
K.W. Chiu, The role of Prince Tang in the Southern Ming dynasty (1644-1683), thesis Hong Kong 1970
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Political History of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
1750-1914
Qing Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.31 The Decline of the Ming and the Rise of the Manchus, ch.32 The Manchus Consolidation of Power, ch.33 The Manchu State in Decline: 1723-1820, ch.34 The Road to the Opium Wars, ch.36 The Midcentury Rebellions and the Tongzhi Restoration, ch.37 1894-1908 : Unstable Equilibrium
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Qing Dynasty Event History 1644-1911
since 1914
Republic Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.38 The Early Republic: Revolution, Abortive Restoration, Warlordism
ch.39 Evolution of the Post-Imperial Ruling Class, ch.40 Gestation and the Birth of the Kuomintang, ch.41 Transitional Socialism in China and the West, ch.42 Marxism's Second Arrival and the First Two Decades of Chinese Communism, ch.43 The Kuomintang Decade, ch.44 The Great Defensive War and the Civil War, 1937-1949
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), The Republic of China 1911-1949, Event History
People's Republic Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History (1989-1996), IA-WM ch.45 Consolidating the Revolution, 1950-1957, ch.46 Party and Meritocracy: The "Antagonistic Contradiction", ch.47 Politics of the "Great Leap" and the "Cultural Revolution", ch.48 China, Russia and America 1949-1996, ch.49 Post-Mao Domestic Policy : The Postponed Succession
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), The People's Republic of China (since 1949) event history
Historiography A. Zerger Lindsay, L'identite mandchoue et son role dans la construction identitaire chinoise : etude historiographique, thesis Montreal 2010
L. Yi, The cruel administrator's image contrast between record Grand History, History of the Han Dynasty and History of Eastern Han, thesis NSYSU 2012
O.P.F. Fossgård, The Creation of a Modern Chinese National Identity : Sun Yat-sen's Discourse on Race and Nation, thesis Oslo 2002
G. Liu, The Poetics of Miscellaneousness: The Literary Design of Liu Yiqing's Qiantang Yishi and the Historiography of the Southern Song, thesis Univ. of Michigan 2010
Q.G. Priest, Historiography and Statecraft in Eighteenth Century China: The Life and Times of Chao I (1727-1814), thesis Univ. of Arizona 1982
H.P. Yen, Constructing the Chinese: Paleoanthropology and Anthropology in the Chinese Frontier, 1920-1950, thesis Harvard 2012
Administration / Politics M. Custers, Balancing Acts. Comparing political and cultural unification and persistence in the Roman Empire during the Principate and the Western Han Empire, thesis Utrecht 2009
X.Y. Hu, The Juridical System of the Qing Dynasty in Beijing (1644-1900), thesis Univ. of Minnesota 2011
K.C. Chung, A study of the exercise of judicial powers by Qing local governors<, thesis Hong Kong 2003
Q. Zhang, A study on non-Han generals in the T'ang dynasty, thesis Hong Kong 1984
S.H. Mok, The study of the cabinet system of the Ming dynasty, thesis Hong Kong 1961
C.K. Yu, The establishment and development of the embassy system in late Qing dynasty, thesis Hong Kong 2009
Y.H. Wang, Water Governance and State Governance: A Transaction Cost Perspective of China's Unitarianism, n.d.
Military Article Nian Rebellion from Columbia Encyclopedia
McCord, Edward A. The Power of the Gun: The Emergence of Modern Chinese Warlordism . Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press, 1993.
S.S. Huang, The Research of Military Organization of Shang Dynasty, thesis NSYSU 2006
Y.M. Yip, Sino-Japanese war in the Ming period as seen from the Ri dynasty annals of Korea, thesis Hong Kong 1981
Stephen R. MacKinnon, War and Liberalism in Modern Chinese History : The Case of Wuhan in 1938, Selected Papers in Asian Studies 1993
A.C.W. Chung, Aspects of the systems of military logistics during the Song dynasty (960-1278 A.D.) : the procurement of horses, military agricultural colonies, and the imperial ordnance industry , thesis McGill 1999
Economy & Finances General T.G. Rawski et al., Chinese History in Economic Perspective 1992
D.H. Perkins, Stagnation and Growth in China over the Millennium: A Comment on Angus Maddison's "China in the World Economy, 1300-2030", International Journal of Business, 11(3), 2006
C.J. Kaufman, The Evaluation of Marketing in a Society: The Han Dynasty of Ancient China, Journal of Macromarketing 1987 pp.52-64
Periods S.C. Thomas, China's Economic Development from 1860 to the Present: The Roles of Sovereignty and the Global Economy
Economic History of Premodern China (from 221 BC to c. 1800 AD), EH.net Encyclopedia
E. Kaplan, Chinese Economic History from the Stone Age to Mao's Age, 1997, ToC, chapters, IA-WM
China Knowledge, Shang Dynasty 16th-11th c. BCE : Economy, Zhou Dynasty 11th c. BCE-221 BCE : Economy, Qin Dynasty 221-206 BCE : Economy, Han and Xin 206 BCE-220 CE : Economy, Three Kingdoms 220-280 : Economy, Jin Dynasty 286-420 : Economy, Sixteen Barbarian States 300-430 : Economy, Northern Dynasties 386-581 : Economy, Sui Dynasty 581-618 : Economy, Tang Dynasty 618-907 : Economy, Five Dynasties 907-960, Ten States 902-979 : Economy Song Dynasty 960-1279 : Economy, Liao Dynasty 907-1125 : Economy, Jin Dynasty 1115-1234 : Economy Yuan Dunasty 1279-1368 : Economy, Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 : Economy, Qing Dynasty 1644-1911 : Economy
C.C. Ma, Essays on Economics of Conflicts : Piracy and Peasant Rebellions in Historical China , thesis Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology 2011
Finances L.M. Wang, The rise and decline of Shanxi piaohao in late Qing dynasty China, 1820-1911 , thesis Singapore 2007, piaohao = remittance agencies
R. Morck et al., The Shanxi Banks, Corporate Governance with Chinese Characteristics 2009 (Qing)
A Study of Land Tax Imposition in Local Prefectures and Counties in Sichuan of Ming Dynasty, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
Y.L. Chen, Good Money Drives out Bad, A Note on Free Coinage and Gresham's Law in Chinese Han Dynasty
B. Dalzell, Coinage and History in Ancient China, NumisWiki
Trade
Overland Trade Article : Imperial Chinese tributary system, Wikipedia
Korean History Project, Tribute and Treade
G. Andornino, The Nature and Linkages of China's Tributary System under the Ming and Qing Dynasties, 2006
M. Shimosaka, About Licenses for Trade between Japan and Ming China
for information on Silk Road trade, see under Gobi Region
H.C. Yang, China's routes to Tibet during the early Qing Dynasty: a study of travel accounts, thesis Univ. of Washington 1994
The Southwestern Silk Road in the Jin Dynasties, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
Shanxi Merchants in Yangloudong Tea Area since Qing Dynasty, summary of Chinese language article, posted on Shvoong
Agriculture J. Janick, History of Agricultural and Horticultural Technology in Asia, 2008
Rice H. Huang, A Three-Stage Model for the Domestication of Oryza Sativa and the Emergence of Rice Agriculture in China, 12,000-7,000 BP, thesis Univ. of Kansas 2008
Rise of Chinese Civilization Based on Paddy Rice Agriculture, Paper Database
C. Chen, Developmental History of Paddy Rice and Arid Agriculture in Ancient Chinese Civilization, Agricultural Archaeology 1997(86-3) pp.51-53
Y.I. Sato, "DNA Explains the History of Rice", History of rice cultivation in China, 2002
Z.H. Zhang, Origin of rice agriculture on the Middle and lower Yangtze River , Agricultural Archaeology 1998(1) pp.206-211
Asia for Educators, The Song Dynasty in China, Technological Advances : Rice Cultivation
Z.Q. Yang et al., Summary of Ancient Rice Cultivation in Henan Province, 2000, from Ancient Chinese Rice Archeological Project
X.Q. Ma, Rice Growth in Ancient Henan Province, 1998, from Ancient Chinese Rice Archeological Project
Wheat A History of Wheat-Breeding in China (CIMMYT)
Cotton H.T. Zurndorfer, The Resistant Fibre: The Pre-modern History of Cotton in China, n.d.
Stimulants A.W. McCoy, Opium History 1850-1940 (Sichuan Opium)
B. Harris, The Impact of Tea in Song Dynasty China, n.d.
Metalworking E.C. Bunker, Materials & Techniques. The Beginning of Metallurgy in Ancient China
R.F. Tylecote, Archaeo-Metallurgy in China, 1983
Archaeo-Metallurgical Bibliography
Article : History of Metallurgy in China, Wikipedia
X. Wang, Early Development of Bronze Technology in Eastern Eurasia, Sino-Platonic Papers 213, 2011; earliest find at Ban Chiang, 2100/1700 BCE
K. Reinhardt, Mining and smelting technology and the politics of bronze in Shang and Western Zhou China : an inquiry into the Bronze Age interaction sphere 1997, thesis McGill 1997
A Preliminary Study on Shang Dynasty Bronzes and their Cu-Pb Ore Sources in Jiangxi, Hubei and Henan, summary of a Chinese language article, posted on Shvoong
Lead isotopic study of Shang Dynasty bronzes (13-11 B.C.)and their ore sources, summary of a Chinese language article, posted on Shvoong
D.B. Wagner, Technology as seen through the case of ferrous metallurgy in Han China , n.d.
China Culture, Iron Making History in China, 2008
J. Cao, Mint Metal Mining and Minting in Sichuan (1700-1900): Effects on the Regional Economy and Society, thesis Tübingen 2012
T. Hirzel, Mint Metal Procurement for Jiangsu and Zhejiang in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries: An Inquiry into the Organisational Capability of the Qing State, thesis Tübingen 2011
Tonglushan Ancient Metallurgy Museum, from China Museums; Mining for Tourism in Hubei, from China Daily
B. Bavarian, Unearthing Technology's Influence on the Ancient Chinese Dynasties through Metallurgical Investigations, 2005
K.M. Linduff et al., Metallurgy in Ancient Eastern Asia : How is it Studied ? Where is the Field Headed ? 2008
Other Mining Resources : Gypsum, from China Mining
The Ancient Salt Industry of the Sichuan Basin in Comparative Perspective, Workshop Tübingen 2006
Pottery T. Degawa, History of Oriental Ceramics, 2009
K.N. Dikshit et al., The Earliest Pottery in East Asia: A Review, Puratattva 42
M. Dillon, A history of the porcelain industry in Jingdezhen, thesis Leeds 1976
W.C. Sie, Tradition and Institution Innovation:A Comparative Study of the Development of Jingdezhen Ceramics Industry, thesis NSYSU 2008
G.Y. Wang, The Interactions between Chinese Export Ceramics and Their Foreign 'Markets': The Stories in Late Ming Dynasty, 2011
Timeline of Jingdezhen's Porcelain Industry
Textile Industry K. Pomeranz, Cotton Textiles, Division of Labour and the Economic and Social Conditions of Women: A Preliminary Survey, draft; ch.1 : Part I: Cotton Textiles in China: Chronology and Economic Overview
F. Zhao, Woven Color in China/ The Five Colors in Chinese Culture and Polychrome Woven Textiles, Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings 2010
Cultural China, A Short History of Silk in China
I. Good, The Archaeology of Early Silk, n.d.
History of Batik in China, from Bali Bintang
Trade Key
H. Langford, The textiles of the Han Dynasty & their relationship with society , thesis Adelaide 2009
Historically Lucrative Sichuan Brocade, from Women of China
Other The Ming Dynasty's Fishery Policy System and Its Change: Analysis of the Fishery Organization's Ori, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
H. Li, Chinese Glass before the Han Dynasty , thesis Tübingen 2008
R.J. Sasaki, The Origin of the Lost Fleet of the Mongol Empire, thesis Texas A&M 2008
Social History General A.E. Moule, The Chinese people; a handbook on China, 1914, IA
K.S. Lee, Social life in the Zhou dynasty as seen from the Shijing, thesis Hong Kong 1984
Education N.G. Gee, The educational directory for China; an account of the various schools and colleges connected with Protestant missions (1905), IA
C.H. Chan, Historical and cultural background of education in China 2006
L. Yu. et al., Historical and Contemporary Education Fever in China 2004
G.F. Drake, The Missionary and Western Education in 19th Century China, thesis 1959
Article : Imperial Examination, Wikipedia
Asia for Educators : The Confucian Classics and the Civil Service Examinations
S.B. Chan, The Function and Development of the Examination System of the Han Dynasty, thesis Hong Kong 1960
J.H. Tang, Educational reform and the emergence of modern libraries in China with special reference to the Metropolitan Library of Beijing, 1909-1937, thesis Univ. of Western Sydney 2004
K.T. Chan, A Study of Top Scholars (Zhuang Yuan) in the Chinese Civil Examinations of Song Dynasty, thesis Singapore 2010
W.H. Wong, Huangchao Dashiji and the imperial examination of the South Song Dynasty, thesis Hong Kong 2008
Z.P. Smith, Teaching guomin : meanings of citizenship and (un)popular education in late Qing China, thesis Univ. of North Carolina 2010
Land Y.F. Gu, Land reform in a North Zhejiang village : the role of 'exploitation' in class determination and land redistribution, thesis Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology 2009
Demography, Migration Article : Chinese Emigration, Wikipedia
Jiang Tao, Population Distribution and Migration in Qing China 1644-1911, CASS 2003; has population figures for the provinces, beginning in 1749
W. Deng et al., Evolution and migration history of the Chinese population inferred from Chinese Y-chromosome evidence, J Hum Genet (2004) 49:339-348
H.X. Zheng, Major Population Expansion of East Asians Began before Neolithic Time: Evidence of mtDNA Genomes, Plos One 2011
M.P. Ng, A Study on the Immigrants from the Korean Peninsula in the Tang Dynasty (618-907), thesis Hong Kong 2005
Abstract : An Analysis of the Shaanxi Emigrants during the Famine in 1928-1930, from en.cnki.com.cn
Elite Esherick, Joseph W., and Mary Backus Rankin, editors Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance., Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
Y.T. Wong, The orientation of Han Chinese intellectuals after the collapse of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) , thesis Hong Kong 2003
S.H. Lee, Negotiated power: The state and elites in 12th-14th century China , thesis Harvard 2009
Women P.B. Ebrey, Women in Traditional China
Li, Y.H, Women's Movement and Change of Women's Status in China, Journal of International Women's Studies 1/1, n.d.
A. Fisher, Women in Medieval China
C.M. Shum, The life of imperial maids in the Tang Dynasty (618-907), thesis Hong Kong 2000
C.M. Shum, A study of women in the families of government officials in the Tang Dynasty (618-907), thesis Univ. of Hong Kong 2004
B.H. Sheieh, Concubines in Chinese society from the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries , thesis Univ. of Illinois 1992
Graham, Larsen, Xu, Son Preference in Anhui Province, China, 1998
Omniglot : Nüshu, the syllabic script used exclusively by women in Hunan, China
Article : Nüshu Script, Wikipedia
S. Wang, The Selection of Women for the Qing Imperial Harem, The Chinese Historical Review, vol.11, no.2 2004 pp.212-222
A. Kinney, Traditions of Exemplary Women : The Former Han Dynasty 2003
Health Shen Nong, Traditional Chinese Medicine : History, detailed; 11 chapters
John Amaro, An Historical Perspective of Acupuncture
The History of Western Medicine in China 1800-1950 Resources Portal, Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis
Nancy Miles, Footbinding, draft lesson, 2002
F.F. Hong, History of Medicine in China. When Medicine Took an Alternative Path, Crossroads : Where Medicine and Humanities Meet 2004 pp.79-84
World Life Expectancy, Country Health Profile : China
Z.W. Zhao, Record Longevity in Chinese History - Evidence from the Wang Genealogy, in : B. Jeune et al., Exceptional Longevity, From Prehistory to the Present, 2000, unpaginated
Nutrition L. Liu et al., Paleolithic human exploitation of plant foods during the last glacial maximum in North China, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol.110 no.14 2013, unpaginated
H. Wang, Animal Subsistence of the Yangshao Period in the Wei River Valley: A Case-Study from the Site of Wayaogou in Shaanxi Province, China, thesis UCL 2011
L.L. Hou et al., Transition of human diets and agricultural economy in Shenmingpu Site, Henan, from the Warring States to Han Dynasties, Science China : Earth Sciences 55/6 2012 pp.975-982
Other R.F. Du et al., Chinese Surnames and the Genetic Differences between North and South China, 1991
H.B. Morse, The Gilds of China (1909), IA
Y. Dong, Eating identity: food, gender, and social organization in late Neolithic northern China, thesis Univ. of Illinois 2013
M.H. Zhou, Research on the institutions of law on the The laws and decrees of the second year" -?The Bamboo Slips of Zhangjiashan in the Early Han Dynasty, thesis NSYSU 2009
C.C. Lin, The Life and Religious Culture of the Freshwater Boat People of North China, 1700-Present , thesis UC Berkeley 2012
Abstract : Government Macro-Planning and Local Urbanization-The First Five-Year Plan,the Third Front and Urbanization in Shanxi, from en.cnki.com.cn
M. Tanigawa, Medieval Chinese Society and the Local "Community"., 1985.
H.S. Chang, The Importation of Negro Slaves to China under the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 618-901), Catholic University of Peking Bulletin no.7 Dec. 1930 pp.37-59
Ethnography General 20 Years' Study on Northwest National History in the Ming Dynasty, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
The Placename of Immigration in Sichuan and Huguang People Migrate into Sichuan, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
to the "Women's Country , summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
Ethnic Minorities Development Plan. Central Sichuan Roads Development Project in the PRC, Sichuan Provincial Communications Dept. 2005
Sichuan, from CPIRC
Ethnic Composition and Distribution in 2007, from Sichuan Provincial People's Government
by specific ethnic group Article Bai, from Ethnic China
Article Baima, from Ethnic China
Article Baoan, from Ethnic China
Article Deang, from Ethnic China
Article Dongxiang, from Ethnic China
Article Gelao, from Ethnic China
Chung Yoon Ngan, The Arrival of the Hakkas in Sichuan
The Hui : China's most Loyal Muslims, from CPA Media
Article Hui, from Wikipedia
Article Jin Chinese, from Wikipedia
Article Moso, from Ethnic China
Article Pumi, from Ethnic China
Article Rong People, from Wikipedia
Article Qiang, from Ethnic China
Article Sani, from Ethnic China
Article She, from Ethnic China
Article Tangut, from Wikipedia
Article Tibetan, from Ethnic China
Article Tujia, from Ethnic China
Article Yi, from Ethnic China
Religion General R.A. Eddy, Heresy and orthodoxy in Song dynasty China (960-1279 C.E.), thesis McGill 2008
D. Lin, History of Chinese Thought, 2007
Archaic R.H. Chang, Understanding Di and Tian: Deity and Heaven from Shang to Tang Dynasties, Sino-Platonic Papers 108, 2000
S.M. Lian, The Sui, Fu, Yu, and Bai sacrifice ceremonies recorded indivination inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty, thesis Hong Kong 1996
C.Y. Tse, The rain-making sacrifice of the Zhou Dynasty, thesis Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology 2012
L.A. Lindgren, Shamanism and Chinese goddesses : Xi wangmu and Nugua, thesis Oslo 2010
L. Wallace, Chasing the beyond: Depictions of hunting in Eastern Han dynasty tomb reliefs (25-220 CE) from Shaanxi and Shanxi, thesis Pittsburgh 2011
F. Marsili, Heaven is Empty: A Cross-Cultural Approach to Religion and Human Agency in Early Imperial China, thesis UC Berkeley 2011
T. Iiyama, Maintaining Gods in Medieval China. Temple Worship and Local Governance in North China under the Jin and Yuan
Buddhism Buddhist Studies, The Chinese Buddhist Schools
W. Lai, Buddhism in China: A Historical Survey
Monastic Asia, Mapping Buddhist Monasteries 200-1200 CE Project
Wikipedia : List of Buddhist Temples : China : Anhui, Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang, from Wikipedia, lists just a few temples per province
D.C. Waugh, Chronology of the Early History of Buddhism in China, 2000
S. Hu, Ch'an (Zen) Buddhism in China. Its History and Method, Philosophy East and West vol.3 no.1 (January, 1953) pp.3-24
E. Zürcher, The Buddhist Conquest of China. The Spread and Adaptation of Buddhism in Early Medieval China, 2007
Y.F. Zhou, A study of the Buddhist political ideology of emperor Yang of the Sui dynasty , thesis Singapore 2006
Bailin Temple in Zhaoxian (Hebei), Longxing Monastery in Zhengding (Hebei), Fu Qing Si on Mount Cangyan (Hebei), from Waymark
Gye-hwan (A.S. Chang), The Buddhist Faith of the Nobility in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, International Journal of Buddhist Thought & Culture February 2007, Vol.8, pp.61-74
D.K. Jordan, Tang Dynasty Persecutions of Buddhism
Y.T. Wang, The Transformations of Vaisravana - The Cult of Vaisravana in Khotan and Medieval China, thesis abstract & ToC Univ. of Macau 2012
X. Yu, Buddhists in China during the Korean War (1951-1953) 2008
Taoism Taoist Culture and Information Centre, General Presentation on Daoism, IA WM
J. Hardy, Taoism : Historical Development, Early Developments, Schisms and Sects, Exploration and Conquest, Missions and Expansion, Modern Age
J. Miller, A Short History of Daoism (2008), Daoist Studies
Article : History of Taoism, Wikipedia
M.Z. Du, Extraordinary women Daoists in China: past and present, thesis Univ. of Georgia 2006
L.C. Hsu, Tang before Tang Dynasty Taoism policy and Taoism control system research, thesis NSYSU 2010
Baiyunguan (White Cloud Taoist Temple) from Touch Beijing
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Neo-Daoism
Confucianism A.T. Wood, Politics and morality in northern Sung China: early Neo-Confucian views on obedience to authority, thesis Univ. of Washington 1981
Y. Zhu, The Evolution of the propitious rituals in Tang and Song China, thesis Singapore 2009
Z.H. Zhou, The Anti-Confucian Campaign during the Cultural Revolution, August 1966-January 1967 , thesis Univ. of Maryland 2011
Temple of Heaven, Beijing, Yonghe Gong, Beijing, Baiyun Guan, Beijing, from Sacred Destinations
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Neo-Confucian Philosophy
C. Ren, Wei Yuan and the Chinese Totalistic Iconoclasm. The Demise of Confucianism in Matter and in Form, 2011' Wei Yuan lived 1794-1857
Zoroastrianism U. Theobald, China Knowledge : Religions in China : Zoroastrianism
Manicheism U. Theobald, China Knowledge : Religions in China : Manicheism
Hinduism
Islam Muslims in China : A Brief History, by Pakhtoon
Beida Mosque, Botou Mosque, from Hebei Tour
Niu Jie Mosque, Beijing, from Sacred Destinations
Islam in China, Ethnic Powder Keg in Henan Province, from Qantara (2004)
Taiyuan Ancient Mosque, from China Culture
Xian Great Mosque, from Travel China Guide
Judaism The Virtual Jewish History Tour : China
Search Encyclopaedia Iranica for Kaifeng
Nestorian Chr. U. Theobald, China Knowledge : Religions in China : Nestorianism
Catholic Chr. Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : China, posted by Kirken i Norge
Metropolitan Archdiocese of Anqing, Beijing, Chongqing, Hankou, Hangzhou, Kaifeng, Lanzhou, Nanjing, Taiyuan, Xi'an, Diocese of Anguo, Baoding, Bengbu, Chengdu, Daming, Datong, Fengxiang, Fenyang, Haimen, Hanyang, Hanzhong, Hongdong, Jiading, Jingxian, Kangding, Laohekou, Lishui, Lu'an, Luoyang, Ningbo, Ningxia, Ningyuan, Pingliang, Puqi, Quizhou, Sanyuan, Shinan, Shunqing, Shuozhou, Suifu, Suzhou, Taizhou, Tianjin, Wanxian, Wuchang, Wuhu, Xiangyang, Xianxian, Xinyang, Xuanhua, Xuzhou, Yan'an, Yichang, Yongjia, Yongping, Yuci, Zhaoxian, Zhengding, Zhouzhi, Zhumadian, Apostolic Prefecture of Jiangzhou, Lintong, Lizhou, Shashi, Suixian, Tongzhou, Tunxi, Xinxiang, Yangzhou, Yixian, from GCatholic
Article Vicariate Apostolic of Kiang Nan, from Wikipedia
Protestant Chr. M. Broomhall, The Chinese empire: a general & missionary survey (1907), IA
Th.J. Cochrane, Survey of the missionary occupation of China (1913), IA
History of Regions Administrative Division Provinces of China, from www.statoids.com; Prefectures of China, from www.statoids.com
Article : History of the Administrative Divisions of China before 1912, Wikipedia
Historic Regions
Frontier K.L. Ng, The Frontier Poetry of the T'ang Dynasty (618-907), thesis Hong Kong 1995
M. Lee, Conquest, Concord, and Consumption: Becoming Shang in Eastern China, thesis Univ. of Michigan 2008
C.Y. Yuen, Eunuchs and the consolidation of the North-eastern frontier during the period of Yongle (1403-1424), thesis Hong Kong 2007
H.P. Yen, Constructing the Chinese: Paleoanthropology and Anthropology in the Chinese Frontier, 1920-1950, thesis Harvard 2012
(Eastern) Wu Article : Eastern Wu, from Wikipedia S. China 222-280
The Wu Empire, from China Knowledge
Shu Han Article : Shu Han, from Wikipedia, Sichuan-Yunnan 221-263
B. Wang et al., The Spatial Analysis of Cultural Characteristics Between Taiwan and Fujian of China During Paleolithic and Neolithic Epoches Based on the Genes Atlas, Scientia Geographica Sinica 2012
Shu S. Rivest, Les Origines et les Transformations Institutionelles du Royaume de Shu (907-965), thesis McGill 2010
Historic Province
Modern Province
Shandong On the Periphery of a Great "Empire": Secondary Formation of States and Their Material Basis in the Shandong Peninsula during the Late Bronze Age, ca. 1000-500 B.C.E, thesis Columbia 2013
Sichuan K.P. Landdeck, Under the Gun: Nationalist Military Service and Society in Wartime Sichuan, 1938-1945, thesis UC Berkeley 2011
Q.D. Javers, Conflict, community and crime in fin-de-siecle Sichuan, thesis Stanford 2012
Charles A. Peterson, Corruption Unmasked: Yuan Chen's Investigations in Szechwan, in Asia Major vol.18 pt.1 1973
Treasures from a Lost Civilization : Ancient Chinese Art from Sichuan, exhibition Seattle Art Museum 2001
E.W. Wallace, The Heart of Sz-Chuan (1903), IA
O/L/ Kilborn, Our West China mission : being a somewhat extensive summary by the missionaries on the field of work during the first twenty-five years of the Canadian Methodist mission in the province of Szechwan, Western China (1920), IA
A. Anor, Dawn over Chungking (1941), IA
J.J. Zhao et al., The Eastern Kingdom of Women in Tang China (Sichuan)
S. Chen, Native Incumbency and Elite Networks in Song Dynasty Sichuan: Evidence of the Turn of the Mid-Eleventh Century from China Biographical Database (CBDB) 2008
Local History General Treaty Ports, Foreign Concessions & Colonies in 1920es China, list compiled by Phil Abbey
Deutsche Seewarte, Die wichtigsten Häfen Chinas, 1901
The History and the Future of Wuhan as an International City, by Chen Feng (2005)
C.C. Lau, A study of livelihood and city policy in Chang'an, the capital of Tang dynasty (618-907), thesis Hong Kong 2005
A Brief History of Tianjin, 1860-1949, from Discover Tianjin
Institutions Structurae : Shandong, Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, Henan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Hubei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Sichuan Province
K.W. Yip, The construction of the grand canal in the Sui Dynasty, thesis Hong Kong 2001
J.P. Rodrigue, The Geography of Transport Systems : The Grand Canal, 1998
Article : Beijing Renmin Guangbo Diantai (Radio Beijing), from Wikipedia
A Short Philatelic History of the Yangtse Patrol, by George Saqqal
Ancient Passes in Shanxi, summary of Chinese language article, posted on Shvoong
Culture General S.C. Zhao, Confucianism and other Scholastic Thoughts in the Spring-Autumn Period and their Impact on the Chinese Traditional Culture and Values, 2008
Religious Art Ohio State Univ., John C. and Susan L. Huntington Photographic Archive of Buddhist and Asian Art
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Thematic Essays : Chinese Art
Culinary Art
Textile Art The Dress and Personal Adornment Change In Change In Modern Shandong Province, summary of a Chinese language article, posted on Shvoong
Other M. Custers, Balancing Acts. Comparing political and cultural unification and persistence in the Roman Empire during the Principate and the Western Han Empire, thesis Utrecht 2009
Y.T. Wong, The orientation of Han Chinese intellectuals after the collapse of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) , thesis Hong Kong 2003
J.Y. Bai, A Study of Warring States Period to Han Dynasty Initial Period Mohism, thesis NSYSU 2010
Anhui Troupes and the Birth of Peking Opera, from Confucius Institute Online
Ceramics of the Three Kingdoms, the Western and the Eastern Jin Dynasty, the Southern and the Northern Dynasties, from The Pottery Gallery
U. Theobald, China Culture, The 'Phags-pa script, Yuan (cr. 1269)
L.P. Leong, History of Asian Art : Chinese Calligraphy
Biographies U. Theobald, China Knowledge : Index of Persons
V.E. Manley, A Conservative Reformer in T'ang China: The Life and Thought of Han Yu (768-824), thesis Univ. of Arizona 1986
C.M. Wang, The Life and Career of Hung Ch'eng-Ch'ou (1593-1665): Public Service in a Time of Dynastic Change, thesis Univ. of Arizona 1984
J. Zhang, Spider Manchu : Duanfang as networker and spindoctor of the late Qing new policies, 1901-1911, thesis UC San Diego 2008
A.S. Chao, Chen Duxiu's early years: The importance of personal connections in the social and intellectual transformation of China 1895-1920, thesis Rice 2009
M.Y. Ip, From Qing reformer to twentieth-century publisher: the life and times of Zhang Yuanji 1867-1959, thesis Auckland 1983
Environmental History General, Links Univ. of Oregon, Environment China, contains a number of texts on environmental topics in history
Climate Zones Köppen Climate Classification : BSk Cold semi-arid climates, Cwa, Cfa Humid subtropical climate, Dwa Humid continental climate, Wikipedia
Ecoregions WWF Ecoregions : Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests, Southeastern China, Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World : Sichuan Basin Evergreen Broadleaf Forests, Qilian Mountains Conifer Forests, Qilian Mountains Subalpine Meadows, Southeast Tibet Shrub and Meadows, from World Wildlife
WWF Ecoregions : Temperate Coniferous Forests, Hengduan Shan Coniferous Forests, Temperate Grasslands, Savannas and Shrublands, Daurian Steppe, from WWF Panda
ChinaMaps, China Land Cover Map (Vegetation Zones)
J.Y. Fang et al., Vegetation-Climate Relationship and its Application in the Division of Vegetation Zone in China, Acta Botanica Sinica 2002 (9) pp.1105-1122
Article : Loess Plateau, Wikipedia
Land Use, Deforestation H.C. Wang, Deforestation and Desiccation in China. A Preliminary Study, n.d.
A.R. Weisskopf, Vegetation, agriculture and social change in late Neolithic China: a phytolith study , thesis UCL 2010
Y.Q. Zhang, Deforestation and Forest Transition: Theory and Evidence in China, pp.41-65 in M. Palo et al. (eds), World Forests from Deforestation to Transition ? 2000
C. MacCain, Soil changes after afforestation in Yellow River loess : a case study in Gansu Province, People's Republic of China, 1987
River Management Yellow River changed its route, from China the Beautiful
L. Zhang, The Chinese State and the Political History of the Yellow River. A Comparison of Two Episodes, draft, 2012
R. Cowen, Exploiting the Earth, Ch XX: Huanghe, the Yellow River
Yellow River's Water and Sediment Discharge Decreasing Steadily, Transaction American Geophysical Union 79/48 1998 pp.589-592
River, Delta and Continental Margins Research Center, list of publications, many on the Yellow Sea
Z. Kaczmarek, Human Impact on Yellow River Water Management, 1998
C.Y. Cheng, Control of the Yellow River in China, thesis CalTech 1924 (23 pages, unpaginated)
Q.H. Ye et al., Spatial-temporal characteristics in landscape evolution of the Yellow River Delta during 1855-2000 and a way out for the Yellow River estuary, Chinese Science Bulletin 2006 vol.51 Supp. pp.197-209
B. Lander, Writing the Environmental Histoty of the Yellow River Region from the Zhou to the Han: Sources and Methodological Problems, thesis McGill 2006
Specific Periods D. Sarabia, Dark Age Phases as Periods of Ecological Crisis: an Analysis of the Interplay Between Economy, Nature, and Culture in East Asia (China), thesis Oklahoma State 2004
H.L. Tsai, A Study of the Fu on Hunting in the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), thesis Hong Kong 2000
Y.F. Wang, Climate change and its ecological and socioeconomic impact evidence from China's historical document for Qing dynasty, thesis Rutgers 2010
X.M. Qi et al., Expansion of Urban Area in the Yellow River Zone, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, from DMSP OLS Nighttime Lights Data, n.d.
J.B. Zhao, Desert-steppe migration on the Loess Plateau at about 450 kaBP, Journal of Geographical Sciences 15 (1) 2005 pp.115-122
M.L. Zhao, Grassland Resource and its Situation in Inner Mongolia, China 2005
C.C. Huang et al., Charcoal records of fire history in the Holocene loess-soil sequences over the southern Loess Plateau of China, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 239 (2006) pp.28-44
Environmental Policy P.G. Harris, Environmental Perspectives and Behavior in China. Synopsis and Bibliography, Environment and Behavior, vol.38 no.1, January 2006 pp.5-21
K. Morton, China and the Global Environment, 2009
EEMP, Loess Watershed Rehabilitation Project
J. Mackendon, Scaling up in Agriculture, Rural Development, and Nutrition. Rehabiliting China's Loess Plateau, IFPRI 2012
Negotiations and Impacts. Water Policy across China's Loess Plateau
Archaeology General The Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR)
by Province
Gansu Y.H. Wang, Neolithic Fishing-Hunting Economy in the Yellow Valley, Huaxia Archaeology (China) 1992(2) pp.81-88, Engl. trsl. n.d.
Henan X.Y. Ren, Huangtucheng regional archaeological survey, thesis Univ. of Georgia 2008, on the upper Huai River region of China from 5000 B.C. to A.D. 220
Shaanxi W.J. Zhao, Source of raw material of the pottery warriors in Qinshihuang Mausoleum pits K0006 and K0007, Chinese Physics C 32 2008
Shandong Dawenkou Culture, summary of a Chinese language article, posted on Shvoong
Shanxi T. Chung, The Upper Palaeolithic of North China - Chaisi Locality 7701, n.d.
Sichuan L.E. Mengoni, Changing cultural and social identities in a border area: the case of Pre-Imperial and early Imperial Sichuan (V-I cent. BC), thesis UCL 2004
R.W. Flad et al., The Chengdu Plain Archaeology Project - Surveying Rice Paddies in the Search for the Origins of Sanxingdui, abstract from SEAA Web
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Lists of Statesmen China Knowledge, Emperors and Rulers : Han, Cao Wei, Wu, Shu Han
Provinces and administrative divisions of China, from World Statesmen
China Administrative Divisions, from rulers.org
Population Figures China, historical population statistics by province, from Population Statistics, posted at Univ. Utrecht
UNESCAP Chinadata Shandong
Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, Henan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Hubei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Ningxia, Gansu, Sichuan
City Populations : China, Shandong, Hebei, Henan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Hubei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Ningxia, Gansu, Sichuan
PRC, Abortions and Live Births by Region, Historical Data, from Johnston's Archive
Database of the Basic Conditions of Family Planning Programme at CIPRC (Text on Demography, 1999) Shandong, Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, Henan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Hubei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Ningxia, Gansu, Sichuan
World Life Expectancy, Country Health Profile : China
Documents Historical Newspapers Univ. of Oregon, Translations of the Peking Gazette
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Historical Chinese Postcard Project, 1896-1920
Archival Deposits Ricci Roundtable : American Presbyterians
Library of Congress, H.J. Wiens Collection
China deposits (Jewish communities Tientsin, Shanghai), at Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Inscriptions
Oral History
Consular Reports Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, China, Hankow Sept. 24 1915, IA; Dec. 29 1917, IA
Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, China, Chungking, Nov. 16 1918, IA
Chinese Trade Reports China Hai guan zong shui wu si shu Reports on Trade at the Treaty Ports (1868), , 1869, 1871 IA
Historiography Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian, trsl. B. Watson, Han Dynasty I Shi Ji 7 : The Basic Annals of Ziang Yu, pp.9-48
Document Surveys J.L. Kurz, The Historical Sources for the Five Dynasties and Ten States in Song Times, Sung-Yuan Studies 33 2003 pp.187-224; Internet Archive Wayback Machine
T. Zhang, Using On-line Public Digital Libraries and Free Databases for Research on Late Imperial China, 2011
Document Collections Internet East Asian History Sourcebook
Wikisource
Individual Documents Emperor Kuang Hsu : Attempted Reforms, 1898, from East Asian History Sourcebook
DBQs Asia for Educators; site providing numerous DBQs on Chinese history
Historical Maps Hindsight, Asia Map of the Chinese Neolithic, Wikipedia
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 550 B.C., 527 BC, 500 BC, 400 BC, 335 BC, 323 BC, 300 BC, 200 BC, 100 BC, 050 BC, 050 AD, 200 AD, 300 AD, 400 AD, 450 AD, 565 AD, 600 AD, 610 AD, 900 AD, 1000 AD, 1025 AD, 1100 AD, 1200 AD, 1300 AD, 1400 AD, 1500 AD, Asia 700 AD, 800 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Hindsight, China Minneapolis Institute of Arts, The Arts of Asia, Chinese Dynasty Guide : History & Maps
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Map of China in/during Prehistory, Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han and Xin, Three Kingdoms, Jin, 16 Barbarian States, Southern Dynasties, Northern Dynasties, Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, Song, Liao, Jin, Western Xia, Yuan, Ming, Qing
Cultural China, History of China, provides numerous, mostly Chinese language maps featuring China at specific historic eras; gives reference : "All the historical maps about China published here come from the internet"
P. Buckley Ebrey et al., A Visual Sourcebook on Chinese Civilization, has numerous maps on specific historical periods
Wikipedia, Map of the Three Kingdoms, by Yu Ninjie
China : Eastern Jin (Chinese text), from Wikimedia
Map : Eastern Jin 376, from Wikimedia
Contemporary, China Map : Languages of China, from Titus
Muturzikin, Asian Linguistic Maps : China
Hindsight, Detail Sichuan & Nanzhao Plateau, from Muturzikin
Contemporary, Detail Map featuring western Shandong (Madrolle 1912), posted by PCL, UTexas
Map featuring Jinan (Madrolle 1912), posted by PCL, Utexas
Map featuring Jinan (Imperial Japanese Govt. 1915), posted by PCL, UTexas
Map featuring Jinan's trading quarter (Imperial Japanese Govt. 1915), posted by PCL, UTexas
Map of Qingdao (Tsingtau; Madrolle 1912), posted by PCL, UTexas
Map of Qufu (Madrolle 1912), posted by PCL, UTexas
Map of Yantai (Madrolle 1912), posted by PCL, UTexas
Map : Shandong administrative, from Wikipedia
Map : Languages of China, from Titus
Map : Shan-Tung 1906 , from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
Historical maps of Hebei, posted by PCL, UTexas, scroll down for Beijing, Northern China, Tianjin
Map : Languages of China, from Titus
Map : Peking and Environs 1906, Peking 1922, Peiping 1932, from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
Hankow with Hanyang and Wuchang 1915, posted by PCL, UTexas
Historical /A> Secular
Encyclopedia Entries on Provinces Articles Shan-Tung, Chih-Li, Kiang-Su, Cheh-Kiang, Ngan-Hui, Hu-Peh, Ho-Nan, Shan-Si, Shen-Si, Sze-Chuen, Kan-Suh, EB 1911, posted by Classic Encyclopedia, IA-WM
Article Schantung, Tsinan, Tschifu, Petschili, Honan, from Meyers Konversationslexikon Kiangsu, Tschekiang, Nganhui, Hupei, Schansi, Schensi, Kansu, Setschuan, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek
Article Schantung, Tschili, Kiangsu, Tschekiang, Nganhwei, Hupe, Schansi, Schensi, Kansu, Sze'tschwan, from Meyers Grosses Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, in German, posted by Zeno
Articles Pe-tschili, Schensi, Schansi, from Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, in German, posted by Zeno
Article
on Cities Articles Chi-Fu (Chefoo), Wei-Hai-Wei, Peking, Tientsin, K'ai-Feng-Fu, Nanking, Su-Chow, Hu-Chow-Fu, Hang-Chow-Fu, Ning-Po, Hankow, Si-Gan-Fu, Lan-Chow-Fu, EB 1911, posted by Classic Encyclopedia, IA-WM
Article Tsinan, Tschifu, Peking, Kaiping, Tientsin, Nanking, Wentschou, Hangtschou, Ningpo, Wuhu, Lantschau, Hankeou from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German; posted by Retro Bibliothek
Article Tsinanfu, Tschifu, Kiautschou, Tsingtau, Weihsien, Itschoufu, Wei-hai-wei, Peking, Kaiping, Tientsin, Kaiföng, Kiangnan, Liangkiang, Nanking, Schanghai, Sutschoufu, Tschingkiang, Tsungming, Yang-tscheu-fu, Hangtschou, Ningpo, Nganking, Wuhu, Kiangnan, Liangkiang, Hankou, Kantschou, Kumbum, Kuntschang, Lantschou, Sining, from Meyers Grosses Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, in German, posted by Zeno
Articles Peking, Tientsin, from Stefan Ankjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg
Articles Peking, Tschingtin, Tong-tscheu, Siüan-hua-fu, Ten-tscheu-su, Loyang, Kuetefu, Kaifonfu, from Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, in German, posted by Zeno
Religious
Economic
Geographical
Core China pp.1-78, 81-84, in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1827, GB
pp.128-214 in vol.7 of E. Reclus, The Universal Geography : Earth and its Inhabitants, [1876-1894] IA
pp.5-59, 69-89, 125-135 in C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), IA (includes data of 1913)
Indiv. Provinces
Ethnological
Historical
Tour Guides Claudius Madrolle, Northern China, the valley of the Blue River, Korea (1912), IA
Travelogues
Resident Memoirs
Institutions Archives China Archives Information on the Web, scroll down for Hebei
First Historical Archives of China, Beijing, from East Asian Libraries and Archives
Musea Forbidden City, The Palace Museum
China Museums, scroll down for Shandong, Beijing, Hebei, Tianjin, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Ninghsia-Uyghur, Sichuan, Hubei, Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang
Monuments Showcaves : China
Sculptural Portraits of Zheng He of the Ming Dynasty: Further Study of Coloured Sculptures Unearthed, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
Mansion, Temple and Cemetery of Confucius in Qufu, summary of Chinese language aricle, posted on Shvoong
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms K.L. Ho, The Myth of the Seal Transmitting the State in the Yuan and Qing Dynasties , New History 2012
Coins, Banknotes L. Roberts, Chinese Coins
Oriental Coins Database
T. de Lacouperie et al., Catalogue of Chinese coins from the VIIth cent. B.C., to A.D. 621 1892, IA
Three Kingdoms Period
220-280 CE
Coin History - the Three Kingdoms, from Chinese Coins
Wu Dynasty, from Three Kingdoms Coins
Shu Han Dynasty Coins, from Three Kingdoms
Ten Kingdoms Period
907-979 CE
Provincial Coinage Exonumismatics, Silver Dollars and Taels of China, has provincial coinage
Dragon Dollar & Chinese Coins, has provincial coinage
Civil War Era
1927-1949

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies University of Maine at Farmington, China Bibliography
Hmong Studies Research Bibliographies : Hmong in China
Bibliography of Western Language Publications : Three Kingdoms, from Early Medieval China Group
Association of East Asian Environmental History, Publications
H. Scott, Hainan References in English
N. Sivin, Selected, Annotated Bibliography of the History of Chinese Science and Medicine Sources in Western Languages
Daoist Studies, Bibliography
Colin Jeffcott, Confucianism - a Bibliography (until Song)
Royal Asiatic Society, China Branch, Shanghai, Library
Academia.edu, Documents in Tang Dynasty, Song Dynasty, Liao Dynasty 907-1127, Jin Dynasty 1115-1134, Yuan Dynasty,
Online Libraries Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Hong Kong University Theses Online, titles in English, most theses in Chinese
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
IA CASS, Kaogu 2005-2012; English language abstracts
IA CASS, Chinese Archaeology 2001-, English Version, Tables of Contents
IA CASS, Nanfangwenwu (Cultural Relics of Southern China) 2006- Tables of Contents
Cross Currents. East Asian History and Culture Review 2011-
Hmong Studies Journal 1996-
Academia Sinica, Chinese Environmental History Newsletters vol.1.1 1994, vol.1.2 1994, vol.2.1 1995, vol.2.2 1995, vol.3.1 1996, vol.3.2 1996
Early Medieval China, index accessible, requires registration
Sung-Yuan Studies, 1970-
Ming Studies 1975-2013
The Silk Road Journal, since 2003
Journal of Northeast Asian History (since 2004)
The Chinese Historical Review (1987) 2004-
Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 2001-
General Accounts
Specific Topics Tim Wright, Coal mining in China's economy and society, Cambridge : UP 1984 [B]
Historical Dictionaries Michael Dillon, China, a Cultural and Historical Dictionary, Richmond (Surrey) : Curzon 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 951.003 D579c
James S. Olson, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China, Westport CT : Greenwood 1998 [G]
Michael Dillon, Dictionary of Chinese History, Bournemouth : Frank Cass 1979 [G]
Historical Atlasses