History by Country . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . HI . JK . L . M . N . OP . QR . S . TUV . WXYZ

First posted on November 20th 2006, last revised on February 21st 2009






For the History of China 1911-1949 see Republic of China, since 1949 see People's Republic of China
Other successor states : Taiwan, Mongolia, Tannu Touva, Korea, French Indochina (for Tonking, Annam), Tibet

Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
Yuan Dynasty 1227-1368
Song Dynasty, Jin Dynasty, Western Xia, Nanzhao
Song Dynasty, Liao Dynasty, Western Xia, Nanzhao
Five Dynasties and 10 Kingdoms : Later Liang Dynasty, Later Tang Dynasty, Later Jin Dynasty, Later Han Dynasty, Later Zhou Dynasty, Wu, Wuyue, Min, Chu, Southern Han, Former Shu, Later Shu, Jingnan, Southern Tang, Northern Han, Yan, Qi, Chengde Jiedushi, Yiwu Jiedushi, Dingnan Jiedushi, Wuping Jiedushi, Qingyuan Jiedushi, Yin, Ganzhou, Shazhou, Liangzhou, Jin
Tang Dynasty 618-907, Nanzhao
Sui Dynasty 581-618
Northern Dynasties 386-589, Southern Dynasties 420-589
Sixteen Kingdoms : Eastern Jin, Chouchi 296-443/473, Former Zhao / Han 304-329, Cheng-Han 304-347, Former Liang 314-376, Later Zhao / Ran-Wei 319-353, Former Yan 337-370, Former Qin 351-395, Later Qin 384-417, Western Yan 384-394, Later Yan 384-409, Western Qin 385-431, Later Liang 386-403 , Southern Liang 397-414, Southern Yan 398-410, Northern Liang 398-439/460, Western Liang 400-421, Xia 407-431, Northern Yan 409-436, Wei
Western Jin 280-317
Three Kingdoms : Cao Wei 220-265, Shu Han 221-263, Wu 222-280
Eastern Han 25-220
Xin 8-22
Western Han 206 B.C. - 8 A.D.
Qin 221-206
Warring States 475-221 : Eastern Zhou, Chu, Han, Lu, Qi, Qin, Shu, Song, Teng, Wei, Yan, Yue, Zhao, Zhongshan
Spring and Autumn 770-403 : Eastern Zhou, Cai, Cao, Chen, Chu, Hua, Jin, Lu, Qi, Qin, Shu, Song, Teng, Wei, Wu, Xu, Yan, Yu, Yue, Zhao, Zheng
Western Zhou 11th C.-770
Shang 17th C.-11th C.
Xia 20th C.-16th C.


Demographic History of China
Historical Atlas : China, Macau, Hong Kong, Taiwan
List of Wars : China

Timeline History of East Asia (more general)
Historical Dictionary East Asia (general)
Biographies : East Asia (general)

History by Province : Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tibet, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang
For Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang see Manchuria
Former foreign colonies / leased territories / concessions in China : Macau, Hong Kong, Kiautschou, Kwangchowan, Kwantung, Port Arthur, Shanghai, Weihaiwei
Taiwan


Students' Papers : Kim, Sun Hoo, Namecalling Used by the People's Republic of China in its Modern National Historiography (2010)
Students' Papers : Kim, Young Yoon, Slavery in Imperial China (2009)
Students' Papers : Ko, Young Kon, The Changing View of Confucius in Chinese History. From Ancient China to Communist China (2009)
Students' Papers : Kim, Do-Gyun, Old Cities : Beijing and Nanjing in Historic Encyclopedias (2009)
Students' Papers : Park, Keuk Ryul, Sino-Korean Relations as Portrayed in European Encyclopedias 1771-1930 (2009)
Students' Papers : Lim, Seung Hwan : History of China's Open Ports (2009)
Students' Papers : Kim, Min Woo : The Coverage of the Sepoy Rebellion and the Boxer Rebellion in Historic Encyclopedias (2009)
Students' Papers : Suh, Hee-won: History of Water Management in China (2008)
Students' Papers : Sung, Min Kyung: Industrialization and China until 1949 (2008)
Students' Papers : Lee, Jong Wha: History of Transportation in China (2008)
Students' Papers : Lee, Si-eun : History of Indian and Chinese Coolies and their Descendants (2008)
Students' Papers : Park, HyoSong : Premodern Chinese Food. Chinese Culinary History before the Republic of China (2008)
Students' Papers : Ko, Young Kon, Academic History of China and Korea before 1800 (2008)
Students' Papers : Chung, Habin : Economic Factors in Chinese Rebellions of the 19th Century (2005)






DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Articles Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty, Qing Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Library of Congress Country Studies : China
Links, General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from dmoz; from Internet Guide for Chinese Studies (Virtual Library China); Links on China (chapter on Ch. History) from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
List of China-related topics, from Wikipedia
Links, on History from IGCS; from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
Historical Dictionary Encyclopedia of China, from Jongo Knows
Historical Maps see here
Links, from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
Albert Herrmann, History and Commercial Atlas of China (1935), posted by huhai.net
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 550 B.C., Eastern Hemisphere 527 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 500 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 400 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 335 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 323 BC, Easern Hemisphere 300 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 200 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 100 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 050 BC, Parthian Empire 001 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 050 AD, Kushan Empire, 100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 450 AD, Hephtalite Empire and Hunas, 500 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 565 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 600 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 610 AD, Asia 700 AD, Asia 800 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 900 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1000 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1025 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Timelines from www.timelines.ws : to 1925
Timeline of Chinese-European Cultural Relations, posted by Institute of Asian Affairs, Hamburg
Chronologie Chine, from Clio, in French
Category : Years in China, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History Concise Political History of China, posted by Chinese Culture (CUNY); based on Comptons; from Chinapedia
Encyclopedia Entries Articles China, Peking, Shanghai, Canton, from EB 1911
Article China, from Jewish Encyclopedia (1906)
Article China, from CatholicEncyclopedia (1907)
Article China, Peking, Schanghai, Kanton, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1889, in German
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Canton, China, posted by DTBSWS
Ch. Pope, The yearly journal of trade, 1837-8 : comprising laws of customs and excise, treaties and conventions with foreign powers, tariffs of United Kingdom, Russia, Monte Video ... parliamentary speeches and papers, proclamations, orders in Council and of government boards, reports of law cases, translations of foreign documents (1838), posted on Internet Archive, on China pp.280-283
E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for China
Article : Chinesische Eisenbahnen, from Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens (Encyclopedia of Railroads) 2nd ed. 1912-1923, in German
Military see here
China Relief Expedition 1900-1901, from Naval Historical Center
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : China; Economic History of Premodern China, from Economic History Encyclopedia
The Economic History and the Economy of China, by Thayer Watkins
350 Years of Chinese Textiles, by Robert Oliver
Law, Commerce and Knowledge in 18th-20th Century China : An Institutional Perspective on "The Great Divergence", by Debin Ma
Quantitative Growth, Qualitative Standstill : China's Economic Situation 1368-1800, Part 1, Part 2, Bibliography, by James Graham
China's Growing Trade with European Ships 1517-1800, by James Graham
Harriet T. Zumdorfer, Social Networks, Legal Loopholes and Innovating Enterprises - The Successful Chinese Family Firm in the Late Qing and Republican Era (1890-1937). A Rebuttal to Chandler, IEHC 2006
Philip R. Abbey, Treaty POrts and Extraterritoriality in 1920s China
Ethnography Languages of China (236), from Ethnologue
Wikipedia Articles : Autonomous Areas of China, List of Ethnic Groups in China; articles on individual minorities linked here
China, from World Cultures Encyclopedia
The Hakka People, from OCAC
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : China, from Kirken i Norge
China, from The Jewish Virtual History Tour; China, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
China's Christian History, by Charles Homer
Patron Saint Index : China
Chinese Religions, from Overview of World Religions
Lewis Hodus, Buddhism and Buddhists in China
History of Regions see History of Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Heilongjiang, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Manchuria, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shansi, Sichuan, Tibet, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang at this site
Provinces of the PRC, Prefectures of the PRC, from www.statoids.com
History of Cities History of Beijing (Peking), by Lee Min Ju (at this site), from china.org, from Wikipedia
History of Tianjin (Tientsin), from Wikipedia
History of Shanghai, at this site, from Wikipedia
History of Nanjing (Nanking), from Wikipedia
History of Guangzhou (Canton), from Wikipedia
Institutions Article Rail Transport in the PRC, from Wikipedia
History of the Educational System of China, by D. Surowski
Article Zongli Yamen, from Wikipedia
Article Imperial Examinations, from Wikipedia
Bibliography Links : Books on Chinese History, from Asia Source
Bibliography of Photo-Albums and Materials related to Photography in China and Tibet before 1949, by Thomas H. Hahn
China Bibliography. Collection of Resources, posted by University of Maine at Farmington
Studies of Modern Chinese History : Reviews and Essays
Search ISBN Database for China
Scholarship Editions
Others Backgrounder : Sino-British Relations, from Chinese Embassy London
China, from Tram Views of Asia
Biographies List of Famous Chinese, from Wikipedia

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel)
China, from Regnal Chronologies
Lists of Ambassadors Sveriges beskickningschef i Kina, from Wikipedia Swedish edition; List of U.S. Ambassadors to China, from NNDB Embajadores de Mexico en China, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico
Population Figures China, from Population Statistics
Document Collections Links to sources, from UWashington Library
Documents : China, from CEAS, from UCLA Center for East Asian Studies
Internet East Asian History Sourcebook
Chinese History Documents, from John Fairbank Memorial Chinese History Virtual Library
Chinese History : Government Documents, posted by R.R. Wertz
Verfassungen des Chinesischen Reichs, from verfassungen.de, texts of 1908 and 1911, in German
Foreign Office (British) : Correspondence Respecting the Insurrectionary Movement in China (1901), posted on Internet Archive
Search Scripophily for China
Search Prassi Italiana di Dirito Internazionale, Indice delle leggi e degli altri atti normativi, for Cina, 55 entries, in Italian
Archives, Musea, Libraries Repositories of Primary Sources : Asia : China, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 9 entries
UNESCO Archives Portal : National Archives Asia Pacific, has one entry for China (Nov. 20th 2006), scroll down; has also 12 entries on provincial, 31 entries on municipal level
UNESCO Archives Portal : State and Regional Archives, 1 entry for Taiwan
Libraries in China, from LibDex, 23 entries
China Museums, indexed by province
National Symbols Flags, by Phil Abbey
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of China, from World Currency Gallery, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; Chinese Banknotes, from Numismondo; Pre Qing, Qing Dynasty, from Zeno
Coins of the Chinese Empire, from Zeno; Chinese Coinage Website by Vladimir Belyaev
World Coin Catalogue : Ancient China
Stamps China Stamps, Chinese States, from Sandafayre Stamp Library
Others Historical Chinese Postcard Project (Lyon); China Postcard Collection
Historic Postcards from China, Historic Stereoscopic Cards from China, posted by M.A. Martelli
Historical Photographs Online (China), from Finding Images of East Asia at Harvard and Beyond (links)
Photos of Bound Feet, posted by Jeff Bloom
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, from collect.at, commercial site

PRINTED REFERENCE
Online Libraries Project Gutenberg, Online Catalogue; Internet Archive
NACRP Research Library
General Accounts Article China, pp.36-231 in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., Macropaedia, vol.16, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862n
J.H. Gray, The Chinese Empire, Past and Present (1900), posted on Internet Archive
S.W. Wells, The Middle Kingdom : a survey of the geography, government, education, social life, arts, and history of the Chinese Empire and its inhabitants (1882), posted on Internet Archive
J.A. Whitney, The Chinese, and the Chinese question (1888), posted on Internet Archive
F.L.H. Pott, A Sketch of Chinese History (1908), posted on Internet Archive
D.C. Boulger, History of China (1881), vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
The Break-up of China: With an Account of Its Present Commerce, Currency, Waterways, Armies .. (1899), posted on Internet Archive
General History David C. Wright, The History of China, Westport CT : Greenwood 2001, KMLA ib.Sign. 951 W947h
Gilbert Rozman (ed.), The Modernization of China, NY : the Free Press 1981, KMLA Lib.Sign. 951 R893m
Edwin E. Moise, Modern China. A History, London : Longman (1986) 1996, KMLA Lib.Sign. 951.05 M714m
E.R. Lyman, Chronological Tables of the Chinese Dynasties: (From the Chow Dynasty to the Ch'ing Dynasty) (1900), posted on Internet Archive
J. MacGowan, The imperial history of China, being a history of the empire as compiled by the Chinese historians (1906), posted on Internet Archive
Politics, Diplomacy W.F. Mayers, The Chinese Government: A Manual of Chinese Titles, Categorically Arranged .. (1886), posted on Internet Archive
C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), posted on Internet Archive
A. Anderson, A Narrative of the British Embassy to China (1793), posted on Internet Archive
G. Staunton, An Authentic Account of an Embassy from the King of Great Britain to the Emperor of China, (1793), Vol.1, Vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
Henry, Ellis, Journal of the Proceedings of the Late Embassy to China (1818), posted on Internet Archive
A journal of the first French embassy to China, 1698-1700, tr. by S. Bannister (1859), posted on Internet Archive
A. Moges, Recollections of Baron Gros's Embassy to China and Japan in 1857-58 (1860), posted on Internet Archive
H.B. Baron Loch, Personal narrative of occurrences during Lord Elgin's second embassy to China (1860), posted on Internet Archive
H.B. Morse, The international relations of the Chinese empire (1900), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive
S. W. Williams, Our Relations with the Chinese Empire (1877), posted on Internet Archive
(U.S. Foreign Office), Treaties and agreements with and concerning China, 1894-1919; a collection of state papers, private agreements, and other documents, in reference to the rights and obligations of the Chinese Government in relation to foreign powers, and in reference to the interrelation of those powers in respect to China, during the period from the Sino-Japanese War to the conclusion of the World War of 1914-1919 (1921), posted on Internet Archive
T. White, The war in the East : Japan, China, and Corea : a complete history of the war (1895), posted on Internet Archive
B.L. Putnam Weale, Indiscreet Letters from Peking (1907), posted on Internet Archive
Economic, Social History Philip Richardson, Economic Change in China c.1800-1950, Cambridge UP 1999, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 330.952 R521e
F.H.H. King, A Concise Economic History of Modern China, N.Y. : Praeger 1969 [G]
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Ostindien, China und Japan, vol.2 1830 pp.3-29, China vol.4 1844 pp.239-251, posted by DTBSWS
Finances . Ottomar Haupt, Währungs-Politik und Münz-Statistik, Berlin : Walther & Apolant 1884, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Ferner Osten
J. Edkins, The revenue and taxation of the Chinese empire (1903), posted on Internet Archive
Gold standard in international trade : report on the introduction of the gold-exchange standard into China, the Philippine Islands, Panama, and other slver-using countries, and on the stability of exchange (1905), posted on Internet Archive
Treaty Ports . A. Wright, Twentieth century impressions of Hong-kong, Shanghai, and other Treaty Ports of China. Their history, people, commerce, industries, and resources (1908), posted on Internet Archive
China Hai guan zong shui wu si shu, Report on Trade at the Treaty Ports 1868, 1869, 1871, 1880, posted on Internet Archive
China inspectorate gen. of customs, Trade statistics of the treaty ports, for 1863-1872 (1873), posted on Internet Archive
E.S. Tai, Treaty Ports in China: A Study in Diplomacy (1918), posted on Internet Archive
Trade . C.J.G. and F. Rivington, Remarks on free trade to China (1830), posted on Internet Archive
J. Thompson, Considerations respecting the trade with China (1835), posted on Internet Archive
Th. H. Whitehead, The Expansion of Trade in China (1901), posted on Internet Archive
Handelsberichte der kaufmännischen Begleiter der Ostindischen Expedition (Mercantile Reports by Traders Accompanying the Prussian East Asian Expedition), Berlin : Königliche Geheime Ober-Druckerei 1861, in German, posted by DTBSWS : Fr. Wolff : China, pp.32-59; C. Jacob und Fr.W. Grube, China, pp.91-131
Nopitsch, Wilhelm Hermann, Kaufmännische Berichte, gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Welt mit der Kriegs-Corvette Galathea (Mercantile Reports, collected on a Journey on the War-Corvette Galathea in the Years 1845, 1846 and 1847), in den Jahren 1845, 1846 und 1847, Hamburg : Besser & Mauke 1849, in German, posted by DTBSWS, China pp.97-170
"Where Chineses drive." : English student-life at Peking (1885), posted on Internet Archive
S. W. Williams, A Chinese commercial guide : consisting of a collection of details and regulations respecting foreign trade with China, sailing directions, tables (1856), posted on Internet Archive
Tim Wright, Coal mining in China's economy and society, Cambridge : UP 1984 [B]
Social History U.S. Embassy in China, Progress of western education in China and Siam (1880), posted on Internet Archive
W.A.P. Martin, The Chinese: their education, philosophy, and letters (1881), posted on Internet Archive
Edwin John Dingle, Across China on Foot: Life in the Interior and the Reform Movement (1911), posted on Internet Archive
Yen Ching-Hwang, Coolies and Mandarins. China's Protection of Overseas Chinese during the Late Ch'ing Period (1851-1911), Singapore UP 1985 [G]
Specific Topics R.Ch. Jenkins, The Jesuits in China and the Legation of Cardinal de Tournon: An Examination of Conflicting .. (1884), posted on Internet Archive
Peking Gazette (1874), posted on Internet Archive
Robert Hart, "These from the land of Sinim." Essays on the Chinese question (1901), posted on Internet Archive
Military History China, pp.103-158, in : Eric R. Wolf, Peasant Wars of the Twentieth Century, NY : Harper Torchbooks 1968 [G]
Boxer Rebellion P.H. Clements, The Boxer rebellion; a political and diplomatic review (1915), posted on Internet Archive
The Boxer Rising : a history of the Boxer trouble in China (1901), posted on Internet Archive
R. Coltman, Beleaguered in Peking; the boxer's war against the foreigner (1901), posted on Internet Archive
Great Britain, Foreign Office, Correspondence respecting the insurrectionary movement in China (1899-1901), posted on Internet Archive
A.S. Krausse, The story of the Chinese crisis (1900), posted on Internet Archive
H.C. Thomson, China and the powers; a narrative of the outbreak of 1900 (1902), posted on Internet Archive
A.H.S. Landor, China and the allies (1901), vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
A.H. Henderson, China in Convulsion (1901), posted on Internet Archive
Taiping Rebellion Th.W. Blakiston, A. Barton, Five Months on the Yang-Tsze: And Notices of the Present Rebellions in China (1862), posted on Internet Archive
J. Scarth, Twelve years in China; the people, the rebels, and the mandarins (1860), posted on Internet Archive
J.M. Callery, History of the insurrection in China : with notices of the Christianity, creed, and proclamations of the insurgents (1853), posted on Internet Archive
A. Wilson, The "ever-victorious Army,": A History of the Chinese Campaign Under Lt. Col. C. G. Gordon (1868), posted on Internet Archive
Opium War 1839-1842 Y. Wei, Y. Wei, E.H. Parker, Chinese Account of the Opium War (1888), posted on Internet Archive
Th. de Quincey, The Opium Question in China in 1840 (1897), posted on Internet Archive
J. Ouchterlony, The Chinese war : an account of all the operations of the British forces from the commencement to the Treaty of Nanking (1844), posted on Internet Archive
J.E. Bingham, Narrative of the expedition to China, from the commencement of the war to its termination in 1842; with sketches of the manners and customs of the singular and hitherto almost unknown country (1843), posted on Internet Archive
Arrow War 1856-1860 E. Ringmar, The European Destruction of the Yuanmingyuan (2006), posted on Internet Archive
Th. de Quincey, the China Question in 1857 (1897), posted on Internet Archive
Sino-Japanese War . J. Inouye, A Concise history of the war between Japan and China (1895), posted on Internet Archive
Biographies J.O.P. Bland, Li Hung Chang (1917), posted on Internet Archive
W.F. Mannix, Memoirs of Li Hung Chang (1913), posted on Internet Archive
Li Hung-Chang's Scrap Book (1913), posted on Internet Archive
R.K. Douglas, Li Hungchang (1895), posted on Internet Archive
P.W. Sergeant, The Great Empress Dowager of China (1911), posted on Internet Archive
J. Wardle, General Gordon, Saint and Soldier (1904), posted by Gutenberg Library Online
J.M. MacKie, Life of Tai-ping-wang, chief of the Chinese insurrection (1857), posted on Internet Archive
W. Ayers, Chang Chih-tung and Educational Reform in China, Cambridge MA : Harvard UP 1971 [G]
Sources John van Antwerp MacMurray, Treaties and agreements with and concerning China, 1894-1919; a collection of state papers, private agreements, and other documents, in reference to the rights and obligations of the Chinese Government in relation to foreign powers, and in reference to the interrelation of those powers in respect to China, during the period from the Sino-Japanese War to the conclusion of the World War of 1914-1919 (1921), vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
W.F. Mayers, Treaties Between the Empire of China and Foreign Powers: Together with Regulations for .. 1877 edition, 1901 edition, posted on Internet Archive
E. Hertslet, Treaties, &c., Between Great Britain and China: And Between China and Foreign Powers .. (1896), posted on Internet Archive
K.F.A. Gützlaff (ed.), The life of Taou-kwang, late emperor of China: with memoirs of the court of Peking (1852), posted on Internet Archive
Atlasses Nathan Sivin (ed.), The Contemporary Atlas of China, Boston : Houghton Mifflin 1988 [G]
Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory, Atlas of the 620 Typhoons 1893-1918 (1920), posted on Internet Archive
Historical Dictionaries Michael Dillon, China, a Cultural and Historical Dictionary, Richmond (Surrey) : Curzon 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 951.003 D579c
Leung, Edwin Pak-Wah, Historical Dictionary of Revolutionary China 1839-1976, Westport CT : Greenwood 1992, KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 951 L653h
James S. Olson, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China, Westport CT : Greenwood 1998 [G]
Michael Dillon, Dictionary of Chinese History, Bournemouth : Frank Cass 1979 [G]