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Sources on the History of East Asia . Sources on the History of Northeast Asia
China
First posted on December 2nd 2004, last revised on January 21st 2014






Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

see also Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic of China
see also History of Port Arthur (Kwantung, Dalian)
from 1946, see also People's Republic of China


From the Manchu Conquest of Ming China (1644) to 1860, Manchuria (in contemporary English language sources then called Eastern Chinese Tartary) was sealed off to Chinese settlers. In 1858 Qing China had to cede to the Russian Empire the Amur Territory, in 1860 what the Russians would refer to as the Maritime Territory, with the northern half of Sakhalin (hitherto claimed by Qing).
In order to defend the thinly populated territory of Manchuria against further Russian expansion, in 1860 the country was opened up for Chinese settlers, many of whom came from the province of Shandong.
In 1894-1895 Japan emerged victorious from the First Sino-Japanese War; it demanded among others the Liaodong Peninsula. However, the Russian Empire regarded a Japanese acquisition of the latter as interfering with her own ambition; the East Asiatic Triple Alliance (France, Germany, Russia) successfully exerted diplomatic pressure with the effect that Japan gave up the Liaodong Peninsula and Russia instead leased Port Arthur from Qing China (1898).
In the Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905, Japan emerged victorious and the leased territory of Port Arthur was transferred to Japan, now called Kwantung. The Russian Empire and Japan agreed to divide Manchuria in two spheres of interest, Southern Manchuria (Japanese) and Northern Manchuria (Russian).
Following the Chinese Revolution of 1911 the Chinese Empire disintegrated. Zhang Zuolin (Chang Tso Lin) emerged as the warlord in control of Manchuria 1916-1928), who temporarily even established control over Beijing. In 1928 the Nationalist government established control of Manchuria.
In 1931 Japan invaded the country and established what the Chinese referred to as the "Puppet State of Manchukuo" 1932-1945. Nominally ruled by Kangde Emperor (= Puyi, the last Qing Emperor), in reality the country was administrated and exploited by Japan. In 1945 Manchuria was invaded by Soviet forces; the Soviets soon handed the administration of Manchuria over to the Republic of China. When the Chinese Civil War resumed in 1946, Manchuria quickly fell to the Communists, and since 1949 is part of the People's Republic of China, which prefers the term "Northeast China" to Manchuria.
Compared to other coastal regions of the PR China, Northeast China lags behind in economic development, largely due to the fact that the military's influence on the administration of the province proves an obstacle to economic development.

Historical Atlas : Manchuria , China Page






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current Articles Manchuria, Northeast China, from Wikipedia
Historical A. Hosie, Manchuria, its People, Resources and Recent History (1901), Internet Archive
H.J. Whigham, Manchuria and Korea (1904), IA
South Manchuria Railway Company, Manchuria, Land iof Opportunities (1922), IA
O. Lattimore, Manchuria, Cradle of Conflict (1932), IA
P.T. Etherton, Manchuria, the Cockpit of Asia (1932), IA
Links General Category : Manchuria, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Manchuria, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionary Encyclopedia of China, from Jongo Knows
Organizations
Timelines see here
History of the Administrative Divisions of China, Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History Current Perspective History of Manchuria, from Columbia Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia
List of Current and Former Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia; scroll down for Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning
Historical Perspective
Specific Periods Japan's Economic Expansion into Manchuria and China in World War II, Part 1, Part 2, Bibliography, by James Graham
China's Loss of Sovereignty in Manchuria 1895-1914, Part 1, Part 2, Bibliography, by James Graham
Hong, Wontack, What Part of Manchuria were the Han Chinese able to Rule, even intermittently ? The Willow Palisade (2005)
Politics, Administration Concentration Camps Today : Eastern Manchuria, from ATTAC
Military The Manchurian Border Disputes 1938-1939, from World War II Multimedia Database
F. Palmer, With Kuroki in Manchuria (1904), IA
M. Baring, With the Russians in Manchuria (1905). posted on Internet Archive
L.L. Seaman, From Tokyo through Manchuria with the Japanese (1905), posted on Internet Archive
L.G.F. Brooke, An Eye-Witness in Manchuria (1905), posted on Internet Archive
J. Fox, Following the Sun-Flag : A Vain Pursuit through Manchuria (1905), posted on Internet Archive
Article : War Crimes in Manchukuo, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances Tim Wright, The Impact of the 1930s Depression in Manchuria, IEHC 2006
Silvio Miyazaki, The Historical Evolution of the Japanese Investment Flows to East Asia pre World War II, IEHC 2006
Chosen Ginko, Economic Outlines of Chosen and Manchuria (1918), posted on Internet Archive
China Hai guan zong shui wu si shu Reports on Trade at the Treaty Ports (1868), Newchwang pp.5-13, 1869 pp.5-7, 1871 pp.5-10 posted on Internet Archive
Ethnography, Social History The Manchu Ethnic Minority, from about.com
Articles Daur, Ewenki, Hezhe, Mongols, Xibe, from Ethnic China
Language of the Mantchew Tartars, pp.142-165 in J.B. Grosier, A general description of China, 1788, GB
The Chinese Empire : Manchooria, pp.571-572 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Manchuria, pp.3429-3448 in vol.5A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : China, posted by Kirken i Norge
China, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project (Dalian, Harbin)
Apostolic Prefecture of Baoqing (Heil.), Diocese of Fushun (Liaon.), Apostolic Administration of Harbin (Heil.), Apostolic Prefecture of Jiamusi (Heil.), Diocese of Jilin (Jil.), Diocese of Qiqihar (Heil.), Metropolitan Archdiocese of Shenyang (Liaon.), Diocese of Sipingjie, Diocese of Yanji (Jil.), Diocese of Yingkou, from GCatholic
Th.J. Cochrane, Survey of the missionary occupation of China (1913), posted on Internet Archive, on Manchuria pp.316-329
M. Broomhall, The Chinese empire: a general & missionary survey .. (1907), posted on Internet Archive, on Manchuria pp.301-317
N.G. Gee, The educational directory for China; an account of the various schools and colleges connected with Protestant missions (1905), posted on Internet Archive pp.79-80, 122
Article : Diocese of Harbin, from OrthodoxWiki
History of Regions Article Heilongjiang, Harbin, Jilin, from Wikipedia
Article Liaoning, from Columbia Encyclopedia
History of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, from Wikipedia
The Autonomous Korean Prefecture of Yanbian, from
Local History Article Shenyang (Mukden), from Columbia Encyclopedia, from Wikipedia
History of Dalian (Port Arthur), from Dalian Municipal Communications Bureau; from Dalian News
History of Harbin, from Wikipedia
History of Changchun (Hsingking), from Wikipedia
Article Yingkou (Newchwang), from Wikipedia
Treaty Ports, Foreign Concessions & Colonies in 1920es China, list compiled by Phil Abbey
Søren Clausen, Stig Thøgersen, Lokalhistorie og lokalbeskrivelse i Kina : Tilfældet Harbin, Historie / Jyske Samlinger 18/4 1989-1991, pp.590-631, posted by tidsskrift.dk, in Danish
Deutsche Seewarte,
Die wichtigsten Häfen Chinas, 1901
Structures, Institutions Long Guang (Harbin Economy Radio), from Wikipedia
Structurae : Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning
Culture
Biographies
Environmental History
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Provinces and administrative divisions of China, from World Statesmen, scroll down for Heilongjiang (Heilungkiang), Jilin (Kirin), Liaoning (Fengtien); Manchuria/Manchukuo, from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon)
from Rulers (B. Schemmel), scroll down for Manchukuo; China Administrative Divisions, from rulers.org, scroll down for Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning
from Regnal Chronologies
Statistical Data Population Figures China, historical population statistics by province, from Population Statistics, posted at Univ. Utrecht; look for Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning; data reach back until 1787
Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, from UNESCAP Chinadata
City Populations : China - Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, from City Population
PRC, Abortions and Live Births by Region, Historical Data, from Johnston's Archive
Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, from Database of the Basic Conditions of Family Planning Programme at CIPRC (Text on Demography, 1999)
Documents Historical Newspapers On Russian concerns of a Chinese military buildup in Manchuria, from New York Times Jan. 31st 1890
Time : Sept. 12 1932, Sept. 26 1932, Nov. 28 1932, Dec. 19 1932, Feb. 20 1933, Feb. 27 1933 Jul. 17 1933, Nov. 6 1933, Feb. 12 1934, Nov. 5 1934, Apr. 13 1936
Online Yearbooks
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, from Curioshop, commercial sites
from Historical Chinese Postcard Project, 1896-1920
Search Delcampe Picture Postcards for Manchuria, Mandschurei
Airline Timetable Images : Manchuria
1930s Russia Manchukuo Badge, from Imperial Japan Military Memorabilia
Lafayette College, East Asia Image Collections -1952
Archival Deposits Search USC Digital Library for Manchuria
China deposits (Jewish communities Tientsin, Harbin, Shanghai), at Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Search Janus (catalogues of archives and manuscript collections held throughout Cambridge) for Manchuria
Constitutions Mandschuko Constitutions, from Verfassungen.eu, texts in English, (brief) comment in German
Laws
Treaty Collections Carnegie Endowment : Manchuria, Treaties and Agreements (1921), posted on Internet Archive
Treaty between the State of Japan and the State of Manchukuo Concerning Abolition of Extraterritoriality in Manchuria, and Transmission of Administrative Authority to Districts Belonging to the Southern-Manchurian Railroad - Termination of the Treaty as a Consequence of Lack of Existence of One of the Parties, Kobe 2000
Consular Reports Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, China, Manchuria Mukden, June 2 1915, IA; Harbin, Aug. 24 1915, IA; Dec. 3 1915, IA; Antung, Dec. 4 1917, IA; Dairen, May 26 1919, IA
Commerce Reports, 19th year vol.3, July, August and September 1916, IA; p.118 : Ginseng Market Conditions in Manchuria, June 1; p.877 : New British Trade Organization in Manchuria, July 27; pp.1175-1176 : Markets for American Fountain Pens : Manchuria, July 11; vol.4, October, November and December 1916, IA, p.83 : Production of Edible Beans in Manchuria, Aug. 22; P.220 : Electrical Development in China, Mukden Aug. 21; p.502 : Edible Beans in North Manchuria, Oct. 2; p.705 : Manchurian Bean Crop, Oct. 19; pp.868-869 : Proposed Railways in Manchuria, Sept. 23; p.903 : Investigation of Japanese Trade in Manchuria, Oct. 28; 21st year vol.3, July, August and September 1918, IA, p.462 : Afforestation Enterprises in Southeastern Manchuria, June 8; p.651 : Japanese Commercial Exhibit at Harbin, n.d.; p.717 : New Trading Places in Manchuria and Mongolia, n.d.; p.719 : Japanese Loan for Kirin-Heilyong Railway, July 11; p.1065 : Wild Cocoon Crop in Southeastern Manchuria, July 23; pp.1158-1159 : Electric Light and Power Plants at Antung, Aug. 6
Historiography
Document Collections
Historical Maps collections : Africa see here
Manchuria, Modern Map : Paleoasiatic Languages of Northeast Asia, from Titus
Map : Languages of China, from Titus
Manchuria, contemporary Map : Manchuria 1906, Manchuria 1922, Manchuria 1932, from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
Detail, modern
Detail, contemporary U.S. Army Map Service, Manchuria 1:250,000 1950-
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article : Tartary, chapter : Eastern Tartary, pp.314-316 in vol.18 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1797, GB
Article : Tartars, chapter : Tartary, Eastern Chinese, p.153 in vol.22 of the 2nd ed. of Encyclopaedia Perthensis, 1816, GB
Aigun, Articles Mandschurei, Mukden, Niutschuang, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Article Manchuria, Aigun, Harbin, Liao-Yang, Mukden, from EB 1911
Religious Chinese Tartary, p.125 in J. Bellamy, The history of all religions, 1820, GB
Article Manchuria from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914
Economic E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Manchuria
Geographical Entry : Eastern Tartary pp.25-31, Government of Shin-Yang pp.25-26, Government of Kirin-ula-Hotun pp.26-30, Government of Tsitsikar pp.30-31, in : T.G. Smoillett, The Present State of the World, vol.7 1769, GB
Eastern Chinese Tartary, pp.123-142 in J.B. Grosier, A general description of China, 1788, GB
Eastern Tartary, pp.129-141 in vol.1 of G. Philips, A general view of the manners, customs and curiosities of nations, 1813, GB
G.Th. Landmann, A universal gazetteer; or, Geographical dictionary of the world (1835), posted on Internet Archive; search for Eastern Tartary
Mantchuria, pp.71-77 in R. Brown, The Countries of the World 1892, IA
C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), IA (includes data of 1913); Manchuria pp.153-164
Historical Eastern Chinese Tartary, pp.121-132 in W. Winterbotham, An historical, geographical, and philosophical view of the Chinese empire, 1795, GB
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides Claudius Madrolle, Northern China, the valley of the Blue River, Korea (1912), IA, Manchuria pp.217-260
Bank of Chosen, Pictorial Chosen and Manchuria (1919), IA
Travelogues A. Williamson, A Journey through North China, Manchuria and Eastern Mongolia (1870), IA
Accounts of Residents A.R. Crawford, Sketches of Missionary Life in Manchuria (1899), posted on Internet Archive
L.A. Sharov, Life in Siberia and Manchuria 1898-1922 (1960), posted on Internet Archive
D. Christie, Thirty Years in Moukden 1883-1913 (1914), posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives UNESCO Archives Portal : Liaoning, 2 entries, Jilin, 1 entry
Musea
Monuments
Libraries
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of Manchukuo, from FOTW; Coat of Arms of Manchukuo, from Wikipedia, image only
Coins, Banknotes History and Photo Catalog of World Paper Money : Manchukuo; Banknotes - Central Bank of Manzhou-Guo, from Zeno
Coins China-Japan - Puppet States, from Zeno, mostly Manzhou-Guo
Chinese Provinces : Kirin, Manchuria, Manchoukuo, from World Coin Gallery
Search Coin Archives for Manchuria, Kirin, Heilungkiang, Liaotung
Fengtien Coins 1875-1909, Kirin Coins 1875-1909, Manchuria Coins 1907-1929, from Numismaticon
Stamps Manchukuo Stamps 1932-1947

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Manchuria M. Honda, E.B. Ceadel, A Survey of Japanese Contributions to Manchurian Studies
on specific issues James Graham, China's Loss of Sovereignty in Manchuria 1895-1914, a Bibliography (2004)
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
International Boundary Studies
on Manchuria
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directories Directory of Open Access Journals
full text online Journal of Northeast Asian History (since 2004)
General Accounts
Specific Topics Tim Wright, Coal mining in China's economy and society, Cambridge : UP 1984 [B]
Historical Dictionaries James S. Olson, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China, Westport CT : Greenwood 1998 [G]
Yearbooks Article : Manchuria, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1944 pp.418-419, 1945 p.423, 1946 pp.454-455, 1947 pp.474-475, 1948 p.458 [G]
Article : China : Manchuria, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1918 pp.761-762, 1919 pp.738-739, 1924 pp.753-754, 1925 pp.764-765, 1926 pp.741-742, 1928 pp.752-753, 1929 pp.744-746, 1932 pp.749-751, 1937 pp.785-787, 793-794, 1943 pp.781-784 [G]
Article : Manchuria, in : Americana Annual 1927 p.523, 1928 p.477, 1930 pp.465-466, 1931 p.461, Manchoukuo 1932 p.434, 1933 pp.453-456, 1934 pp.353-354, 1935 pp.427-428, 1936 pp.429-430, 1937 pp.428-429, 1938 p.412, 1939 p.463, 1940 p.476, 1943 pp.450-451, 1944 pp.425-426, 1945 p.449, 1946 pp.469-471, 1947 pp.426-427 [G]
Article : Manchuria, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.475-476, 1908 pp.428-429, 1909 p.443, 1913 pp.422-423, 1914 p.429, 1916 p.403, 1918 p.386, 1919 p.402, 1920 pp.416-417, 1921 p.436, 1923 pp.443-444, 1925 p.409, 1928 pp.428-429, 1930 pp.454-455, Manchoukuo 1932 pp.476-477, 1933 pp.466-468, 1934 pp.398-399, 1935 pp.418-419, 1938 pp.430-432, 1939 pp.456-458, Events of 1940 pp.428-430, 1941 pp.347-348, 1942 pp.394-395, 1943 pp.354-355, 1944 pp.365-366, 1945 pp.347-352 [G]
Article : Manchoukuo, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1932 pp.365-366, 1933 pp.335-337, 1934 pp.349-351, 1935 pp.350-351, 1936 pp.326-327, 1937 pp.327-329, 1938 pp.330-331, 1939 pp.352-354, 1940 p.355, 1941 p.306, 1942 p.275, 1943 p.280, 1944 p.191, Manchuria 1952 pp.252-253 [G]
Travelogues Guinea Pigs of Manchukuo, pp.142-153 in : John Gunther, Inside Asia, 1942 War Edition, NY : Harper & Brothers (1938) 1942