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Hebei Shanxi
First posted on December 9th 2004, last revised on October 27th 2009







History of the Territory of the Modern Province of Henan

The territory of northern Henan belonged to the Xia Dynasty (1989-1558), all of Henan to the to Shang Dynasty (1556-1046 BC), and the Zhou Dynasty (1046-221 BC). When after the sack of Xi'an in 771 BC the Zhou Dynasty disintegrated (Spring and Autumn Period 770-403, Warring States 403-221), the territory of Henan was divided among Zheng, Chu (S), Zhou (W), Cai, Chen, Song, Wei (E); in 479 Chu conquered Chen, in 447, Chu Cai; in 403 Han was newly formed (W). In 375, Zheng was conquered by Han, in 286 Song was conquered by Qi. By 221 Chu, Han, Zhou and Wei had surrendered to Qin (221-206), which was followed by Western Han (221 BC - 8 AD), Xin 8-22 AD and Eastern Han 25-220. Then Henan was under Cao Wei 220-265, under Western Jin 265-317. Then southern Henan was under Eastern Jin, northern Henan was under Former Zhao 318-329, Later Zhao (329-353), then split between Former Yan (337-370) and Former Qin (351-394) until the latter conquered Former Yan, and then under Later Qin. From c.420 to 581, northern Henan was under the Northern Dynasties, while southern Henan was under the Southern Dynasties until Sui (581-618) again reunited Henan and China. Sui was followed by Tang (618-907). It was succeeded by the Five Dynasties 907-960, followed by Northern Song (960-1127). In 1125-1127 the Jin Dynasty (-1234) established control over Henan. It was followed by Yuan (1234-1368), Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911). The period of the Republic of China (1911-1949) brought a degree of confusion. In Henan the republic began with the administration of Yuan Shi Kai (1912-1916); then the Northern Expedition established control of the Nanjing administration (1928). In 1937 Japanese forces occupied Henan, which from 1940 to 1945 was under the collaborationist Wang Jingwei administration (capital Nanjing). From 1946 to 1949 Henan was battleground between Communist and Nationalist forces during the Chinese Civil War. Since 1949 Henan forms part of the People's Republic of China.
Luoyang served as the capital of Eastern Zhou, Eastern Han 25-220, Cao Wei 220-265, Western Jin 265-317, and under Northern Wei 493-534 and Later Tang 923-936. Kaifeng served as the capital of Later Liang 907-923, Later Jin 936-947, Later Han 947-950, Later Zhou 951-960 and Northern Song 960-1127.

History of the Henan as a Chinese Province

Under the Han Dynasty, the territory of Henan was under the Yan (N, NE), Silii (NW) and Yu (S) provinces, under Western Jin nothern Henan under Si, southern Henan under Yu. Under Sui, Henan was under Yu. Under Tang, modern northern central Henan formed Duji Province, the NW belonged to Jingji, the south to Shannandong, the east to a province also called Henan. Under Northern Song Henan was largely covered by Jingji Province, which again was divided in north and south. Under the Jin Dynasty, Henan was split in Damingfu (NE), Nanjing. Under Yuan, Henan formed part of Henanjiangbei Province. Since Ming Henan forms a province by that name.

Timeline : Henan

Students' Papers : Suh, Hee-won: History of Water Management in China (2008)






DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles from Wikipedia
Links, General
Historical Dictionary Encyclopedia of China, from Jongo Knows
Historical Maps Northeastern China Political, from Albert Herrmann, History and Commercial Atlas of China (1935), posted by huhai.net
Map : Languages of China, from Titus
Timelines click here
History of the Administrative Divisions of China, Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History from Wikipedia
List of Current and Former Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia; scroll down for Henan
Encyclopedia Entries Article Ho-Nan, K'ai-Feng-Fu, Hwang-Ho, from EB 1911
Article Loyang, Kuetefu, Kaifonfu, from Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, in German, posted by Zeno
Article Honan, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German, posted by Zeno
Article Kaiföng, from Meyers Grosses Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, in German, posted by Zeno
Politics Concentration Camps Today : Henan & Hubei, from ATTAC
Ethnography
History of Religion Metropolitan Archdiocese of Kaifeng, Diocese of Luoyang, Diocese of Xinyang, Diocese of Zhumadian, from GCatholic
List of Buddhist Temples : China : Henan, from Wikipedia
Baima Si monastery, (near) Old Luoyang, Loyang monastery, (in) Loyang, Shaolin monastery, (towards) Zhengzhou, Xiangguo monastery, (in) Kaifeng, Yun-hua monastery, (in) Loyang, from Monastic Asia
Islam in China, Ethnic Powder Keg in Henan Province, from Qantara (2004)
The Virtual Jewish History Tour : China
Search Encyclopaedia Iranica for Kaifeng
History of Regions Prefectures of China, from www.statoids.com
History of Cities Treaty Ports, Foreign Concessions & Colonies in 1920es China, list compiled by Phil Abbey
Kaifeng, from China Tour
Luoyang, from China Tour
Zhengzhou, from China Tour; Zhengzhou in history, by Paul Noll; Historical Zhengzhou, from Zhengzhou Internet News Center
Institutions History of Henan Normal University, Xinxiang
Structurae : Henan Province
Other Topics Article Huang He, from Columbia Encyclopedia
Yellow River changed its route, from China the Beautiful
Article Nian Rebellion, from Columbia Encyclopedia
Yang Zhaoqing & Zhang Xihuan, Summary of Ancient Rice Cultivation in Henan Province, Ma Xueqin, Rice Growth in Ancient Henan Province, 1998, from Ancient Chinese Rice Archeological Project
Bibliography Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keywords Henan (site in German, most titles listed in English; hundreds of entries; publications mostly since 1970)

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Lists of Statesmen Provinces and administrative divisions of China, from World Statesmen
China Administrative Divisions, from rulers.org
Population Figures China, historical population statistics by province, from Population Statistics, posted at Univ. Utrecht
Henan, from UNESCAP Chinadata
City Populations : China - Henan, from City Population
PRC, Abortions and Live Births by Region, Historical Data, from Johnston's Archive
Henan, from Database of the Basic Conditions of Family Planning Programme at CIPRC (Text on Demography, 1999)
Document Collections The History of Henan, from World History Archives
Search USC Digital Library for Henan, Honan
Archives China Archives Information on the Web, scroll down for Henan
China Museums, scroll down for Henan
Coins Search Coin Archives for Henan
Honan 1851-1931, from Numismaticon
Others Historic Postcards from Henan, from Historical Chinese Postcard Project, 1896-1920

PRINTED REFERENCE
General Accounts C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), posted on Internet Archive (includes data of 1913); Honan pp.21-26
Th.J. Cochrane, Survey of the missionary occupation of China (1913), posted on Internet Archive, on Honan pp.254-269
M. Broomhall, The Chinese empire: a general & missionary survey .. (1907), posted on Internet Archive, on Honan pp.149-163
W.E. Geil, Eighteen Capitals of China (1911), posted on Internet Archive, Kaifeng pp.350-369
Claudius Madrolle, Northern China, the valley of the Blue River, Korea (1912), posted on Internet Archive, Honan pp.201-216
N.G. Gee, The educational directory for China; an account of the various schools and colleges connected with Protestant missions (1905), posted on Internet Archive Honan pp.12, 45