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First posted on December 8th 2004, last revised on October 28th 2009







History of the Territory of the Modern Province of Hubei

The territory of northern Hubei was outside the land of the Xia Dynasty (1989-1558), but belonged to the Shang Dynasty (1556-1046 BC), and the Zhou Dynasty (1046-221 BC). When after the sack of Xi'an in 771 BC the Zhou Dynasty disintegrated (Spring and Autumn Period 770-403, Warring States 403-221), the territory of Hubei formed part of Chu; in 225-223, Chu was conquered by Qin (221-206), which was followed by Western Han (221 BC - 8 AD), Xin 8-22 AD and Eastern Han 25-220. Then Hubei was under Wu 222-280, under Western Jin 265-317. under Eastern Jin, From c.420 to 550, Hubei was under the Southern Dynasties, then under the Northern Dynasties 550-581 until Sui (581-618) again reunited China. Sui was followed by Tang (618-907). During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, Hubei was under Nanping. Then followed Northern Song (960-1127). then Southern Song (1127-1279). It was followed by Yuan (1234-1368), Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911). The period of the Republic of China (1911-1949) brought a degree of confusion. During the Second Sino-Japanese War 1937-1945, eastern Hubei was occupied by Japanese forces. From 1946 to 1949 Hubei was battleground between Communist and Nationalist forces during the Chinese Civil War. Since 1949 Hubei forms part of the People's Republic of China.

History of the Hubei as a Chinese Province

Under the Han Dynasty, the territory of Hubei was under the Jing province, under Western Jin also. Under Sui, Hubei also was under Jing province. Under Tang, modern Hubei was under Shannandong province.. Under Northern Song Hubei was covered by Jinghubei Province. Under Southern Song, Hubei was split in Jinghubei (N) and Jingxinan (S). Under Yuan, Hubei formed part of Henanjiangbei Province. Since Ming Hubei forms a province by that name.

Timeline : Hubei






DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles from Wikipedia
Links, General Category : Hubei, from Wikipedia
Links, on History Category : History of Hubei, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionary Encyclopedia of China, from Jongo Knows
Historical Maps Wuhan etc., Southeastern China Political, from Albert Herrmann, History and Commercial Atlas of China (1935), posted by huhai.net
Hankow with Hanyang and Wuchang 1915, posted by PCL, UTexas
Map : Languages of China, from Titus
Timelines click here
Timeline of Wuhan History, from Wuhan.com
History of the Administrative Divisions of China, Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History from Wikipedia
List of Current and Former Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia; scroll down for Hubei
Hubei History, from China Travel
Encyclopedia Entries Article Hu-Peh, Hankow, from EB 1911
Article Hupei, Hankeou, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek
Articles Hankou, Hupe, from Meyers Grosses Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, in German, posted by Zeno
Politics Concentration Camps Today : Henan & Hubei, from ATTAC
Economy Tonglushan Ancient Metallurgy Museum, from China Museums; Mining for Tourism in Hubei, from China Daily
Resources : Gypsum, from China Mining
Ethnography Articles Tujia, from Ethnic China
Esherick, Joseph W., and Mary Backus Rankin, editors Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance., Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
History of Religion Metropolitan Archdiocese of Hankou, Diocese of Hanyang, Diocese of Laohekou, Diocese of Puqi, Diocese of Quizhou, Apostolic Prefecture of Shashi, Diocese of Shinan, Apostolic Prefecture of Suixian, Diocese of Wuchang, Diocese of Xiangyang, Apostolic Prefecture of Xinxiang, Diocese of Yichang, from GCatholic
List of Buddhist Temples : China : Hubei, from Wikipedia
Tung-shan monastery, (near) Huangmei, from Monastic Asia
Supreme Harmony Temple and Purple Heaven Temple on Mt. Wudang (Danjiangkou, Hubei), Mt. Zhenwu Daoist Temple (Xiangfan, Hubei), Temple of the Imperial Lord on Mt. Wunao (Macheng, Hubei), Mt. Mulan Daoist Temple (Huangpi, Hubei) , Eternal Spring Temple (Changchunguan) , Wuhan, from General Presentation of Daoism
History of Regions Prefectures of China, from www.statoids.com
History of Cities Treaty Ports, Foreign Concessions & Colonies in 1920es China, list compiled by Phil Abbey
Article Wuhan, from Wikipedia; from Johomaps
The History and the Future of Wuhan as an International City, by Chen Feng (2005)
Structures, Institutions History, of Wuhan University
A LOng History, from Hubei University
Article Hubei Institute of Fine Arts, from Wikipedia
A Short Philatelic History of the Yangtse Patrol, by George Saqqal
Structurae : Hubei Province
Bibliography Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keywords Hupeh, Hubei (site in German, most titles listed in English; hundreds of entries; publications mostly since 1970)
Others China & Belgium, from Diplobel
A Preliminary Study on Shang Dynasty Bronzes and their Cu-Pb Ore Sources in Jiangxi, Hubei and Henan, summary of a Chinese language article, posted on Shvoong
McCord, Edward A. The Power of the Gun: The Emergence of Modern Chinese Warlordism . Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press, 1993.
Stephen R. MacKinnon, War and Liberalism in Modern Chinese History : The Case of Wuhan in 1938, Selected Papers in Asian Studies 1993

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Lists of Statesmen Provinces and administrative divisions of China, from World Statesmen
China Administrative Divisions, from rulers.org
Population Figures China, historical population statistics by province, from Population Statistics, posted by Jan Lahmeyer
Hubei, from UNESCAP Chinadata
City Populations : China - Hubei, from City Population
PRC, Abortions and Live Births by Region, Historical Data, from Johnston's Archive
Hubei, from Database of the Basic Conditions of Family Planning Programme at CIPRC (Text on Demography, 1999)
Consular Reports Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, China, Hankow Sept. 24 1915, IA; Dec. 29 1917, IA
Document Collections Emperor Kuang Hsu : Attempted Reforms, 1898, from East Asian History Sourcebook
Search USC Digital Library for Hubei, Hupeh
Archives China Archives Information on the Web, scroll down for Hubei
Hubei Provincial Museum, from Travel China Easy
China Museums, scroll down for Hubei
Coins Chinese Provinces : Hupeh, East Hupeh, from World Coin Gallery
Search Coin Archives for Hupeh
Hupeh 1821-1920, from Numismaticon
Others Historic Postcards from Hubei, Hankow, Wuhan, from Historical Chinese Postcard Project, 1896-1920

PRINTED REFERENCE
General Accounts C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), posted on Internet Archive (includes data of 1913); Hupeh pp.51-58
Edwin John Dingle, Across China on Foot: Life in the Interior and the Reform Movement (1911), posted on Internet Archive on Ichang, Hupeh Prov.
Th.J. Cochrane, Survey of the missionary occupation of China (1913), posted on Internet Archive, on Hupeh pp.143-163
W.H. Jefferys, James Addison Ingle (Yin Teh-sen) first bishop of the missionary district of Hankow, China (1913), posted on Internet Archive
M. Broomhall, The Chinese empire: a general & missionary survey .. (1907), posted on Internet Archive, on Hupeh pp.114-125
W.E. Geil, Eighteen Capitals of China (1911), posted on Internet Archive, Wuchang pp.248-264
Claudius Madrolle, Northern China, the valley of the Blue River, Korea (1912), posted on Internet Archive, Hu-pei pp.379-412
China Hai guan zong shui wu si shu Reports on Trade at the Treaty Ports 1871 Hankow pp.17-28 posted on Internet Archive
N.G. Gee, The educational directory for China; an account of the various schools and colleges connected with Protestant missions (1905), posted on Internet Archive Hupeh pp.3, 12, 28-29, 75-76, 83-86, 109, 117, 118, 123-125