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Shanxi Henan
First posted on December 10th 2004, last revised on September 25th 2009







History of the Territory of the Modern Province of Hebei

The territory of southern Hebei belonged to the Shang Dynasty (1556-1046 BC), all of Hebei under the control of the Zhou Dynasty (1046-221 BC). When after the sack of Xi'an in 771 BC the Zhou Dynasty disintegrated (Spring and Autumn Period 770-403, Warring States 403-221), northern Hebei was under Yan, southeastern Hebei part of Qi, southwestern Hebei under Jin and a small area in western central Hebei part of Zhongshan. In 403, Jin disintegrated; the northern part within Hebei came under Zhao, the southern part under Wei. Zhongshan first was a protectorate of Han (c 350), later was annexed by Zhao. By 221 Wei, Zhao, Yan and Qi had surrendered to Qin (221-206); the territory of Hebei for the first time in recorded history was unified under one government. Qin was followed by Western Han (221 BC - 8 AD), Xin 8-22 AD and Eastern Han 25-220. Then Hebei was under Cao Wei 220-265, under Western Jin 265-317, Former Zhao 318-329, Later Zhao (329-353), Former Yan (337-370), Former Qin (351-394), Later Yan (384-409), then much of Hebei conquered by Wei, the remainder forming Northern Yan. The latter fell to Wei in 420, now Hebei was under the Northern Dynasties 420-581 (Northern Wei, Eastern Wei, Western Wei, Northern Qi, Northern Zhou), until Sui (581-618) again reunited China. Sui was followed by Tang (618-907). Northern Hebei now fell under the control of Liao (until 1125). Southern Hebei was under the control of the Five Dynasties 907-960, followed by Northern Song (960-1127). In 1125-1127 the Jin Dynasty (-1234) established control over all of Hebei. It was followed by Yuan (1234-1368), Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911). From 1271 onward until 1911, with the exception of the early Ming period (1368-1403), Beijing served as the capital of China. The period of the Republic of China (1911-1949) brought a degree of confusion. In Hebei the republic began with the administration of Yuan Shi Kai (1912-1916); then control was contested until the Zhili Clique secured it (1922-1928), then the Northern Expedition established control of the Nanjing administration (1928). In 1923 Rehe (Jehol) was established as a separate province, formed in part of territory hitherto belonging to Zhili (Hebei). In 1933 Japanese forces occupied Rehe, soon after annexing it into Manchukuo. In 1937 Japanese forces occupied Zhili, which from 1940 to 1945 was under the collaborationist Wang Jingwei administration (capital Nanjing). From 1946 to 1949 Hebei was battleground between Communist and Nationalist forces during the Chinese Civil War. Since 1949 Hebei forms part of the People's Republic of China, and Beijing again serves as the nation's capital.

History of the Hebei as a Chinese Province

Under the Han Dynasty, the territory of Hebei was under the You (N), Ji (SW) and Qing (SE) provinces, an organization which continued under Western Jin. Under Sui, most of Hebei was under Ji, the SE under Yan. Under Tang, the Ji province was renamed Hebei, the SE formed part of Henan. The province of Hebei, divided in Western and Eastern Hebei, continued to exist under Northern Song and Jin. Under Yuan, Hebei formed part of the central area under direct administration of the government (Zhili), without provincial status. Under Ming and Qing, the name Zhili was maintained, but the area restricted, now largely coinciding with modern Hebei. In 1923 the province of Rehe (Yehol) was formed, including part of modern Hebei. In 1928 Zhili was renamed Hebei. In 1949, Hebei was enlarged by the annexation of parts of Rehe and Chahar. Since 1967 Tianjin has been carved out of Hebei as a self-administrating city with provincial status, a conditon Beijing also enjoys.

Timeline : Hebei

Students' Papers : Suh, Hee-won: History of Water Management in China (2008)






DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles from Wikipedia
Links, General
Historical Dictionary Encyclopedia of China, from Jongo Knows
Historical Maps Northeastern China Political, from Albert Herrmann, History and Commercial Atlas of China (1935), posted by huhai.net
Historical maps of Hebei, posted by PCL, UTexas, scroll down for Beijing, Northern China, Tianjin
Map : Languages of China, from Titus
Map : Peking and Environs 1906, Peking 1922, Peiping 1932, from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
Timelines click here
Timeline of Chinese-European Cultural Relations, posted by Institute of Asian Affairs, Hamburg
History of the Administrative Divisions of China, Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History from Wikipedia
List of Current and Former Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia; scroll down for Hebei
Encyclopedia Entries Articles Chih-Li, Peking, Tientsin, from EB 1911
Articles Peking, Tientsin, from Stefan Ankjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg
Articles Pe-tschili, Peking, Tschingtin, Tong-tscheu, Siüan-hua-fu, Ten-tscheu-su, from Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, in German, posted by Zeno
Articles Petschili, Peking, Kaiping, Tientsin, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek
Articles Tschili, Peking, Kaiping, Tientsin, from Meyers Grosses Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, In German, posted by Zeno
Ethnography
History of Religion Metropolitan Archdiocese of Beijing, Diocese of Anguo, Diocese of Baoding, Diocese of Daming, Diocese of Jingxian, Diocese of Tianjin, Diocese of Xianxian, Diocese of Xuanhua, Apostolic Prefecture of Yixian, Diocese of Yongping, Diocese of Zhaoxian, Diocese of Zhengding, from GCatholic
List of Buddhist Temples : China : Hebei, from Wikipedia
Longquan monastery, (near) Longquansi, Beijing, Jietai monastery, (near) Mentougou, Beijing, Tanzhe monastery, (near) Tanzhesi, Beijing, from Monastic Asia
Bailin Temple in Zhaoxian (Hebei), Longxing Monastery in Zhengding (Hebei), Fu Qing Si on Mount Cangyan (Hebei), from Waymark
Baiyunguan (White Cloud Taoist Temple) from Touch Beijing
Beida Mosque, Botou Mosque, from Hebei Tour
Niu Jie Mosque, Beijing, Temple of Heaven, Beijing, Yonghe Gong, Beijing, Baiyun Guan, Beijing, from Sacred Destinations
History of Regions Prefectures of China, from www.statoids.com
History of Cities Treaty Ports, Foreign Concessions & Colonies in 1920es China, list compiled by Phil Abbey
Article Tianjin, from Wikipedia
Article Beijing, from Wikipedia
A Brief History of Tianjin, 1860-1949, from Discover Tianjin
History of Tianjin, from enorth
Beijing's History, from Beijing, a Guide to China's Capital
Beijing History, from Lonely Planet
Deutsche Seewarte, Die wichtigsten Häfen Chinas, 1901
Structures & Institutions Structurae : Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin
Article : Peking University, Tianjin University, from Wikipedia
Beijing Normal University, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing University of Technology, Tianjin University of Technology
Article : Beijing Renmin Guangbo Diantai (Radio Beijing), from Wikipedia
Article : Beijing Capital International Airport, from Wikipedia
Special Topics China & Belgium, from Diplobel

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Lists of Statesmen Provinces and administrative divisions of China, from World Statesmen
China Administrative Divisions, from rulers.org
Population Figures China, historical population statistics by province, from Population Statistics, posted at Univ. Utrecht
Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, from UNESCAP Chinadata
City Populations : China - Hebei, from City Population
PRC, Abortions and Live Births by Region, Historical Data, from Johnston's Archive
Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, from Database of the Basic Conditions of Family Planning Programme at CIPRC (Text on Demography, 1999)
Document Collections The History of Hebei Province, from World History Archives
Newspaper Archive, requires registration, charges a modest fee
Jewish Chronicle, since 1841, online
New York Times, click Archive 1851-1980
China Hebei News, from Inside China Today
Hebei Article Archives, by Keepmedia
Search USC Digital Library for Hebei, Hopeh
Online Newspapers links from IPL
Archives China Archives Information on the Web, scroll down for Hebei
First Historical Archives of China, Beijing, from East Asian Libraries and Archives
Internet Public Library, China Beijing
China deposits (Jewish communities Tientsin, Harbin, Shanghai), at Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
China Museums, scroll down for Beijing, Hebei, Tianjin
China Museums, scroll down for Hebei
Coins Chinese Provinces : Chihli, from World Coin Gallery
Chihli 1820-1908, from Numismaticon
Others Historic Picture Postcards, Beijing, Tianjin, from Postcardman, commercial site
Historic Postcards from Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, from Historical Chinese Postcard Project, 1896-1920
Bibliography Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keywords Hebei (site in German, most titles listed in English; hundreds of entries; publications mostly since 1970)

PRINTED REFERENCE
General Accounts Th.J. Cochrane, Survey of the missionary occupation of China (1913), posted on Internet Archive, on Chihli pp.292-315
M. Broomhall, The Chinese empire: a general & missionary survey .. (1907), posted on Internet Archive, on Chihli pp.101-113
W.E. Geil, Eighteen Capitals of China (1911), posted on Internet Archive, pp.404-424
Claudius Madrolle, Northern China, the valley of the Blue River, Korea (1912), posted on Internet Archive, Peking pp.1-56, Chihli pp.57-136
N.G. Gee, The educational directory for China; an account of the various schools and colleges connected with Protestant missions (1905), posted on Internet Archive Chihli pp.5-7, 16, 45, 67-68, 78, 80-81, 96-99, 126
Economic History Tim Wright, Coal mining in China's economy and society, Cambridge : UP 1984 [B]
China Hai guan zong shui wu si shu Reports on Trade at the Treaty Ports (1868), Tientsin pp.15-21, 1869 pp.9-21, posted on Internet Archive
C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), posted on Internet Archive (includes data of 1913); Chihli pp.27-34
Local History Article : Tientsin, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.773-774 [G]