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Literature on the History of East Asia . Literature on the History of Central Asia
Gobi Region Core China
First posted on January 29th 2014

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Introduction . Prehistory . 206 BCE-552 CE . 552-907 . 907-1206 . 1206-1368 . 1368-1691 . 1691-1800 . 1800-1911 . 1911-1949 . since 1949

The Roof of Asia is a geographic region, here understood as comprising of the modern Chinese provinces of Qinghai and Xizang (Tibet), Ladakh and Bhutan.

Prior to the arrival of Buddhism there is little written evidence. The legendary Kingdom of Zhangzhung, located in western Tibet, is believed to have been the home of the pre-Buddhist religion of Bön, which has still followers among modern Tibetans. Trade routes connected Tibet with Han China, with trade centers along the Silk Road, with Bengal and the Punjab. Tibet exported, among others, gold and horses.
The economy on the Tibetan Plateau was largely dependent on agriculture and animal husbandry; religious belief had an influence on the lifestyle of the populace.

Era of the Tibetan Empire, which temporarily controlled Bengal and once raided the Chinese (Tang) capital of Chang'an. In the early 7th century, Buddhism was introduced to Tibet. In the 2nd half of the 8th century, Buddhism was made official religion.

Tibet had disintegrated into a number of regional states. Apart from states centered on Lhasa and Yalung, the Kingdoms of Ladakh, Guge, Pu-hrang emerged. Only in the 13th century, with Mongol aid, did the Tibetan theocracy succeed in reuniting much of the country.

The Mongol Empire was established by Genghis Khan in 1206 and rapidly conquered its neighbours, in genocidal warfare. In 1271 the (Mongol) Yuan Dynasty was proclaimed. Tibet had recognized Mongol suzerainty since 1236.

In 1368 the Yuan were ousted from China by the Ming. The Yuan, as the Northern Yuan Dynasty or the Mongol Khanate, continued to rule until 1691. In the 15th century, the Mongols converted to Buddhism.
Central Tibet established virtual independence, maintaining strong relations with the Mongols.
In 1378, Guge annexed Pu-hrang.

In 1578 Oirat Mongol Altan Khan invited Sonam Gyatso, head of the Tibetan Gelugpa sect, to his court and bestowed on him the title "Dalai Lama", thus beginning a lineage which continues into our days. Tibet remained a theocracy which at times called upon Mongols to restore order in Central Tibet.
In 1616, a Bhutanese theocracy was established; in a series of conflicts lasting until 1728, Bhutan established her independence from Tibet.
In 1666-1667, as a concession to the Sultan of Kashmir, the King of (Buddhist) Ladakh had a mosque built in his capital of Leh.
Tibet conquered Guge in 1680.

In 1720 the Qing Dynasty established control over Tibet; the Tibetan theocracy was maintained, but was reduced to the status of a Qing satellite. Qing separated Amdo and Kham from Tibet and formed the province of Qinghai in 1724.
In 1774 the East India Company ousted the Bhutanese from Cooch Behar. In 1907, Bhutan introduced hereditary monarchy.
Ladakh lost its independence in 1834 and was annexed into Jammu & Kashmir in 1846.

The Chinese Revolution of 1911 ended the Qing Dynasty. Tibet declared independence. Both Tibet and Bhutan pursued a rather isolationist policy and missed an opportunity for modernization. Qinghai was under the control of the Ma Clique, which sympathized with the KMT (Nationalist China).

since 1950
From 1912 to 1950, Tibet had been de facto independent, an independence which lacked international recognition. Interbellum Tibet had been regarded a British satellite, a status which after the British withdrawal from (British) India in 1947 had become obsolete. In 1950 the PR China invaded and annexed Tibet. In 1959 the Dalai Lama fled to India; a Tibetan rebellion was suppressed. In 1962, India and the PR China fought a border war.
In the partition of Jammu and Kashmir 1948, Ladakh came to India. Bhutan, until 1962 isolated, was donated a road connecting it to India.
Ladakh, Xizang (as Tibet is called by the Chinese) and Qinghai remain remote thinly populated, economically underdeveloped regions whose fates are largely determined by distant governments composed of ethnically and religiously different persons. Only Bhutan is in full control of its own affairs.
China has brought significant numbers of Han Chinese settlers into Tibet, and even more into Qinghai. The Chinese administration has implemented social reforms such as the abolition of serfdom; China supports cultural autonomy of non-Han ethnic groups, and has contributed to the economic modernization of the region, for instance by constructing a railroad connecting Lhasa with the Chinese lowland.

Students' Paper : Son, Bo Kyung, The History of Persecution of the Buddhist Faith (2011)

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern
Historical C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), IA (includes data of 1913)
Organizations Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute for Archaeology, IA CASS
Society for East Asian Archaeology
International Society for the History of East Asian Science, Technology and Medicine
Association for East Asian Environmental History
Tibetan Mongolian Museum Society
Center for the Study of Eurasian Nomads
Silk Road Foundation
International Institute for Central Asian Studies
University of Jammu, Centre for History and Culture of Jammu and Ladakh Regions
The International Association for Ladakh Studies (IALS)
TEDAHL, Team for the Exploration and Documentation of the Archaeology and History of Ladakh
Case Western Reserve University, The Center for Research on Tibet
International Association for Tibetan Studies
Tibet Heritage Fund
Societe Europeenne pour l'Etude des Civilisations de l'Himalaya et de l'Asie Centrale
Historical Dictionary The Tibetan and Himalayan Library, THL Tibetan Historical Dictionary Overview
U. Theobald, China Knowledge
Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
N.S. Vsevolozhskij, Dictionnaire geographique-historique de l'empire de Russie, vol.1, vol.2, 1823, in French, GB
Altaic Wiki
Timelines Major Events relevant to Central Asian History (since 1600), from oxuscom
R. Sela, Historical Chronology of Central Asia 2009
Timeline of Tibetan History, Wikipedia
BuddhaNet, Timeline of Tibetan Buddhism
Accounts of History General F.H. Skrine, E.D. Ross, The Heart of Asia: A History of Russian Turkestan and the Central Asian Khanates from the Earliest Times (1899), IA
Specific Periods
Until 600 BCE UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia,
Vol.1 : Dawn of Civilization to 700 B.C.
P. Dollfus, Peopling and Migrations : Some Remarks Based on Research in Ladakh, n.d.
Neolithic Article : Prehistoric Culture of Tibet, Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia; Chinese source base
G. Miehe et al., How old is pastoralism in Tibet? An ecological approach to the making of a Tibetan landscape, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 276 (2009) pp.130-147
Bronze Age R.N. Spengler, Botanical Resource Use in the Bronze and Iron Age of the Central Eurasian Mountain/Steppe Interface: Decision Making in Multiresource Pastoral Economies, thesis Washington Univ. of St. Louis 2013
Hey Tibet, Evidence of Tibet entering Iron Age from Bronze Age discovered, 2007
Article : Prehistoric Culture of Tibet, Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia; Chinese source base
H.S. Tang, The Economic Types and Related Issues of the Bronze Age in Tibetan Plateau, Journal of Tsinghua University(Philosophy and Social Sciences) 2012-01
600 BCE-600 CE UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia,
Vol.2 : The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250
Vol.3 : The Crossroads of Civilizations : AD 250 to 750
600-1450 UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia,
Vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : 750 to the End of the 15th Century
1450-1750 UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia,
Vol.5 : Development in Contrast : From the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century
1750-1914 T.O. Løvold, The Qing and Russia in Central Asia : A Comparative Study of Motives for Political Expansion, thesis Oslo 2009
UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia,
Vol.6 : Towards the contemporary Period : from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century
since 1914
Historiography L.W.J. van der Kuijp, Tibetan Historiography , Tibetan Literature: Studies in Genre, pp.39-56
J.A. Duncan, American Journalism and the Tibet Question, 1950-1959, thesis Iowa State 2011
D. Hirshberg, Delivering the Lotus-Born: Historiography in the Tibetan Renaissance, thesis Harvard 2012; "Tibetan Renaissance" refers to the 12th century
Article : Old Tibetan Chronicle, Wikipedia
Article : Tibetan Annals, Wikipedia
B.J. Cuevas, Some Reflections on the Periodization of Tibetan History, Revue d'Etudes Tibetaines vol.10 2002 pp.44-55
Administration / Politics M.C. Goldstein, An Anthropological Study of the Tibetan Political System, thesis Univ. of Washington 1968
Military J.F. Leeker, Missions to Tibet, 2013
Economy & Finances
General Ch.18 : The Economy. Production and Trade, pp.377-430, in : UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.5 : Development in Contrast : From the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century
Economic Patterns of the Tibet Autonomous Region: The Past and Present, Population, Ethnicity, and Nation-building, edited by C. Goldscheider 1995, pp.37-75
Currency & Finances Ch.19 : Monetary Systems and Prices, pp.430-464 in : UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.5 : Development in Contrast : From the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century
M.C. Goldstein, Taxation and the Structure of a Tibetan Village, Central Asiatic Journal 15(1) 1971, pp.1-27
Article : Historical Money of Tibet, Wikipedia
A. Green, History of Money and Coinage in Tibet
N. Rhodes, Coinage in Bhutan, Journal of Bhutan Studies 1 1999 pp.84-113
N. Rhodes, The Monetisation of Bhutan, Journal of Bhutan Studies vol.2 no.2 2000 pp.79-95
Trade H.C. Rawlinson, On Trade Routes between Turkestan and India, pp.10-23 in Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London, January 1, 1868
Ch.18 : The Economy. Production and Trade, pp.377-430, in : UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.5 : Development in Contrast : From the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century
A. de Rosthorn, On the tea cultivation in western Ssuch'uan; and, The tea trade with Tibet via Tachienlu 1895, IA
H.H. Wong, A historical analysis of Tibet's tea trade with Szechuan and other regions in the Ch'ing dynasty , thesis Hong Kong 1966
T. Tong, The Silk Roads of the Northern Tibetan Plateau during the Early Middle Ages (from the Han to Tang Dynasty) as Reconstructed from Archaeological and Written Sources, thesis Tübingen 2008
M. Onishi et al., A Lesser Known Route: the Qinghai Route, Silk Road in Rare Books 2005
R. Sarkar et al., Two Nineteenth Century Trade Routes in the Eastern Himalayas: the Bhutanese trade with Tibet and Bengal, Journal of Bhutan Studies vol.15 no.3 2006 pp.56-83
A. Deb, Tibet and Bengal. A Study in Trade Policy and Trade Pattern (1775-1875), Bulletin of Tibetology vol.3 no.3 1984 pp.17-32
C.R. Markham, Travels in Great Tibet, and Trade between Tibet and Bengal, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society vol.19 no.5, 1874-1875 pp.327-347
Ancient Tea-Horse Road, from TuoCha Tea
F.Q. Yuan, The "Ancient Tea and Horse Caravan Road", the "Silk Road of Southwest China", in : Silk Road Newsletter 2004
China's Ancient Tea-Horse-Road in Historical Perspective, from CPA Media
Agriculture Tibet Environmental Watch : Tibet: Environment and Development Issues, 2000, ch.3 : Agriculture
Crafts T.P. Hudson, Hand-Spinning for Traditional Garments in Ladakh, 2008
Himalayan Rugs, Rug-Making Process
Carpet&Rugpedia, Tibetan Carpets
J.G. Karsten, 'When Silk was Gold' in the Land of Snows: A Preliminary Tibetan-English "Pictorial" Glossary of Textile Terms Related to Silken Fabrics from Tibet (13th to 20th Centuries) with Chinese, Manchu, Mongol and Uigur Equivalents from the 1770s, draft
Social History Spring Dales Public School, Mulbekh, Brief History of Education in Ladakh
J.H. Fewkes, The legacy of trade: Social networks in Ladakh, India, thesis UPenn 2005
L. Shastri, The Marriage Customs of Ru-Thog, Tibetan Studies vol.2 1994
M.C. Goldstein, The Circulation of Estates in Tibet : Reincarnation, Land and Politics, The Journal of Asia Studies, vol.32 no.3 1973, pp.445-455
M.C. Goldstein, Serfdom and Mobility: An Examination of the Institution of "Human Lease" in Traditional Tibetan Society, The Journal of Asian Studies vol.30 no.3 1971, pp.521-534
H. Fjeld, Commoners and nobles : the persistence of hereditary social divisions in Lhasa under communist rules, thesis Oslo 1999
Article : Serfdom in Tibet Controversy
China Reconstructs, When serfs stood up in Tibet (1959), Anna Louise Strong Reference Archive (tendentious)
Article : Education in Tibet, Wikipedia
Ethnography C. Bell, People of Tibet, 1928, IA
A.L. Shelton, Life among the people of Eastern Tibet, 1921, IA
W.W. Rockhill, Notes on the ethnology of Tibet, 1895, IA
Religion General The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire by Alexander Berzin (1996) 2006
ch.2 :Religion and Religious Movements, pp.62-93 in UNESCO, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : 750 to the End of the 15th Century, UNESCO Pt.2
J. Bray, Old Religions, New Identities and Conflicting Values in Ladakh 2007
Shamanist F. Kressing, The Increase of Shamans in Contemporary Ladakh, Asian Folklore Studies 62 2003 pp.1-23
Bön Y.S. Liu, Minority within a minority: being Bonpo in the Tibetan community in exile, thesis Edinburgh 2012
A. Berzin, Berzin Archives : Historical, Cultural, and Comparative Studies , History of Buddhism and Bon . Comparison of Buddhist Traditions . Buddhism and Islam . Asian Non-Buddhist Traditions . Tibetan Astrology and Medicine
Religion Facts : Bön
Buddhism S. Jagchid, Tibetan Buddhism, The Mongolian Religion, n.d.
R. Taupier, Mongols and Oirats as Peacekeepers: Buddhist Warriors Behind the Lotus Throne, in : B.M. Knauft et al. (ed.), Mongolians After Socialism: Politics, Economy, Religion, 2012
F. Liland, The transmission of the Bodhicaryavatara : the history, diffusion, and influence of a Mahayana Buddhist text, thesis Oslo 2009
K. J. Solonin, Hongzhou Buddhism in Xixia and the Heritage of Zongmi (780-841): A Tangut Source, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.16 pt.2 2003
Drikung Kagyu Order of Tibetan Buddhism, est. 1179
DFLN, History of Nuns in Ladakh
E. Schlagintweit, Buddhism in Tibet, 1863, IA
L.A. Waddell, The Buddhism of Tibet: Or Lamaism, with Its Mystic Cults, Symbolism and Mythology etc. 1895, IA
N. Binder, Die absolute Chronologie der frühen Tempel von Alchi, Ladakh, thesis Wien 2012
N.G. Lin, Adapting the Buddha's Biographies: A Cultural History of the Wish-Fulfilling Vine in Tibet, Seventeenth to Eighteenth Centuries, thesis UC Berkeley 2011
M. Viehbeck, The case of 'Ju Mi pham (1846-1912) and Dpa' ris Rab gsal (1840-1912), thesis Wien 2012
G.H. Lirscher, Die frühesten Darstellungen der Schutzgöttin dPal Idan Lha mo, thesis Wien 2013
F. Krobath, Kritische Edition, Übersetzung und Interpretation des Lta ba'i khyad par von Ye shes sde, thesis Wien 2011
A. Berzin, Berzin Archives : Historical, Cultural, and Comparative Studies , History of Buddhism and Bon . Comparison of Buddhist Traditions . Buddhism and Islam . Asian Non-Buddhist Traditions . Tibetan Astrology and Medicine
Taoism S. van Schaik, Phagpa's Arrow, or Buddhists vs Daoists, 2008 about a 1255-1258 disputation at Möngke's court
Confucianism S.Y. Lin, The Tibetan Image of Confucius, Revue d'Etudes Tibetaines vol.12 2007 pp.105-129
Zoroastrianism K.E. Eduljee, Iranian-Aryan Connections with Western Tibet, Zoroastrian Heritage 2011
Manicheism T.H. Barrett, Tang Taoism and the mention of Jesus and Mani in Tibetan Zen : a comment on recent work by Rong Xinjiang, Bulletin of SOAS, 66, 1 (2003), pp.56-58
A Comprehensive Bibliography on Syriac Christianity, Keyword Tibet; several Tibet titles also refer to Manicheism
Islam Islamic Voice : Ladakh Muslims At A Glance: Islam in Ladakh, 2003
J. Bray, Readings on Islam in Ladakh: Local, Regional, and International Perspectives, Himalaya, the Journal of the Association for Nepal and Himalayan Studies vol.32 2013
Nestorian Chr. T.H. Barrett, Tang Taoism and the mention of Jesus and Mani in Tibetan Zen : a comment on recent work by Rong Xinjiang, Bulletin of SOAS, 66, 1 (2003), pp.56-58
A. Thiry, Christian Crosses in Little Tibet
Article : Timothy I (Nestorian Patriarch), Wikipedia
T.V. Philip, East of the Euphrates: Early Christianity in Asia, Chapter 8: Christianity in Other Places in Asia 1998; on Tibet speculative : "... one relic of Nestorianism in Tibet is the survival of its ritual in a debased form in the Lamaism of Tibet. The striking resemblances with Lamaist Monasticism, the use of holy water, incense and vestments of a similar character to Nestorian practices, must be traced to the days of the Nestorian missionary in the high middle ages", quote from A.S. Atiya, A history of Eastern Christianity, 1968, p.263
A Comprehensive Bibliography on Syriac Christianity, Keyword Tibet
Catholic Chr. H.T. Lin, When Christianity and Lamaism Met: The Changing Fortunes of Early Western Missionaries in Tibet, Pacific Rim Report No. 36, December 2004
M. Hollerwöger, Missionare in Tibet im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert, thesis Wien 2010
B.D.d.O.S. Cruz, A missao tibetana na correspondencia jesuita (1624-1631), thesis Sao Paulo 2009
Protestant Chr. M. Broomhall, The Chinese empire: a general & missionary survey (1907), IA
Th.J. Cochrane, Survey of the missionary occupation of China (1913), IA
J. Bray, A History of the Moravian Church in India (The Himalayan Mission), 1985
History of Regions Administrative Division Provinces of China, from www.statoids.com; Prefectures of China, from www.statoids.com
Article : History of the Administrative Divisions of China before 1912, Wikipedia
Historic Regions
Historic State
Guge, (910) 1088-1630 CE Article : Guge, Wikipedia
Ladakh, 842-1846 CE Article : History of Ladakh, Wikipedia
T. Rinpoche, A Short History of Ladakh
SikhiWiki, Rulers of Ladakh
A. Cunningham, Ladak, physical, statistical, and historical ; with notices of the surrounding countries 1854, IA
J.M. Deng, Frontier: The Making of the Northern and Eastern Border in Ladakh From 1834 to the Present, thesis Washington University in St. Louis 2010
Tuyuhun, 285-670 CE Articles Tuyuhun Kingdom, from Wikipedia
Non-Chinese People and Neighbouring States : Tuyuhun, from China Knowledge
Emperor Taizong's Campaign against the Tuyuhun, from Wikipedia
Xixia, 1038-1227 Articles Western Xia, from Wikipedia
Chinese History - Western Xia Dynasty 1038-1227 - Event History, from China Knowledge
Western Xia Dynasty, by Ah Xiang
K. J. Solonin, Hongzhou Buddhism in Xixia and the Heritage of Zongmi (780-841): A Tangut Source, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.16 pt.2 2003
ch.9 : The Uighurs, the Kyrgyz and the Tangut, pp.196-221 (Hsi Hsia pp.212-221) in Vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : 750 to the End of the 15th Century, UNESCO Pt.1
Modern Province
Bhutan K.C. Dorji, The emergence of modern Bhutan. Jigme Namgyal's life and career, 1825-1881, thesis Univ. of New Brunswick 1997
J. Ardussi, Formation of the State of Bhutan ('Brug gzhung) in the 17th Century and its Tibetan Antecedents, Journal of Bhutan Studies vol.11 no.2 2004 pp.10-32
Ladakh Article : Aksai Chin, Wikipedia
Qinghai (Amdo) Articles : Amdo, Qinghai, Wikipedia
J. Ptackova, The Great Opening of the West development strategy and its impact on the life and livelihood of Tibetan pastoralists - sedentarisation of Tibetan pastoralists in Zeku County as a result of implementation of socioeconomic and environmental development projects in Qinghai Province, P.R. China, thesis Humboldt Univ. Berlin 2013
B.R. Weiner, The Chinese Revolution on the Tibetan Frontier: State Building, National Integration and Socialist Transformation, Zeku (Tsékhok) County, 1953-1958, thesis Columbia 2012
Xizang (Tibet) E. Sperling, The Tibet-China conflict : history and polemics , 2004
M. Albada, Myths on the Roof of the World: Tibetan Sovereignty in Historical Perspective, The Stanford Progressive 2009
W.W. Smith, China's Tibetan Dilemma, 1990
F. Moraes, The Revolt in Tibet, 1960, IA
H. Strachey, Physical Geography of Western Tibet, 1854, IA
L. Feer, Le Tibet, le pays, le peuple la religion 1886, IA
G. Sandberg, The exploration of Tibet, its history and particulars from 1623 to 1904 1904, IA
H. Spence, British policy and the 'development' of Tibet 1912-1933, thesis Wollongong 1993
W. Palace, Losing Face: the British foreign service and the question of Tibet 1904-1922, thesis Durham 1995
Local History General P. Dezes, The Geology of Zanskar, ch.1.4 : History, 1999
K. Gutschow, The Politics of Being Buddhist in Zangskar: Partition and Today, India Review vol.5 nos.3-4, July/October 2006, pp.470-498
Culture General K. Mukherjee, Cultural History of Ladakh Part 1, Bulletin of Tibetology 1996
A.T. Smanla, A Brief Introduction to Traditional Tibetan Medicine in Ladakh
Huntingdon Archive, J.C. Huntingdon, The Technique of Tibetan Paintings, Studies in Conservation, vol.15, no.2 1970, pp.122-133
Religious Art R. Linrothe, Exploring or Exploiting the Western Himalaya ? Giuseppe Tucci and His "Useful Lie" 2011
J.V. Bellezza, The Ancient Amulets of Tibet : Thogchags. A collection of Miniature Masterpieces, Asian Art
Textile Art
Biographies U. Theobald, China Knowledge : Index of Persons
Environmental History General, Links Univ. of Oregon, Environment China, contains a number of texts on environmental topics in history
Climate Zones Köppen Climate Classification : BSk Cold semi-arid climates, Bwk Cold desert climates, Cwb Subtropical Highland Climate, Dwb Humid Continental Climate, Dwc Subarctic climate, ET Tundra climate, Wikipedia
Ecoregions WWF Ecoregions : Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World : Temperate Coniferous Forests, PA0514 : Subalpine coniferous forests of pine, hemlock, spruce and fir, Montane Grasslands and Shrublands : PA1002, PA1003, PA1006 : Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe, PA1012, PA1017 : Southeast Tibet Shrub and Meadows, PA1020 : Tibetan Plateau Alpine Shrublands and Meadows, from World Wildlife
ChinaMaps, China Land Cover Map (Vegetation Zones)
J.Y. Fang et al., Vegetation-Climate Relationship and its Application in the Division of Vegetation Zone in China, Acta Botanica Sinica 2002 (9) pp.1105-1122
Land Use, Deforestation G. Miehe et al., Geo-ecological transect studies in northeast Tibet (Qinghai, China) reveal human-made mid-Holocene environmental changes in the upper Yellow River catchment changing forest to grassland, Erdkunde 62/3 2008 pp.187-199
D. Tsechu, Historical Overview of Grassland Degradation in Tibet, Environmental Leadership, Ethics, and Action 2011
M.A. Gosai, Land use change in Thimphu, Bhutan from 1990 - 2007: effects of cultural, political, and economic frameworks, thesis Univ. of North Carolina 2009
G. Miehe et al., How old is pastoralism in Tibet? An ecological approach to the making of a Tibetan landscape, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 276 (2009) pp.130-147
Specific Periods Negotiations and Impacts : Water Policy across China's Loess Plateau : "China's New Sorrow: Water-Management Policies, Environmental Degradation, and Salar-Tibetan Minority Relations in Qinghai Province, 1862-1978."; anonymous, 2011
Environmental Policy
Others CSE India (Center for Science and Environment), History of Flood in Ladakh
P.T. Hughes, Environmental Degradation in the Tibetan Autonomous Region, ICE Case Studies 2006
J.D. Farrington, Impacts of Climate Change on the Yangtze Source Region and Adjacent Areas, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China 2009, IA
International Campaign for Tibet, Tibetan Environment
Tibet Environmental Watch
D.C. Denzhub, Traditional Tibetan Beliefs and Environmental Protection, China's Tibet 2007
J. van Melle, Histoire thermochronologique et variations morphologiques en Himalaya du nord-ouest , thesis Grenoble 2009
Historical Linguistics J.A. Matisoff, The interest of Zhangzhung for comparative Tibeto-Burman, Sino-Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus (STEDT)
Archaeology General The Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR)
by Region
Bhutan Bhutan-Swiss Archaeological Project
P. della Casa et al., Bhutan-Swiss collaboration to institutionalise archaeology in Bhutan, Zürich Open Repository and Archive, 2012
S. Dendup, Archaeology in Bhutan, SAARC Cultural Centre, Sri Lanka 2014
Ladakh Q. Devers et al., An Archaeological Account of the Markha Valley, Ladakh, Revue d'Etudes Tibetaines no.20 2011 pp.61-113
Tibet Heritage Fund : T.L. Tshangpa, Petroglyphs of Ladakh: The Withering Monuments
Qinghai L.Y. Hung, Pottery Production, Mortuary Practice, and Social Complexity in the Majiayao Culture, NW China (ca. 5300-4000 BP), thesis Washington University of St. Louis 2011
Article : Kayue Culture, Wikipedia
M.L. Ye, Archaeological discoveries at the Lajia site, Minhe County, Qinghai Province, Chinese Archaeology 2005
D. Rhode et al., Paleoenvironmental and archaeological investigations at Qinghai Lake, western China: Geomorphic and chronometric evidence of lake level history, Quaternary International xxx (2009) pp.1-16
J.H. Wang, An Archaeological Outline of Qijia Agricultural Discovery and Research 1987
F.G. Liu et al., The impacts of climate change on the Neolithic cultures of Gansu-Qinghai region during the late Holocene Megathermal, J. Geogr. Sci. 2010, 20(3) pp.417-430
Tibet J.V. Bellezza, Flight of the Khyung. Tibet Archaeology
Tibet Paleolithic Project
J.V. Bellezza, Ancient Tibet: Bringing to Light the Forgotten A comprehensive survey of Pre-Buddhist sites in Upper Tibet (1992-2002), Athena Review vol.3 no.4 2003
Tibetan Tumulus Tradition
Article : Prehistoric Culture of Tibet, Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia; Chinese source base

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Lists of Statesmen
Population Figures
Documents Historical Newspapers Tibet Mirror 1925-1963
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Historical Chinese Postcard Project, 1896-1920
ACSAA Color Slide Project, Set Descriptions : 18 Himalayan Art, 34 Tibetan Thangkas, 80 Monasteries of Ladakh I, 83 Early Nepalese and Tibetan Painting, 84 Early Nepalese and Tibetan Sculpture, 89 Namgyal Dynasty : Early Art and Architecture, 94 Namgyal Dynasty, 95 Tibetan Thangkas II, 142 Nepalese and Tibetan Sculpture, 145 Later Nepalese and Tibetan Sculpture, 146 Later Nepalese and Tibetan Paintings and Manuscripts; (image descriptions)
Univ. Vienna : Cultural History of the Western Himalaya from the 8th Century, CHIS : Cultural History Information System
Contemporary Views of Central Asia (late 1970s-early 1980s)
China Underground : 40 Rare Images of Old Tibet, 1940s
The Tibet Album. British Photography in Central Tibet, 1920-1950
American Geographical Society Library : Tibet
Films Tibet Film Archive, T. Phuntsog, New York
Archival Deposits Univ. of Leiden, South and Central Asia Collections
Univ. of Buffalo, Charles B. Sears Library, Tibetan Legal Manuscripts
H.Y. Hu-von Hinüber, The Collection of Sanskrit Manuscripts once Kept in the "Palace of Culture of the Nationalities", Peking, 2006
Oral History Case Western Reserve University, Center for Research on Tibet, Tibet Oral History Archive
Tibet Oral History Project
Consular Reports
Chinese Trade Reports
Document Surveys WHKMLA : Online Catalogues of Oriental Manuscripts, Codices, Early Printed Books; numerous relevant entries
J.E. Stapleton Driver (c.1970)/D. Barrett (1993), A descriptive catalogue of the Tibetan manuscripts held at The Bodleian Library, Oxford
S. Phuntsog, Manuscripts in Ladakh, 2013
Manuscripts Digital Himalaya, Rare Books & Manuscripts
S. van Schaik, Early Tibet, The Whereabouts of the Tibetan Manuscripts from Dunhuang
Royal Library, Denmark : Digitized Tibetan manuscripts
Tibet-Mongolian Rare Books & Manuscripts Project (UK; Tibet : Younghusband Collection)
Catalogue of Tibetan Manuscripts and Blockprints, University Library, Cambridge -- Bodleian Library, Oxford -- World Museum, Liverpool -- The Ancient India and Iran Trust, Cambridge
MDZ (BSB) Digital Collections : Manuscripts, Tibetan
Document Collections Internet East Asian History Sourcebook
Silk Road Narratives
Old Tibetan Documents Online (OTDO), corpus of selected Old Tibetan texts (VIIth to XIIth centuries): Dunhuang manuscripts, Inscriptions and related materials
Digitized Tibetan Archives Material at Bonn University
Individual Documents
DBQs Asia for Educators; site providing numerous DBQs on Chinese history
Historical Maps Collections Digital Himalaya : Maps
The Tibetan and Himalayan Library, Maps
The Tibet Map Institute
David Rumsey Collection, Tibet, Ladakh, Bhutan, Himalaya
Hindsight, Asia Map of the Chinese Neolithic, Wikipedia
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 550 B.C., 527 BC, 500 BC, 400 BC, 335 BC, 323 BC, 300 BC, 200 BC, 100 BC, 050 BC, 050 AD, 200 AD, 300 AD, 400 AD, 450 AD, 565 AD, 600 AD, 610 AD, 900 AD, 1000 AD, 1025 AD, 1100 AD, 1200 AD, 1300 AD, 1400 AD, 1500 AD, Asia 700 AD, 800 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Hindsight, China Minneapolis Institute of Arts, The Arts of Asia, Chinese Dynasty Guide : History & Maps
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Map of China in/during Prehistory, Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han and Xin, Three Kingdoms, Jin, 16 Barbarian States, Southern Dynasties, Northern Dynasties, Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, Song, Liao, Jin, Western Xia, Yuan, Ming, Qing
Cultural China, History of China, provides numerous, mostly Chinese language maps featuring China at specific historic eras; gives reference : "All the historical maps about China published here come from the internet"
P. Buckley Ebrey et al., A Visual Sourcebook on Chinese Civilization, has numerous maps on specific historical periods
Wikipedia, Map of the Three Kingdoms, by Yu Ninjie
China : Eastern Jin (Chinese text), from Wikimedia
Map : Eastern Jin 376, from Wikimedia
Map : Dispersion of the Orkhon Uighurs from Mongolia to Dzungaria, Central Asia, Mid-9th Century, Northern Central Asia, Approximately 850 A.D., from Benzin Archives
Map : Tang Dynasty 742, from Wikipedia
Category : Maps of the Göktürks, from Wikimedia
Omniatlas, Historical Atlas of East Asia, 1904-1935, choose date; Historical Atlas of China, 1949-1979, choose date
Contemporary, China Map : Languages of China, from Titus
Muturzikin, Asian Linguistic Maps : China
Hindsight, Detail Tibet, from Muturzikin
Sino-Tibetan States C7-C11, from History on Maps
Contemporary, Detail J.E. Schwartzberg, Maps of Greater Tibet, ch.15 pp.607-685 in J.B. Harley et al., History of Cartography vol.2 book 2 Cartography in the Traditional East and Southeast Asian Societies 1994
Maps of monasteries in Tibet, 1902, posted by PCL, UTexas, scroll down for Tibet, 3 maps
Tibet 1888, 1906, 1932, 1938, from Probert Encyclopedia
Historical Secular
Encyclopedia Entries on Provinces/Regions Article Bhutan, Tibet, EB 1911, from Classic Encyclopedia, IA-WM
Articles Tibet, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Articles Tibet, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon 1894-1896, in German
on Cities Article Lhasa, Shigatse, Gartok, Yatung, Chumbi Valley, Gyantse, from EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, IA-WM
Articles Lhassa, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Articles Lhassa, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon 1894-1896, in German
Religious from Catholic Encyclopedia (of 1907)
Economic Handel von Lassa oder Boutan, pp.98-99, in : Friedrich Ludwig Langstedt, Geschichte des asiatischen Handels, 1803, in German, GB
Roof of Asia p.408 in vol.1 of T. Salmon, Modern History or the Present State of All Nations, 1744, GB
pp.95-106, in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1827, GB
pp.13-58 in vol.7 of E. Reclus, The Universal Geography : Earth and its Inhabitants, [1876-1894] IA
pp.135-141 in C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), IA (includes data of 1913)
Indiv. Provinces Royaume de Thibethe, pp.871-872 in P. d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, 1643, in French, GB
Thibet, in J. Walker, The Universal Gazetteer, 1795, GB
Thibet, pp.1045-1052 in H. Murray, An Encyclopaedia of Geography 1834, GB
Tibet, pp.101-111 in R. Brown, The Countries of the World 1892, IA
Ethnological Thibet, pp.239-241 in R. Phillips, A geographical view of the world, embracing the manners, customs, and .., 1838, GB
The Chinese Empire : Tibet, pp.579-582 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Tibet, pp.4889-4924 in vol.7A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Thibet pp.170-173 in S. Morewood, A Philosophical and Statistical History of the Inventions and Customs of Ancient and Modern Nations in the Manufacture and Use of Inebriating Liquors, 1838, GB
The Tibetans pp.188-192 in A.H. Keane, The World's Peoples: A Popular Account of Their Bodily & Mental Characters , 1908, GB
Tour Guides
Travelogues The Story of Chang K'ien, China's Pioneer in Western Asia: Text and Translation of Chapter 123 of Ssi-Ma Ts'ien's Shi-Ki, Journal of the American Oriental Society 37, 1917, IA
The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu, trsl. J.E. Hill 2003
Ye-lü Ch'u ts'ai, Account of a Journey to the West (Si Yu Lu), 1219-1224, trsl. E. Bretschneider (1888), Silk Road Narratives
B. Szczesniak, Friar Benedict the Pole of Vratislava his mission to Mongolia and his narrative (1245-1247), thesis Ottawa 1950
W.W. Rockhill (trsl.), The Journey of Friar John of Pian de Carpine to the Court of Kuyuk Khan, 1245-1247, 1900, Silk Road Narratives
William of Rubruck's Account of the Mongols (1253-1255), Silk Road Narratives
H. Yule (trsl.), The book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian : concerning the kingdoms and marvels of the East vol.1 1871, vol.2 1871, IA
H. Yule (trsl.), The Travels of John de Marignolli 1339-1353 1913, Silk Road Narratives
H.C. Yang, China's routes to Tibet during the early Qing Dynasty: a study of travel accounts, thesis Univ. of Washington 1994
A. de Andrade (1580-1634), O descobrimento do Tibet 1921, IA
S. Turner, An account of an embassy to the court of the teshoo lama, in Tibet; containing a narrative of a journey through Bootan, and part of Tibet 1800, IA
E.R. Huc, Travels in Tartary, Thibet and China [1844-1846], vol.1 n.d., vol.2 n.d., GB
R. Shaw, Visit to High Tartary, Yarkand and Kashgar 1871, GB
C.R. Markham, Travels in Great Tibet, and Trade between Tibet and Bengal, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society vol.19 no.5, 1874-1875 pp.327-347
N.M. Przhevalskii, Mongolia, the Tangut country, and the solitudes of northern Tibet vol.1, vol.2 1876, IA
W.W. Rockhill, Diary of a journey through Mongolia and Thibet in 1891 and 1892 1894, IA
H. Bower, Diary of a Journey Across Tibet 1894, IA
M.S. Wellby, Through Unknown Tibet, 1898, IA
S.C. Das, Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet, 1902, IA
S.A. Hedin, Central Asia and Tibet vol.1 1903, vol.2 1903, IA
P. Millington, To Lhassa at Last, 1905, IA
P. Landon, The opening of Tibet; an account of Lhasa and the country and people of central Tibet and of the progress of the mission sent there by the English government in the year 1903-1904, 1905, IA
C.G. Rawling, The Great Plateau: Being an Account of Exploration in Central Tibet, 1903 1905, IA
E. Kawaguchi, Three years in Tibet; with the original Japanese illustrations 1909, IA
A.H.S. Landor, An explorer's adventures in Tibet 1910, IA
A. MacDonald, Through the heart of Tibet 1910, IA
E. Teichman, Travels of a consular officer in Eastern Tibet; together with a history of the relations between China, Tibet and India, with original maps of Eastern Tibet and photographs, 1922, IA
Resident Memoirs
Institutions Archives China Archives Information on the Web
First Historical Archives of China, Beijing, from East Asian Libraries and Archives
The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online
National Archives of Important Powers : Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Second Historical Archive of China
National Library of Bhutan : National Archives
Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala : Archives
Tibet Film Archive, T. Phuntsog, New York
Musea China Museums, scroll down for Tibet, Qinghai
Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala : Museum
Monuments Showcaves : China
Libraries National Library of Bhutan
S. Yudon, National Library of Bhutan : Collection Management and Cataloging of Materials, 2013
Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala : Library
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes L. Roberts, Chinese Coins
Oriental Coins Database
Coins of Silk Road
Article : Historical Money of Tibet, Wikipedia
Tibet Coins, Numista
A. Green, History of Money and Coinage in Tibet
Y.K. Leung, Chinese Numismatics in Research : Tibetan Coins
Chiefa Coins Database : Kashmir, scroll down for Ladakh
Article : Bhutanese Rupee, Wikipedia
N. Rhodes, Coinage in Bhutan, Journal of Bhutan Studies 1 1999 pp.84-113

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
on Roof of Asia E. Temple, Tibetan Bibliography Database
D. Martin, Tibschol (Tibetan Scholarship Bibliography); 2009 edition downloadable through here
University of Maine at Farmington, China Bibliography, Tibet : History, Religion, and Modern Politics 1996-2010; contains English language titles only
East-West Center, A Short Bibliography on Tibet, Tibetan Buddhism, and China, annotated
Case Western, Center for Research on Tibet, Bibliography on Tibetan Nomads
Tibetan Tumulus Tradition, Bibliography
The Art of Tibet, Bibliography
D. Penjore, Bhutan's National Bibliography 2009
on China/East Asia University of Maine at Farmington, China Bibliography
Association of East Asian Environmental History, Publications
Royal Asiatic Society, China Branch, Shanghai, Library
on Religions A Comprehensive Bibliography on Syriac Christianity, Keyword Tibet
Warburg Institute, Islam-Tibet Thematic Bibliography
Berzin Archives, Bibliography on Islam in Tibet
Committee for the Bhiksuni Ordination in the Tibetan Buddhist Tradition : Bibliography
The Translation of Buddhism in Tibet. A History of People, Strategies and Texts, Bibliography
G. Samuel, Tibetan Buddhism : Bibliography 2010
Khyentse Center for Tibetan Buddhist Textual Scholarship, Univ. Hamburg : Research Resources, links
Online Libraries Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
American Center for Mongolian Studies, Digital Collections
National Digital Library of China
CARRIE Eurasia Collection, donated ebooks online
M. Weiers, Zentralasienforschung; links to publications in German posted online
The Tibetan and Himalayan Library
National Digital Library of Bhutan
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR) : China, India
Dissertation Reviews : Inner/Central Asia + Tibetan-Himalayan
Online Journals
General Listings Directory of Open Access Journals
on the Roof of Asia Ladakh Studies 1988- (not all back issues are online)
Himalaya. The Journal for Nepalese and Himalayan Studies (Himalayan Research Bulletin of the Nepal Studies Association) 1980-
Digital Himalaya : Bulletin of Tibetology 1964-2004
Digital Himalaya : The Bhutan Review 1993-1996
Digital Himalaya : Journal of Bhutan Studies 1999-2009, (not all issues online)
Digital Himalaya : Journal of the Tibet Society 1981-1988
Digital Himalaya : Journal of the International Association for Bon Research 2013
Digital Himalaya : Revue d'Etudes Tibetaines 2002-2013
Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies
J.V. Bellezza, Flight of the Khyung. Tibet Archaeology 2006-
on Central Asia The Silk Road Journal, since 2003
Cahiers d'Asie Centrale 1996-2011
Central Eurasian Studies Review (CESR) 2002-
International Journal of Central Asian Studies 1996-
CNKI Journal : Dunhuang Research 1982-
Abstracta Iranica, online volumes 22-31 1999-2008
on China/East Asia IA CASS, Kaogu 2005-2012; English language abstracts
IA CASS, Chinese Archaeology 2001-, English Version, Tables of Contents
Cross Currents. East Asian History and Culture Review 2011-
Academia Sinica, Chinese Environmental History Newsletters vol.1.1 1994, vol.1.2 1994, vol.2.1 1995, vol.2.2 1995, vol.3.1 1996, vol.3.2 1996
Early Medieval China, index accessible, requires registration
Sung-Yuan Studies, 1970-
Ming Studies 1975-2013
The Chinese Historical Review (1987) 2004-
Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 2001-
Bulletin of the Asia Institute, Peking Univ.; a few articles in English
on Religions Syriac Studies 2007-
Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 1978-
Chung Hwa Buddhist Journal (1968-) 1987-; since 2008 exclusively in English
Indologica Taurinensia 1973-, The Online Journal of the International Association of Sanskrit Studies
General Accounts History of Tibet, pp.209-212 in : Article China, from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Macropaedia, 15th edition, Vol.16, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h
Jin Hui et al. (ed.), Social History of Tibet, China, Beijing : China Intercontinental Press 1995 [G]
Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa, Tibet : A Political History, NY : Potala Publications (1967) 1984 [G]
David L. Snellgrove, Hugh Richardson, A Cultural History of Tibet, Bangkok : Orchid Press 2003 [G]
Patricia Levy, Don Bosco, Cultures of the World : Tibet, NY : Marshall Cavendish Benchmark (1996) 2007 [G]
Melvyn C. Goldstein, A History of Modern Tibet. The Demise of the Lamaist State 1913-1951, Berkeley : University of California Press 1989, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 951.5 G624h
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries Michael Dillon, China, a Cultural and Historical Dictionary, Richmond (Surrey) : Curzon 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 951.003 D579c
James S. Olson, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China, Westport CT : Greenwood 1998 [G]
Michael Dillon, Dictionary of Chinese History, Bournemouth : Frank Cass 1979 [G]
Historical Atlasses Yuri Bregel, An Historical Atlas of Central Asia, (HACA) Leiden : Brill 2003) [G]

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