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Literature on the History of East Asia . Literature on the History of Central Asia
Core China
First posted on January 5th 2014






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Introduction . Prehistory . 206 BCE-552 CE . 552-907 . 907-1206 . 1206-1368 . 1368-1691 . 1691-1800 . 1800-1911 . 1911-1949 . since 1949




Introduction
The Gobi Region is a geographic region, here understood as comprising of the modern Chinese provinces of Gansu, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and of the Republic of Mongolia, as well as Buryat Mongolia and Tuva.

Prehistory
Shang received part of the ores it needed to produce bronze from Xinjiang.

206 BCE-552 CE
For early history of the region, we depend entirely on foreign (mostly Chinese) sources. The first Silk Road caravan from China is documented for the 1st century B.C. From the third century BCE to the first century CE, the Xiongnu (Huns), from the first to third century CE, the Xianbei (Sümbü), from 330 to 553, the Rouran (Nirun) Khaganate was a major force in the region. The construction of the Great Wall of China in the first century AD is a testimony of the threat northern nomads posed to the caravan trade.

552-907
From 552 to 744 the Turkic Khaganate ruled the northern part of the region, from 744 to 848 the Uyghur Khaganate. They competed for territory with the Kirghiz, the Khitan and with Tang, which temporarily established control over the Silk Road up to the Altai Mountains.

907-1206
The Liao Dynasty (the Khitan), from a base in Manchuria and Mongolia, in the early 11th century established de facto control of Northern China (then under the Sung Dynasty). In 1127 the Liao Dynasty was overthrown and replaced by the Jin Dynasty (the Jurchen). Much of what is Mongolia today remained outside of Jin control. Part of the Khitan moved west, where they established Kara-Khitan (western Xinjiang, Kazakhstan 1124-1218). Along the Silk Road the Gansu Kingdom (848-1034) was succeeded by the Tangut kingdom of Western Xia or Xixia (1034-1227).

1206-1368
The Mongol Empire was established by Genghis Khan in 1206 and rapidly conquered its neighbours, in genocidal warfare. In 1271 the (Mongol) Yuan Dynasty was proclaimed. In the 1290s the Mongol Empire broke apart; Mongolia and Northern Gansu became part of Yuan, Xinjiang part of Chagatay. Karakorum (Mongolia) briefly was capital.

1368-1691
In 1368 the Yuan were ousted from China by the Ming. The Yuan, as the Northern Yuan Dynasty or the Mongol Khanate, continued to rule until 1691. In the 15th century, the Mongols converted to Buddhism.
In c.1340, Chagatay had split; Eastern Chagatay, also called Moghulistan, was to last until into the early 18th century. Kashgaria seceded in the early 16th century. In the 17th century, the population of Moghulistan converted to Islam. In the first half of the 17th century, Cossacks explored southern Siberia and claimed it, including Buryatia, for the Russian Empire.

1691-1800
In 1691, Qing China conquered and annexed the Mongol (Northern Yuan) Khanate, in 1720 Tibet, in 1756-1758 the Jungar Khanate and in 1759 Kashgaria. The conquest of Jungaria was accompanied by genocide. The Treaties of Nerchinsk 1689 and of Kiakhta 1727 divided the region into a Qing Chinese and a Russian sphere of influence and regulated Russo-Chinese trade.

1800-1911
Xinjiang and Mongolia were far from the Chinese coast where the Opium Wars were faught, where ports like Shanghai were opened to international trade. During the Dungan Revolt, Xinjiang from 1863 to 1877 was ruled by Yakub Beg. Xinjiang was a tempting target for the expanding Russian Empire. Britain supported a Chinese expedition into Xinjiang in 1878, in an attempt to prevent Russian expansion; many who had supported Yakub Beg fled into the Russian Empire. Xinjiang province was established in 1884.

1911-1949
The Chinese Revolution of 1911 ended the Qing Dynasty. Mongolia declared independence, from 1911 to 1921 it was a Buddhist theocracy, from 1921 to 1991 a Communist people's republic.
China soon after the 1911 Revolution disintegrated into regions ruled by warlords; Xinjiang became quasi-independent, was a Soviet satellite from 1933 to 1949. In 1928, the KMT had established control over much of China, but from 1935 onward Inner Mongolia was contested by the Chinese Communists, the KMT and the Japanese.

since 1949
In 1949 the Chinese Civil War ended, the People's Republic of China was declared. The PR China resumed control over Xinjiang. The transition to a Communist society hit the nomadic population of Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia hard; in 1962 several 10,000 ethnic Kazakhs emigrated from Xinjiang into the USSR. Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia continue to experience the influx of Han Chinese. New industries (oil industry, space technology) are run by Han Chinese technicians. Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia are among China's economically backward provinces.
Mongolia in 1961 joined the United Nations. In 1991 it began the process from Communism to free market economy and multiparty democracy.
Following the disintegration of the USSR in 1991, Tuva and Buryatia form republics within the Russian Federation.






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern
Historical C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), posted on Internet Archive (includes data of 1913)
Links Virtual Library : Internet Guide for Chinese Studies (IGCS)
Organizations Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute for Archaeology, IA CASS
Society for East Asian Archaeology
International Society for the History of East Asian Science, Technology and Medicine
Association for East Asian Environmental History
Tibetan Mongolian Museum Society
Center for the Study of Eurasian Nomads
Silk Road Foundation
Friends of Tuva
International Institute for Central Asian Studies
Tannu Tuva Collectors Society (Philatelic)
Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Archaeology, Institute of History
Historical Dictionary U. Theobald, China Knowledge
Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
Digital Gazetteer of the Song Dynasty
N.S. Vsevolozhskij, Dictionnaire geographique-historique de l'empire de Russie, vol.1, vol.2, 1823, in French, GB
Altaic Wiki
Timelines CHSN : World Civilizations : China
Major Events relevant to Central Asian History (since 1600), from oxuscom
R. Sela, Historical Chronology of Central Asia 2009
Accounts of History General C. Cioffi-Revilla et al., Computing the Steppes: Data Analysis for Agent-Based Modeling of Polities in Inner Asia, Proceedings of the 104th Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association 2008, unpaginated
F.H. Skrine, E.D. Ross, The Heart of Asia: A History of Russian Turkestan and the Central Asian Khanates from the Earliest Times (1899), IA
Specific Periods
Until 600 BCE M.A. Czaplicka, The Turks of Central Asia in history and at the present day, an ethnological inquiry into the Pan-Turanian problem, and bibliographical material relating to the early Turks and the present Turks of Central Asia 1918, IA
UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia,
Vol.1 : Dawn of Civilization to 700 B.C. <
Neolithic L. Janz, Chronology of Post-Glacial Settlement in the Gobi Desert and the Neolithization of Arid Mongolia and China, thesis Univ. of Arizona 2012
Bronze Age R. Schmidt, Unraveling the Population History of the Xiongnu to Explain Molecular and Archaeological Models of Prehistoric Mongolia, thesis Univ. of Montana 2012
R.N. Spengler, Botanical Resource Use in the Bronze and Iron Age of the Central Eurasian Mountain/Steppe Interface: Decision Making in Multiresource Pastoral Economies, thesis Washington Univ. of St. Louis 2013
600 BCE-600 CE R. Schmidt, Exploring pastoral nomadic origins and population history of the Xiongnu confederacy of Iron Age Mongolia
B.K. Miller, Power Politics in the Xiongnu Empire, thesis UPenn 2009
J.L. Houle, Emergent Complexity on the Mongolian Steppe: Mobility, Territoriality, and the Development of Early Nomadic Polities, thesis Pittsburgh 2010
E.G. Johannesson, Landscapes of death, monuments of power : mortuary practice, power, and identity in Bronze-Iron Age Mongolia, thesis Univ. of North Carolina 2011
UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia,
Vol.2 : The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250
Vol.3 : The Crossroads of Civilizations : AD 250 to 750
600-1450 K.L. Ho, Power, economy, and culture on the Mongol steppe in the Yuan era : the case of Qara Qorum, thesis Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology 2004
UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia,
Vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : 750 to the End of the 15th Century
1450-1750 Y.W. Kwok, The role of Chinese in Mongolia in the develoipment of Ming-Mongol relationship during the Jiajing Reign (1522-1567), thesis Hong Kong 1995
UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia,
Vol.5 : Development in Contrast : From the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century
1750-1914 B. Ookhnoi, The Mongolian National Revolution of 1911 and Bogdo Jebtsumdamba Khutuktu, the Last Monarch of Mongolia, in : B.M. Knauft et al. (ed.), Mongolians After Socialism: Politics, Economy, Religion, 2012
T.O. Løvold, The Qing and Russia in Central Asia : A Comparative Study of Motives for Political Expansion, thesis Oslo 2009
UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia,
Vol.6 : Towards the contemporary Period : from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century
since 1914 B.M. Knauft et al. (ed.), Mongolians After Socialism: Politics, Economy, Religion, 2012
M.M. Balzer, Nationalism and Federalism in Siberia: Fin-de-Soviet Fantasies or Possibilities ?, Inscriptions vol.9 n.d., on Tyva (Tuva) and Buryatia
K. Brown, The Relationship between the Exercise of Political Power and Language during the Cultural Revolution in Inner Mongolia - 1967-1969, thesis Leeds 2004
Historiography I Horvath, A lesson in historiography by a contemporary of the Xiongnu Sima Qian and Chinese historiography
C. Kaplonski, Collective Memory and Chingunjav's Rebellion, History and Anthropology 1993 vol.6 no.2-3 pp.235-259; Chingunjav's rebellion Mongolia 1756-1758
(ch.4 :) Arabic, Persian and Turkic Historiography in Central Asia, pp.157-161, Mongol Historiography pp.161-166 in UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : 750 to the End of the 15th Century, UNESCO Pt.2
Administration / Politics
Military T. Szrajber, The Victories of the Emperor Qianlong, Speculum XXIII 2006 pp.28-47 (in Xinjiang)
Albert Dien, The Stirrup and its Effect on Chinese Military History
Medals of the Second World War : Tuvinian Arat Republic
Economy & Finances TED Case Studies : Globalization of the Cashmere Industry in Mongolia, n.d.
A History of Wheat-Breeding in China (CIMMYT)
T. Arakchaa, Household and Property Relations in Tuva, thesis Boise State 2009
Liu, Xinru, Viticulture and Viniculture in the Turfan Region
Grape Production in China : Turfan - Oasis in the Far West, from The Man from the Mosel River
Etsuko Kageyama, Use and Production of Silks in Sogdiana
Matsui Dai, Taxation Systems as Seen in the Uigur and Mongol Documents from Turfan : an Overview
V. Hansen, The Tribute Trade with Khotan in Light of Materials Found at the Dunhuang Library Cave 2009
Indian Memory Project, 114 - The Last Great Silk Route trader of India; reference to Kashgar, Khotan, Yarkand
Oriental Rugpedia, Khotan Rugs
H. Wang, Money in the Southern Taklamakan, IDP Conference 2012
V. Hansen et al., How the Residents of Turfan used Textiles as Money, 273-796 CE JRAS, Series 3, 23, 2 (2013), pp.281-305
H.C. Rawlinson, On Trade Routes between Turkestan and India, pp.10-23 in Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London, January 1, 1868
Ch.18 : The Economy. Production and Trade, pp.377-430, Ch.19 : Monetary Systems and Prices, pp.430-464 (on East Turkistan pp.448-449) in : UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.5 : Development in Contrast : From the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century
Social History H. Persson, Ethnicity Mobility and Status - Textiles from the Taklamakan Desert 2008
J.T. Eng et al., Health of Xiongnu and Mongol period populations: a bioarchaeological analysis of pastoral populations from two ancient Mongolian empires 2011
L. Ortiz-Echeverria, Narratives of Social Change in Rural Buryatia, Russia, thesis Georgia State 2010
B.R. Donahue, A Line in the Sayans History and Divergent Preceptions of Property among the Tozhu and Tofa of South Siberia, thesis Indiana Univ. 2003
T. Arakchaa, Household and Property Relations in Tuva, thesis Boise State 2009
T.J. Conte, Changing pastoral lifeways in the land where the horse was king : the effects of China's Grassland Contract Policy on Mongolian herders' attitudes towards grassland management and cooperation, thesis Oregon State 2013
G.C. Indrisano, Subsistence, enviromental fluctuation and social change: A case study in south central Inner Mongolia, thesis Pittsburgh 2006
A. Dashtseren, The Changing Nature of Work in Mongolia (1989-2003): Potential, Informal and Migrant Workers , thesis Rotterdam 2012
B. Gochoosuren, Transformation of social welfare policy in Mongolia: 1990-2010, thesis AUT 2013
A. Lapointe, Transformations sociales et identitaires en Mongolie de la fin du 19e a la moitie du 20e siecle, thesis Montreal 2012
B.V. Lindskog, We are all insects on the back of our motherland : place, space and movement among the Halh nomads of Mongolia, thesis Oslo 2000
ch.22 : The Status of Women in Northern Central Asia, pp.515-525, UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.6 : Towards the contemporary Period : from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century
ch.23 : Education, the Press and Public Health, pp.548-572, UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.6 : Towards the contemporary Period : from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century
ch.1 : The Development of Education : Maktab, Madrasa, Science and Pedagogy, pp.31-62 in UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : 750 to the End of the 15th Century, UNESCO Pt.2
Ethnography S. Tsakhirmaa, "Indigenous identity" as a matter of "cultural survival": Why the Mongolian language matters, 2011
H.J. Wang et al., Genetic Characteristics Of An Ancient Nomadic Group In Northern China (the Donghu), Human Biology vol.84 no.4 2012 Article 6
R.W. Montgomery, The Revolution of 1905, the First Two State Dumas, and the Nationalities (with Special Reference to the Buryats): a Select Annotated Bibliography 2009
V. Bashkuev, "Based Upon Deeply Rooted Hostile Views..." Anti-Soviet Sentiments and Resistance among the Special Settlers in Buryat-Mongolia, 1940s-1950s, draft n.d.
K.D. Harrison, Naming Practices and Ethnic Identity in Tuva, Proceedings of the Chicago Linguistics Society 35(2) 1999 : The Panels
B. Levey, "In the Land of the People Without Sutras: Jungar Refugees and Qing-Kazakh Relations, 1758-1775" 2012
D.J. Brophy, Tending to Unite ? The Origins of Uyghur Nationalism, thesis Harvard 2011
History of the Uygurs, from China Daily
Brief History of the Uyghurs, from Vancouver Uyghur Culture Society
Uyguristan, from Turanian Lands - Turanian Peoples, has history survey
Articles : Uyghur People, Yugur, from Wikipedia
Article Uyghur People, from Altaic Wiki
Dolkun Kamberi, Uyghurs and Uyghur Identity (2005)
Uyghur Language, from London Uyghur Ensemble, has language history
The Yugur Ethnic Minority, from True Xinjiang
History of the Yugur, from The Western Yugur Steppe
Articles Buryats, from Wikipedia
Buriats, from World Culture Encyclopedia
Article Tümed, Wikipedia
Religion General The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire by Alexander Berzin (1996) 2006
ch.2 :Religion and Religious Movements, pp.62-93 in UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : 750 to the End of the 15th Century, UNESCO Pt.2
Shamanist T. Dorj, The Development Of Shamanism In Mongolia After Socialism, in : B.M. Knauft et al. (ed.), Mongolians After Socialism: Politics, Economy, Religion, 2012
B.G. Purzycki, Finding Minds in the Natural World: Dynamics of the Religious System in the Tyva Republic, thesis UConn 2012
G. Davaa-Ochir, Oboo worship : the worship of earth and water divinities in Mongolia, thesis Oslo 2008
Article : Mongolian Shamanism, Wikipedia
Buddhism S. Jagchid, Tibetan Buddhism, The Mongolian Religion, n.d.
K. Kollmar-Paulenz, Buddhism in Mongolia after 1990, Journal of Global Buddhism, vol.4 2003, pp.18-34
J.D. Murray, The Transformative Russian Empire and the Development of Lamaism and Shamanism as Categories of Buryat Religion, draft n.d.
R. Sabirov, Buddhism in the Russian Republic of Buryatia: History and Contemporary Developments, in : B.M. Knauft et al. (ed.), Mongolians After Socialism: Politics, Economy, Religion, 2012
R. Taupier, Mongols and Oirats as Peacekeepers: Buddhist Warriors Behind the Lotus Throne, in : B.M. Knauft et al. (ed.), Mongolians After Socialism: Politics, Economy, Religion, 2012
L. Burevjav, Patterns of Monastic and Sangha Development in Khalkha Mongolia, in : B.M. Knauft et al. (ed.), Mongolians After Socialism: Politics, Economy, Religion, 2012
F. Liland, The transmission of the Bodhicaryavatara : the history, diffusion, and influence of a Mahayana Buddhist text, thesis Oslo 2009
T.S. Zhu, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas: emanators and emanated beings in the Buddhist art of Gandhara, Central Asia, and China, thesis Ohio State 2007
K. J. Solonin, Hongzhou Buddhism in Xixia and the Heritage of Zongmi (780-841): A Tangut Source, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.16 pt.2 2003
Uyghur Buddhism, from uyghur.com
The Establishment of Buddhist Kingdoms by the Uighurs, from : The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire, by Alexander Berzin (1996) 2006
Connie Chin, Monuments in the Desert: A Note on Economic and Social Roots of the Development of Buddhism along the Silk Road (Silk Road Journal 2005)
International Dunhuang Project, The Buddhism of Khotan
Encyclopaedia Iranica, Buddhism iii. Buddhist Literature in Khotanese and Tumshuqese
G. Martini, Mahamaitri in a Mahayana Sutra in Khotanese. Continuity and Innovation in Buddhist Meditation, Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal vol.24 2011 pp.121-194
G. Mullin, History of Buddhism in Mongolia, Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition n.d.
Y.T. Wang, The Transformations of Vaisravana - The Cult of Vaisravana in Khotan and Medieval China, thesis abstract & ToC Univ. of Macau 2012
B. Oyunbilig, An Investigation of the Winter and Summer Campsites of Great Küre and the Nomadic Sites of Küre Warehouse of the Oirat Mongols, 2009 abstract; scroll down
Taoism
Confucianism
Zoroastrianism U. Theobald, China Knowledge : Religions in China : Zoroastrianism
Manicheism U. Theobald, China Knowledge : Religions in China : Manicheism
Uyghur Manichaeism, from uyghur.com
Hinduism
Islam The Spread of Islam among and by the Turkic Peoples, from : The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire, by Alexander Berzin (1996) 2006
H.D. Kim, Muslim Saints in the 14th to the 16th Centuries of Eastern Turkestan, International Journal of Central Asian Studies I 1996 pp.285-322
ch.18 : Popular Movements, Religious Trends and Sufi Influence on the Masses in the Post-Abbasid Period, pp.367-383 in Vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : 750 to the End of the 15th Century, UNESCO Pt.1
Judaism
Nestorian Chr. U. Theobald, China Knowledge : Religions in China : Nestorianism
Uyghur Christianity, from uyghur.com
Chapter 4: Christianity in Arabia and Central Asia, from T.V. Philip, East of the Euphrates: Early Christianity in Asia, 1998
Orthodox Chr. J. Murray, Building empire among the Buryats: conversion encounters in Russia's Baikal region, 1860s-1917, thesis Univ. of Illinois 2013
Catholic Chr.
Protestant Chr. M. Broomhall, The Chinese empire: a general & missionary survey (1907), IA
Th.J. Cochrane, Survey of the missionary occupation of China (1913), IA
P. Jamsran, Developing Christianity in Mongolia During the Last Two Decades, in : B.M. Knauft et al. (ed.), Mongolians After Socialism: Politics, Economy, Religion, 2012
A. Wazgird, God on the steppe : Christian missionaries in Mongolia after 1990, thesis Oslo 2011
History of Regions Administrative Division Provinces of China, from www.statoids.com; Prefectures of China, from www.statoids.com
Article : History of the Administrative Divisions of China before 1912, Wikipedia
Historic Regions
Frontier K.L. Ng, The Frontier Poetry of the T'ang Dynasty (618-907), thesis Hong Kong 1995
C.Y. Yuen, Eunuchs and the consolidation of the North-eastern frontier during the period of Yongle (1403-1424), thesis Hong Kong 2007
H.P. Yen, Constructing the Chinese: Paleoanthropology and Anthropology in the Chinese Frontier, 1920-1950, thesis Harvard 2012
Historic State
Khotan, 56-1006 CE Article : Kingdom of Khotan, Wikipedia
Encyclopaedia Iranica, Khotan ii. History in the Pre-Islamic Period
Silk Road Texts : The Kingdom of Yutian (Khotan)
K.E. Eduljee, Far Eastern Lands : Phryni & Seres. Taskkurgan, Khotan, Kashgar, Yarkand, Kushans, Chionites, Hephthalites 2005
M. Taramgini, A brief history of the Vijayan rule of Khotan, 2004
S. van Schaik, Red Faced Barbarians, Benign Despots and Drunken Masters: Khotan as a Mirror to Tibet 2007
Dharma Documentaries : The Silk Road Series 7/16: Khotan-Oasis of Silk and Jade
L. Chandra, Kashmir and Central Asia in the First Millenium, Dialogue July-Sept. 2008 vol.10 no.1; Dialogue A quarterly journal of Astha Bharati; Central Asia here equals Khotan
ch.11 : The City States of the Tarim Basin, pp.282-298, UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.3 : The Crossroads of Civilizations : AD 250 to 750
Jingjue (Niya) A. Bertrand, Water Management in Jingjue Kingdom: The Transfer of a Water Tank System from Gandhara to Southern Xinjiang in the Third and Fourth Centuries C.E., Sino-Platonic Papers 223 2012
M.C. Lin, The Jingjue Kingdom of the Han Dynasty and the Niy[a] Site, Cultural Relics 1996 (12)
V. Hansen, Religious Life in a Silk Road Community: Niya During the Third and Fourth Centuries, pp.279-315 in J. Lagerwey (ed.), Religion in Chinese Society 2004
Loulan (Shanshan, Kroraina) Article : Loulan Kingdom, Wikipedia
A.C. Sparavigna, The road to the Loulan Kingdom, n.d.
D. Waugh, Chronology of the Kingdom of Shan-Shan (Kroraina), n.d.
T. Burrow, Correspondence in the 3rd Century CE in the Shan-Shan Kingdom, 2010
A. Hall et al., Bows and Arrows from Miran, China, Journal of The Society of Archer-Antiquaries, no.51, 2008, pp.89-98
X. Wang, The Livestock Husbandry in Shan-shan Kingdom, Journal of Chinese Historical Geography 2007-02
M. Onishi et al., Digital Silk Road : Hedin, the Man Who Solved the Mystery of the Wandering Lake: Lop Nor and Lou-lan 2005
Tuyuhun, 285-670 CE Articles Tuyuhun Kingdom, from Wikipedia
Non-Chinese People and Neighbouring States : Tuyuhun, from China Knowledge
Emperor Taizong's Campaign against the Tuyuhun, from Wikipedia
Turkic Khaganate 552-744 Article : Turkic Khaganate, Wikipedia (Göktürk Empire)
Article : Göktürks, from Wikipedia
The Kingdom of East Gok-Turks, from Turkmeniya
The Göktürk Empire, from All Empires
Ikeda Norimasa, The Political Situation of the Tujue until the Beginning of the 7th Century : An Analysis of the Chiefs and Their Districts
Choi, Han-woo, A Study of the Ancient Turkic "Tarqan", International Journal of Central Asian Studies 5 2000 pp.5-10
ch.14 : The Türk Empire, pp.321-343, UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.3 : The Crossroads of Civilizations : AD 250 to 750
Uyghur Khaganate 744-840 The Rise and the Fall of the Uighur Empire, from Manasa Taramgini
Gansu Kingdom, 848-1034 Article : Gansu Uyghur Kingdom, Wikipedia
Qarakhanid Khanate, 998-1212 Encyclopaedia Iranica, Chinese Turkestan From the Advent of Islam to the Mongols
ch.6 : The Karakhanids, pp.125-150 in UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : 750 to the End of the 15th Century, UNESCO Pt.1
Xixia, 1038-1227 Articles Western Xia, from Wikipedia
Chinese History - Western Xia Dynasty 1038-1227 - Event History, from China Knowledge
Western Xia Dynasty, by Ah Xiang
K. J. Solonin, Hongzhou Buddhism in Xixia and the Heritage of Zongmi (780-841): A Tangut Source, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.16 pt.2 2003
ch.9 : The Uighurs, the Kyrgyz and the Tangut, pp.196-221 (Hsi Hsia pp.212-221) in Vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : 750 to the End of the 15th Century, UNESCO Pt.1
Kara-Kitay ch.11 : The Kitan and the Kara Khitay, pp.232-248 in Vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : 750 to the End of the 15th Century, UNESCO Pt.1
Mongol Khanate 1206-1271 ch.12 : The Mongols and their State from the Twelfth to the Thirteenth Century, pp.248-265 in Vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : 750 to the End of the 15th Century, UNESCO Pt.1
Chagatay -1340 Article Chaghatayid Dynasty, Encyclopaedia Iranica
Moghulistan, 1340-1700s (Eastern Chagatay)
Article Moghulistan, Wikipedia
Encyclopaedia Iranica, Chinese Turkestan, iv: In the Mongol Period, v: Under the Khojas
Ch.7 : The Tarim Basin, pp.182-210 in : UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.5 : Development in Contrast : From the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century
Mongol Khanate, 1368-1691 (Northern Yuan)
Article : Northern Yuan Dynasty, Wikipedia
H. Okada, Dayan Khan as a Yüan Emperor : The Political Legitimacy in 15th Century Mongolia, Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extreme-Orient 1994 vol.81 pp.51-58, Persee
Ch.8 : The Mongols, pp.210-227 in : UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.5 : Development in Contrast : From the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century
Kashgaria, 1514-1759 Article : Kashgar, from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Encyclopaedia Iranica, Chinese Turkestan, v: Under the Khojas
Jungar Khanate, 1634-1757 Dzungar 2011, saylor.org
E. Kalan, Against a Common Enemy: Jungar-Kazakh Political Relations and the Emergence of Kazakh Khanate (17th ?18th Centuries), n.d.
O. Takahiro, The Development of the Junghars and the Role of Bukharan Merchants, Journal of Central Eurasian Studies, Volume 2 May 2011 pp.83-100
Article : Zunghar Khanate, Wikipedia
History : Zunghar/Dzungar, from Global Security
Government Website of Kashgar, The Revolt of the Two Hojas; text narrates the Chinese conquest 1755-1759
M. Ulan, A Preliminary Discussion on the Study of Zunghar Oirat Mongols' History (17th-19th Century) and Its Characteristics, abstract, Mongolian and Tibetan Quarterly 14
Ch.6 : The Dzungars and the Torguts (Kalmuks), pp.141-175 in : UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.5 : Development in Contrast : From the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century
Qing Mongolia, 1691-1911 Article : Mongolia during Qing Rule, 1691-1911, Wikipedia
ch.15 : Mongolia, pp.336-368, UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.6 : Towards the contemporary Period : from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century
Modern Province
Buryatia History of Buryatia, from buryatmongol.com
History, from Buryatia
J.D. Murray, The Transformative Russian Empire and the Development of Lamaism and Shamanism as Categories of Buryat Religion, draft n.d.
J. Murray, Building empire among the Buryats: conversion encounters in Russia's Baikal region, 1860s-1917, thesis Univ. of Illinois 2013
R. Sabirov, Buddhism in the Russian Republic of Buryatia: History and Contemporary Developments, in : B.M. Knauft et al. (ed.), Mongolians After Socialism: Politics, Economy, Religion, 2012
Article : Buryat ASSR, from Wikipedia
Inner Mongolia K. Brown, The Relationship between the Exercise of Political Power and Language during the Cultural Revolution in Inner Mongolia - 1967-1969, thesis Leeds 2004
International seminar on Ordos bronze held in Ordos, 2008, Kaogu
Article : Ordos Culture, Wikipedia
Jungaria C. Denby, The Chinese Conquest of Songaria, 1891, pp.159-181 of a journal ?, Peking Oriental Society
S. Kotkin, Defining Territories and Empires: from Mongol Ulus to Russian Siberia 1200-1800, 1996, a.o. on Jungaria
Jin Noda, Reconsidering the Ili Crisis : The Ili Region under Russian Rule, 1871-1881, Interactions between Human Activities and the Environment in the Context of Historical Transitions in Subsistence 2009 pp.163-197
R. Sala, The Medieval Urbanization of Semirechie Interactions between Human Activities and the Environment in the Context of Historical Transitions in Subsistence 2009 pp.117-149
Mongolia H. Schneider, Mongolia between Russia and China, 1953-1965, thesis McGill 1969
N. Chuluunbat, Why Was Mongolia Successful? Political and Economic Transition in 1990-1996, thesis Univ. of Maryland 2012
H.E.P. Ochirbat (President of Mongolia), Historical Path of Mongolia's Statehood and Independence 1996
B. Tumuryav, Manchu Years in the History of Mongolia 2006
Article Mongolia 1911-1921, Wikipedia
B. Ookhnoi, The Mongolian National Revolution of 1911 and Bogdo Jebtsumdamba Khutuktu, the Last Monarch of Mongolia, ch.18 in B.M. Knauft (ed.), Mongolians after Socialism 2010
DADM : China-Mongolia 1911-1946
Tuva (Tannu Tuva, Tyva) Article Tuva, from Wikipedia
Article Tuvinian People's Republic, from Wikipedia
Article History of Tuva, from Wikipedia
Article Tannu Uriankhai (pre-1912), from Wikipedia
History of Tuva, from Öz Türkler
Xinjiang H. Tuan, Governing Imperial Borders: Insights from the Study of the Implementation of Law in Qing Xinjiang, thesis Columbia 2012
J.M. Jacobs, Empire besieged : the preservation of Chinese rule in Xinjiang, 1884-1971, thesis UC San Diego 2011
W.P. Tai, Chinese rule in Sinkiang, thesis Univ. of Wisconsin 1966
J.C. Kinzley, Staking claims to China's borderland : oil, ores and statebuilding in Xinjiang Province, 1893-1964, thesis UC San Diego 2012
S.P. Yu, The governorship of Yang Zengxin in Xinjiang, 1912-28, thesis Hong Kong 1987
M. Dickens, The Soviets in Xinjiang
F.L. Chan, Sinkiang under Sheng Shih-ts'ai, 1933-1944 A.D., thesis Hong Kong 1965
L. Zhang, Maximizing Soviet Interests in Xinjiang: The USSR's Penetration in Xinjiang from the Mid-1930s to the Early 1940s, thesis Ohio State 2012
T. Winje, Xinjiang: A centre-periphery conflict in display. : An analysis of the Chinese state- and nation-building machinery in Xinjiang and the mobilization of Uyghur counter-cultures, thesis 2007
R.V. Moeller, China's Campaign to Open the West: Xinjiang and the Center, thesis Pittsburgh 2007
The Information Office of the State Council (2003) : History and Development of Xinjiang (I), Xinjiang Has Been a Multi-ethnic Region Since Ancient Times, (2), Diverse Religions Coexist and Spread in Xinjiang, (3), The Administration of Xinjiang by the Successive Central Governments, from Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the U.S.
Encyclopaedia Iranica, Chinese Turkestan, ii: In Pre-Islamic Times, iii: From the Advent of Islam to the Mongols, iv: In the Mongol Period, v: Under the Khojas
J.P. Mallory, Bronze Age Languages of the Tarim Basin, Expedition 52 3 pp.44-53
D. Waugh, Etherton at Kashgar: Rhetoric and Reality in the History of the "Great Game", 2007
Government Website of Kashgar, The Yakub Beg Invasion 2013
D.C. Boulger, The life of Yakoob Beg; Athalik Ghazi, and Badaulet; Ameer of Kashgar 1878, IA
J.F. Jia, Whose Xinjiang? The Transition in Chinese intellectuals' imagination of the "New Dominion" during the Qing dynasty 2011
ch.16 : Western China, pp.368-394, UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.6 : Towards the contemporary Period : from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century
Local History General Category : Turpan : History, from Wikipedia
Turpan History & Culture, from Travel China Guide
V. Hansen, Turfan as a Silk Road Community, Academia Sinica,, click 3rd Series vol.11 pt.2 1998
V. Hansen, The Silk Road Project - Reuniting Turfan's Scattered Treasures, has historical survey and excavation history
G.D. Zhang et al., A Concise History of the Turfan Oasis and its Exploration (Academia Sinica, Taiwan, Asia Major, 3rd Series 1998)
Gaochang, Turpan, from China Knowledge
Doug Hitch, Special Status of Turfan, from Sino-Platonic Papers 186, March 2009
Beiting / Beshbalik, from China Knowledge
History of Kyzyl (Belotsarsk), from Wikipedia
Article : Kashgar, from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Article : Dunhuang : History, Wikipedia
V. Hansen, What we can learn from One Hundred Years of Studying Niya, pp.295-298 in a Chinese language publication
Institutions L.K. Lai, A modern caravansary in Xinjiang, China, thesis Hong Kong 1997
Culture General ch.16 : Arts and Crafts, pp.424-472 in UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : 750 to the End of the 15th Century, UNESCO Pt.2
ch.26 : The Arts in Eastern Central Asia, pp.675-735, UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.6 : Towards the contemporary Period : from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century
Religious Art D.C. Wong, Ethnicity and Identity: Northern Nomads as Buddhist Art Patrons , pp.80-118 in N. di Cosmo et al. (ed.), Political Frontiers, Ethnic Boundaries and Human Geographies in Chinese History, 2003
T.S. Zhu, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas: emanators and emanated beings in the Buddhist art of Gandhara, Central Asia, and China, thesis Ohio State 2007
W.Y. Lok, The significance of Dunhuang iconography from the perspective of Buddhist philosophy: a study mainly based on Cave 45, thesis Hong Kong 2012
Dunhuang Art through the Eyes of Duan Wenjie, Engl. trsl. 1994
Huntingdom Archive : History of Art : Pre-Muslim Art of Central Asia
Textile Art Oriental Rugpedia, Khotan Rugs
A. Sheng, Textiles from the Silk Road. Intercultural Exchanges among Nomads, Traders, and Agriculturalists, Expedition 52 3 pp.33-43
I. Good, Characterization of Dyestuffs in Ancient Textiles from Xinjiang
M. Compareti, The Role of the Sogdian Colonies in the Diffusion of the Pearl Roundels Pattern 2003
Other U. Theobald, China Culture, The 'Phags-pa script, Yuan (cr. 1269)
Article Old Turkic Script, from Wikipedia
Proposal for Encoding the Old Turkic Script in the SMP of thje UCS
Article Clear Script (Todo Bichig, 1648), Wikipedia
Article Traditional Mongolian Alphabet (Hudum), Wikipedia
Article Old Uyghur Alphabet, Wikipedia
Article Sogdian Alphabet, Wikipedia
Article Manichaean Alphabet, Wikipedia
D. Hitch, Aramaic Script Derivatives in Central Eurasia, Sino-Platonic Papers 198
R.J. Niu, Nestorian Inscriptions in Syriac Script Found on Silk Road in China 2010
Biographies U. Theobald, China Knowledge : Index of Persons
Article : Altan Khan, Wikipedia
H.D. Kim, Muslim Saints in the 14th to the 16th Centuries of Eastern Turkestan, International Journal of Central Asian Studies I 1996 pp.285-322
Environmental History General, Links Univ. of Oregon, Environment China, contains a number of texts on environmental topics in history
Climate Zones Köppen Climate Classification : BSk Cold semi-arid climates, Cwa, Cfa Humid subtropical climate, Dwa Humid continental climate, Wikipedia
Ecoregions WWF Ecoregions : Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests, Southeastern China, Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World : Sichuan Basin Evergreen Broadleaf Forests, Qilian Mountains Conifer Forests, Qilian Mountains Subalpine Meadows, Southeast Tibet Shrub and Meadows, from World Wildlife
WWF Ecoregions : Temperate Coniferous Forests, Hengduan Shan Coniferous Forests, Temperate Grasslands, Savannas and Shrublands, Daurian Steppe, from WWF Panda
ChinaMaps, China Land Cover Map (Vegetation Zones)
J.Y. Fang et al., Vegetation-Climate Relationship and its Application in the Division of Vegetation Zone in China, Acta Botanica Sinica 2002 (9) pp.1105-1122
Land Use, Deforestation H.C. Wang, Deforestation and Desiccation in China A Preliminary Study, n.d.
A.R. Weisskopf, Vegetation, agriculture and social change in late Neolithic China: a phytolith study , thesis UCL 2010
Y.Q. Zhang, Deforestation and Forest Transition: Theory and Evidence in China, pp.41-65 in M. Palo et al. (eds), World Forests from Deforestation to Transition ? 2000
C. MacCain, Soil changes after afforestation in Yellow River loess : a case study in Gansu Province, People's Republic of China, 1987
R. Ma, Changes of Nomadic Patterns and Steppe Grassland Ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, Nature Architecture Diversity 1998, pp.318-353
S. Brogaard et al., Primary production of Inner Mongolia, China, between 1982 and 1999 estimated by a satellite data-driven light use efficiency model, Global and Planetary Change 45 (2005) pp.313-332
X.G. Han et al., The Grasslands of Inner Mongolia: A Special Feature, Rangeland Ecology & Management 62 2009 pp.303-304
H.L. Zhao et al., Sheep gain and species diversity: in sandy grassland, Inner Mongolia, Journal of Range Management vol.57/2 2004
D.J. Miller, Arid Land Development in China: Crisis on the Steppes, n.d.
X.M. Xiao et al., Land Cover Classification of the Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia, Using Landsat TM Imagery, n.d.
W. Liu, Vegetation Type and Degredation Classification on the Mongolian Steppe Using Random Forests, thesis Michigan 2013
T.M. Saladyga, Land use pressure and climate impacts on fire regimes and forest regeneration in the upper Tuul River watershed, Mongolia, thesis West Virginia Univ. 2011
D. Wyss, Waldmanagement in der Mongolei, thesis FU Berlin 2007
C. Toktogh, Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Pastoral Communities of Mongolia's Central Mountainous Region IHDP 2008
Specific Periods Y.F. Wang, Climate change and its ecological and socioeconomic impact evidence from China's historical document for Qing dynasty, thesis Rutgers 2010
X.M. Qi et al., Expansion of Urban Area in the Yellow River Zone, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, from DMSP OLS Nighttime Lights Data, n.d.
C. Leland, Hydroclimatic Variability in North-central Mongolia as Inferred from Tree Rings, thesis West Virginia Univ. 2011
K. Jamiyansharav, Long-term analysis and appropriate metrics of climate change in Mongolia, thesis Colorado State 2010
K.D. Robinson, A Holistic Paleolimnological Study of North-Central Mongolian Lakes, thesis Pittsburgh 2007
X.R. Wang, Cry me a river : the environmental transformation of the Tarim River Basin and its impact on Chinese-Uyghur relations, 1949-2009, thesis Colorado State 2011
K.L. Or, Environmental and climatic implication of a grain size record from theLake Manas, Xinjiang, China, thesis Hong Kong 2010
Environmental Policy P.G. Harris, Environmental Perspectives and Behavior in China. Synopsis and Bibliography, Environment and Behavior, vol.38 no.1, January 2006 pp.5-21
K. Morton, China and the Global Environment, 2009
L.N. Stahle, Ethnic resistance and state environmental policy: Uyghurs and Mongols, thesis Univ. of Southern Califirnia 2009
Others E. Case, Born to be Wild, interview New Scientist 184.2472 (Nov 6, 2004): p46(3) on Przewalski horses, w. history
D. Bennett et al., Equus caballus, Mammalian Species No.26 1999 pp.1-14
U. Kamp et al., The Glaciers of Mongolia 2013
K.L. Ladig, Geomorphology of Naran Khondii (Valley), Höh Serh Range, Mongolian Altai, Western Mongolia, thesis Gustavus Adolphus College 2009
G.C. Indrisano, Subsistence, enviromental fluctuation and social change: A case study in south central Inner Mongolia, thesis Pittsburgh 2006
M. Hvistendahl, Roots of Empire. A climate history project in Mongolia is charting the unexpected conditions that may have propelled the rise of Genghis Khan, Science vol.337 28 September 2012 pp.1596-1599
Y. Zhao et al., Vegetation response to Holocene climate change in East Asian monsoon-margin region, Earth-Science Reviews 113 (2012) pp.1-10
Article : Lop Nur, Wikipedia
M. Onishi et al., Digital Silk Road : Hedin, the Man Who Solved the Mystery of the Wandering Lake: Lop Nor and Lou-lan 2005
A.E. Hessl et al., Reconstructing fire history in central Mongolia from tree-rings, International Journal of Wildland Fire 2012, 21, pp.86-92
ch.11 : Natural Life and Manmade Habitat in Central Asia, pp.282-305 in UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : 750 to the End of the 15th Century, UNESCO Pt.2
Z.Y. Wu et al., Reconstructing and analyzing China's fifty-nine year (1951-2009) drought history using hydrological model simulation, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, Volume 8, Issue 1, 2011, pp.1861-1893
Archaeology General The Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR)
Silk Road Seattle : Archaeology : Mongolia
by Province
Gansu Y.H. Wang, Neolithic Fishing-Hunting Economy in the Yellow Valley, Huaxia Archaeology (China) 1992(2) pp.81-88, Engl. trsl. n.d.
Inner Mongolia C.E. Peterson, "Crafting" Hongshan Communities ? Household Archaeology in the Chifeng Region of Eastern Inner Mongolia, PRC, thesis Pittsburgh 2006
(Outer) Mongolia Archaeology and Landscape in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia, UOregon
M. Youn et al., Dating the Tavan Tolgoi Site, Mongolia: Burials of the Nobility from Genghis Khan's Era, Radiocarbon vol.49 no.2 2007 pp.685-691
N. Bazarsad, Iron Deficiency Anemias in early Mongolian Nomads n.d.
J.H. Littleton et al., Postmortem violence ? Identifying and interpreting postmortem disturbance in Mongolia, Landscapes of Violence vol.2 no.2 2012, Article 7
J.C. Gillam et al., Halfway to Mörön: Shedding New Light on Paleolithic Landscapes of Northern Mongolia, Legacy vol.16 no.2 2012 pp.14-17
M. Oczipka et al., Small drones for geo-archaeology in the steppe: locating and documenting the archaeological heritage of the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia, Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 7478, article id. 747806, 11 pp., 2009 (here abstract)
E. Hite, Sites of the living, sites of the dead: the Xiongnu community at Baruun Mukhdagiin Am, 2013
M.L. Seferiades, An aspect of Neolithisation in Mongolia: the Mesolithic-Neolithic site of Tamsagbulag (Dornod district), Documenta Praehistorica XXXI pp.139-149
A.P. Derevyanko et al., Neolithic Tribes in Northern Parts of Central Asia
U. Brosseder et al., Cultural Change from the Late Bronze/Early Iron Age to the Late Iron Age (Xiongnu Period) in the Upper Orkhon Valley, Central Mongolia
Tuva P. Logan, Archaeology in Tuva
K.V. Chugunov et al., Chronological Studies of the Arzhan-2 Scythian Monument in Tuva (Russia), Radiocarbon 46/1 2004
Xinjiang D.W. Pankenier, Popular Astrology and Border Affairs in Early Imperial China : An Archaeological Confirmation, Sino-Platonic Papers 104, 2000
Gaochang Ruins, from Asian Historical Architecture
Turfan, from Archnet Digital Library
Astana-Karakhoja Ancient Tombs, from Travel China Guide
A. Stein, Sand-buried ruins of Khotan : personal narrative of a journey of archaeological and geographical exploration in Chinese Turkestan, 1904, IA
A. Stein, Ancient Khotan : detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan, 2 volumes 1907, HKUL
IDP International Conference : Archaeology of the Southern Taklamakan: Hedin and Stein's Legacy and New Explorations, 2012
Megalithic Portal, other Archaeology : Niya (images)
C.X. Li et al., Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age, BMC Biology 2010, pp.8-15
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Lists of Statesmen
Population Figures
Documents Historical Newspapers Central Asian Serials, Late 19th to Early 20th Century (1871-1991, Russian language), published by ProQuest
South Australian Chronicle and Weekly Mail, Sat. 20 Apr. 1878 : The Chinese Conquest of Kashgaria
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Historical Chinese Postcard Project, 1896-1920
Iowa Digital Library Buryat, Mongolia, historic photographs etc.
Images of Tuva (1995), from Khoomei
Mongolian Views, Mongolian Photos around 1900s
Archival Deposits British Intelligence Reports on Russia in Central Asia, published by IDC Publishers
I. Tunkina, Materials of the Personal Papers of Sergey F. Oldenburg as a Source on History of the Russian Expeditions to East Turkestan
G. Törnvall, From Khotan and Kashghar: Gunnar Jarring and the Jarring Collection, Lund University Library
Inscriptions
Oral History G.S. Li, Fascinating Mural Stories from Dunhuang Grottoes, 2011
The Walther Heissig Collection of Mongolian Oral Literature
Goh Tschikitu, trsl. into German by Benjamin Bergmann, 1805, IA also contains "ein Heldengesang aus der Dschangariade" (= an Epic of the Jangar cycle)
Buryat Mongol Homepage, Translation of the Geser Epic into English
Consular Reports
Chinese Trade Reports
Historiography The Secret History of the Mongols [c.1240], Monumenta Altaica (has several translations); ed. P. Kahn 1984, ed. U. Onon 2001; trsl. F.W. Cleaves 1982, vol.1, Scribd
L.S. Zhu, The foundation legend of Khotan:Translation and annotations to Li yul chos kyi lo rgyus (Part II), Dunhuang Research 2011-02
Document Surveys WHKMLA : Online Catalogues of Oriental Manuscripts, Codices, Early Printed Books; numerous relevant entries
Manuscripts International Dunhuang Project
G.M. Bongard-Levin, New Sanskrit and Prakrit Texts from Centrral Asia, pp.73-80 in Indologica Taurinensia vol.3-4 1975-1976
Digitales Turfan-Archiv, BBAW
Document Collections Internet East Asian History Sourcebook
Wikisource
Silk Road Narratives
Individual Documents Emperor Kuang Hsu : Attempted Reforms, 1898, from East Asian History Sourcebook
Japan's Twenty-One Demands, January 18, 1915
DBQs Asia for Educators; site providing numerous DBQs on Chinese history
Historical Maps Hindsight, Asia Map of the Chinese Neolithic, Wikipedia
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 550 B.C., 527 BC, 500 BC, 400 BC, 335 BC, 323 BC, 300 BC, 200 BC, 100 BC, 050 BC, 050 AD, 200 AD, 300 AD, 400 AD, 450 AD, 565 AD, 600 AD, 610 AD, 900 AD, 1000 AD, 1025 AD, 1100 AD, 1200 AD, 1300 AD, 1400 AD, 1500 AD, Asia 700 AD, 800 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Hindsight, China Minneapolis Institute of Arts, The Arts of Asia, Chinese Dynasty Guide : History & Maps
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Map of China in/during Prehistory, Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han and Xin, Three Kingdoms, Jin, 16 Barbarian States, Southern Dynasties, Northern Dynasties, Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, Song, Liao, Jin, Western Xia, Yuan, Ming, Qing
Cultural China, History of China, provides numerous, mostly Chinese language maps featuring China at specific historic eras; gives reference : "All the historical maps about China published here come from the internet"
P. Buckley Ebrey et al., A Visual Sourcebook on Chinese Civilization, has numerous maps on specific historical periods
Wikipedia, Map of the Three Kingdoms, by Yu Ninjie
China : Eastern Jin (Chinese text), from Wikimedia
Map : Eastern Jin 376, from Wikimedia
Map : Dispersion of the Orkhon Uighurs from Mongolia to Dzungaria, Central Asia, Mid-9th Century, Northern Central Asia, Approximately 850 A.D., from Benzin Archives
Map : Tang Dynasty 742, from Wikipedia
Category : Maps of the Göktürks, from Wikimedia
Contemporary, China Map : Languages of China, from Titus
Muturzikin, Asian Linguistic Maps : China
Hindsight, Detail
Contemporary, Detail P. Vandermaelen, L'Empire Chinois, detail maps featuring Inner Mongolia, 1827, posted by Emory Univ.
J.B.B. d'Anville, La Chine, la Tartarie Chinoise et le Thibet, 1737, upper right part (Mongolia, Manchuria, Korea, N. China), Wikipedia
Historical Secular
Encyclopedia Entries on Provinces/Regions
on Cities
Religious
Economic
Geographical
Gobi Region pp.36-41 in vol.1 of T. Salmon, Modern History or the Present State of All Nations, 1744, GB
pp.2-4, 27-36, in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1827, GB
pp.58-128 in vol.7 of E. Reclus, The Universal Geography : Earth and its Inhabitants, [1876-1894] IA
pp.141-153 in C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), IA (includes data of 1913)
Indiv. Provinces
Ethnological Die Buräten, pp.62-63, die Tanguter pp.67-68 in Liebe, Heirathen und Ehestand verschiedener wilder und halbwilder Völker, 1816, in German, GB
Nomadic Nations of Central Asia : the Mongols, the Mantchur; Stationary and Civilized People N.E. of China : The Koreans, pp.28-30 in R. Phillips, A geographical view of the world, embracing the manners, customs, and .., 1838, GB
Historical The Burats, pp.127-156 in vol.4 of J.G. Georgi, Russia, or a Compleat Historical Account of all the Nations which Compose that Empire, 1783, GB
Tour Guides
Travelogues The Story of Chang K'ien, China's Pioneer in Western Asia: Text and Translation of Chapter 123 of Ssi-Ma Ts'ien's Shi-Ki, Journal of the American Oriental Society 37, 1917, IA
Ye-lü Ch'u ts'ai, Account of a Journey to the West (Si Yu Lu), 1219-1224, trsl. E. Bretschneider (1888), Silk Road Narratives
B. Szczesniak, Friar Benedict the Pole of Vratislava his mission to Mongolia and his narrative (1245-1247), thesis Ottawa 1950
W.W. Rockhill (trsl.), The Journey of Friar John of Pian de Carpine to the Court of Kuyuk Khan, 1245-1247, 1900, Silk Road Narratives
William of Rubruck's Account of the Mongols (1253-1255), Silk Road Narratives
H. Yule (trsl.), The book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian : concerning the kingdoms and marvels of the East vol.1 1871, vol.2 1871, IA
H. Yule (trsl.), The Travels of John de Marignolli 1339-1353 1913, Silk Road Narratives
E.F. Timkovskii, Travels of the Russian Mission through Mongolia to China 1820-1821, vol.1 1827, vol.2 1827, GB
E.R. Huc, Travels in Tartary, Thibet and China [1844-1846], vol.1 n.d., vol.2 n.d., GB
G. Fleming, Travels on Horseback in Manchu Tartary 1863, GB
A. Williamson, Journeys in north China, Manchuria, and eastern Mongolia 1870, IA
R. Shaw, Visit to High Tartary, Yarkand and Kashgar 1871, GB
N.M. Przhevalskii, Mongolia, the Tangut country, and the solitudes of northern Tibet vol.1, vol.2 1876, IA
P.I. Piassetski, Russian Travellers in Mongolia and China, vol.1 1884, IA
H. Lansdell, Russian Central Asia 1885, IA
W.W. Rockhill, Diary of a journey through Mongolia and Thibet in 1891 and 1892 1894, IA
S.A. Hedin, Central Asia and Tibet vol.1 1903, vol.2 1903, IA
J.H. Roberts, A flight for life and an inside view of Mongolia 1903, IA
E.G. Kemp, The face of Manchuria, Korea and Russian Turkestan 1911, IA
E.K. Kendall, A Wayfarer in China: Impressions of a Trip Across West China and Mongolia 1913, IA
D. Carruthers, Unknown Mongolia; a record of travel and exploration in north-west Mongolia and Dzungaria 1914, IA
Resident Memoirs
Institutions Archives China Archives Information on the Web
First Historical Archives of China, Beijing, from East Asian Libraries and Archives
Central State Archive of the Republic of Tyva, from Archaeo Biblio Base (IISG)
Regional Archives in the Republic of Tyva, from Archaeo Biblio Base (IISG)
National Archives of Mongolia
The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online
National Archives of Important Powers : State Archive of the Russian Federation, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Second Historical Archive of China
Endangered Archives Programme: EAP010: rare periodical publications in Mongolia, EAP140: Tangut collection at the Institute of Oriental Studies, St Petersburg Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, EAP264: rare photographic negatives from Mongolia
Musea China Museums, scroll down for Neimongol (Inner Mongolia), Xinjiang
Russian Museums : The History Museum of Buryatia named after M.N. Khangalov, Khorinsk Local Historical Museum
National Museum of Mongolia
Monuments Showcaves : China
R. Miller, Unsettled Meaning: Memorializing Lost Mobility through a Monument in Ordos, Inner Mongolia, 2013
A. Gilkison, Soul of the Mazar: The Khoja Afaq Mausoleum (1600s to the Present) and Uyghur Collective Memory, thesis Miami Univ. 2013
Russian Federation / Tuva: Arzhan, from Deutsches Archäologisches Institut
G.I. Zaitseva et al., Chronological Studies of the Arzhan 2 Scythian Monument in Tuva (Russia), 2004
I. Morozova, National monuments and social construction in Mongolia and Kyrgyzstan, IIAS Newsletter no.49 2008
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Buryatia
Tuva, from FOTW
The Flag and Arms of Tuva, by Dave Martucci, posted by New England Journal of Vexillology
Göktürk Flag, from Wikimedia
K.L. Ho, The Myth of the Seal Transmitting the State in the Yuan and Qing Dynasties , New History 2012
Coins, Banknotes L. Roberts, Chinese Coins
Oriental Coins Database
Coins of Silk Road
The Coins and History of Asia : Ancient China, by T.K. Mallon McCorgray
A Cash-like Coin of Uyghur Qaghan Boquq, by Vladimir Belyayev
Banknotes of Tannu-Tuva from Ron Wise's World Paper Money, from ATS Notes (commercial site)
Reference Catalogue of Xinjiang Red Cash

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies
on Central Asia Bibliography of the Chinese Uyghurs, from Anthro Globe
Annotated Bibliography of the History of Eastern Turkistan, from Uyghur American Association
Age of Mongolian Empire, a Bibliographic Essay, by Paul D. Buell (Silk Road Journal 2003)
S.C. Raschmann, Staatsbibliothek Berlin : Berlin Turfan Collection : Publications
N. Light, Annotated Bibliography of the History and Culture of Eastern Turkistan, Jungharia/Zungaria/Dzungaria, Chinese Central Asia, and Sinkiang/Xinjiang (for the 16th-20th centuries CE, excluding most travel narratives)
on China/East Asia University of Maine at Farmington, China Bibliography
Bibliography of Western Language Publications : Three Kingdoms, from Early Medieval China Group
Association of East Asian Environmental History, Publications
Royal Asiatic Society, China Branch, Shanghai, Library
on Religions Publications, from Manichaean Studies Seminar
A Comprehensive Bibliography of Syriac Christianity : Turfan
M. Niccolini-Zani, Christiano-Sogdica: An Updated Bibliography on the Relationship between Sogdians and Christianity throughout Central Asia and into China 2003
Online Libraries Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
American Center for Mongolian Studies, Digital Collections
Odias Database of Xinjiang Studies
Russian State Library, Digital Library
National Digital Library of China
CARRIE Eurasia Collection, donated ebooks online
Publications Prof. Hiroshi Kumamoto (on Khotan)
M. Weiers, Zentralasienforschung; links to publications in German posted online
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Hong Kong University Theses Online, titles in English, most theses in Chinese
Online Journals
General Listings Directory of Open Access Journals
on Central Asia The Silk Road Journal, since 2003
Cahiers d'Asie Centrale 1996-2011
Central Eurasian Studies Review (CESR) 2002-
International Journal of Central Asian Studies 1996-
CNKI Journal : Dunhuang Research 1982-
Abstracta Iranica, online volumes 22-31 1999-2008
on China/East Asia IA CASS, Kaogu 2005-2012; English language abstracts
IA CASS, Chinese Archaeology 2001-, English Version, Tables of Contents
Cross Currents. East Asian History and Culture Review 2011-
Academia Sinica, Chinese Environmental History Newsletters vol.1.1 1994, vol.1.2 1994, vol.2.1 1995, vol.2.2 1995, vol.3.1 1996, vol.3.2 1996
Early Medieval China, index accessible, requires registration
Sung-Yuan Studies, 1970-
Ming Studies 1975-2013
The Chinese Historical Review (1987) 2004-
Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 2001-
Bulletin of the Asia Institute, Peking Univ.; a few articles in English
on Northeast Asia Journal of Northeast Asian History (since 2004)
on Religions Syriac Studies 2007-
Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 1978-
Chung Hwa Buddhist Journal (1968-) 1987-; since 2008 exclusively in English
Indologica Taurinensia 1973-, The Online Journal of the International Association of Sanskrit Studies
General Accounts
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries Michael Dillon, China, a Cultural and Historical Dictionary, Richmond (Surrey) : Curzon 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 951.003 D579c
James S. Olson, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China, Westport CT : Greenwood 1998 [G]
Michael Dillon, Dictionary of Chinese History, Bournemouth : Frank Cass 1979 [G]
Alan J.K. Sanders, Historical Dictionary of Mongolia, London : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Historical Atlasses Yuri Bregel, An Historical Atlas of Central Asia, (HACA) Leiden : Brill 2003) [G]