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Literature on the History of East Asia
Core China Mainland SEAsia
First posted on December 29th 2013






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Introduction . Prehistory . 400 BCE-220 CE . 220-589 . 589-907 . 907-971 . 960-1279 . 1253-1386 . 1386-1644 . 1644-1800 . 1800-1911 . 1911-1949 . since 1949




Introduction
South China is a geographic region defined here, inhabited by an ethnically diverse population, because the Han population element, which dominates today, historically is not indigenous, but immigrant. South China, here understood as the provinces of Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi and Fujian, including Macau, Hong Kong and Taiwan, is thus different from Northern China (core China, the Yellow River and Yangtse valleys).

Prehistory
Traces of human habitation in Guangdong reach back to at least 100,000 BP, of pottery at least to 6400 BP (Lu 2011). While the ocean level reached the present level around 6000 BP (Lu 2011), the coastline at river estuaries from the Neolithic to the first century BCE receded due to silting up (Fuzhou; Rolett 2012), which suggests deforestation and agriculture upriver.
The Shang Dynasty, contentrated on the Yellow River Basin (c.1600 BCE to c.1046 BCE) is famous for its bronze products; yet in its core territories, no copper deposits have been located. It is assumed that Shang acquired its copper from Southern China by the way of trade. It is likely cotton was introduced into Han China through South China, while paddy rice cultivation originated in the Yangtse vallay and was introduced into South China from there.


[on Han China - South China Relations] : "It is a history of the 'confrontations' of many cultural elements and not of the colonization of the colonization of the weaker or less-advanced peoples by stronger civilization. Historical interference and archaeology suggests that China, at 1000 B.C., was an area of great diversity. Perhaps in this diversity, this mosaic of cultures, lies the clue to the significance of later Chinese civilization." (Treistmann 1968 p.856, quoted after Ballard 1981)

400 BCE-220 CE
In Yunnan the Dian Kingdom had emerged in the 4th century BCE, in Fujian the Minyue Kingdom in 334 BCE, in Guangdong the Nanyue Kingdom (= Nam Viet) in 224 BCE. All three were absorbed by the Han Dynasty during the years 111 to 109 BCE. The Han Dynasty was interrupted by the rule of Wang Mang 9 CE-23 CE, and ended in 220 CE.

220-589
In 220 the Han Empire disintegrated into three : Cao Wei in the North, Wu (220-280) in the South and Shu Han (221-263) in the Southwest. Although the political centers of Wu and Shu lay north of South China, Wu covered Jiangxi, Hunan, Guangdong and part of Fujian, Shu Han part of Guizhou and Yunnan. Wu and Shu Han authority in Southern China in Guizhou, Yunnan and Fujian was patchwork surrounded by territory outside of their control. In 263, Cao Wei conquered Shu; in 265 Cao Wei was reorganized into the Jin Dynasty (265-420) which in 280 conquered Wu and reunited a China which did not include most of Yunnan and all of Taiwan. From c.110 BCE to 420 CE, Jiangxi and Fujian were part of Yangzhou Province (capital Nanjing), Guizhou part of Yizhou Province (capital Chengdu), Hunan part of Jingzhou Province, Guangdong and Guangxi part of Guangzhou Province.
By the late 3rd century, Jin lost part of Northern China to Central Asian invaders. In 420 the Jin Dynasty ended, and China disintegrated into the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The Southern Dynasties include Liu Song 420-479, Southern Qi 479-502, Liang 502-557 and Chen 557-589. The period from 220 to 589 had been a period of political instability, more so in Northern China than in the South. Two major developments occurred during those years : Buddhism made inroads into China through Central Asia, and Southern China experienced an influx of Han Chinese migrants from the North, first recorded for the Southern Dynasties period.

589-907
In 589 the Sui Dynasty reunited China, in 618 succeeded by the Tang Dynasty. Confucianism became the dominant philosophy. Taoism gained importance; under Emperor Gaozong (649-683), the Tao Te Ching was added to the canon of books students taking the Confucian state examination had to read. Under Emperor Wuzong in 845-846, Buddhists, Nestorian Christians, Manichaeists, Muslims, Jews and Taoists suffered persecution.
Under the Sui Dynasty, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong and Hainan were part of Yangzhou Province, Hunan part of Jingzhou Province. Most og Guizhou and Guangxi were outside of Sui territory. By 742, Hunan and Jiangxi formed Jiangnanxi Province, Guizhou and parts of Hunan formed Qianzhong Province, Fujian and Zhejiang Jiangnandong Province, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi and parts of Vietnam formed Liangnan Province. In Yunnan in 737 the Kingdom of Nanzhao emerged; it disintegrated in 902 and was succeeded by the Kingdom of Dali.

907-971
Five Nations and Ten Kingdoms Period. After the fall of Tang, the Chinese Empire disintegrated. While much of Northern China came under foreign rule, in southern China the kingdoms of Chu (907-951), Southern Han (917-971) and Min (909-945) enjoyed a brief period of independence. Political unrest in northern China caused the immigration of Han Chinese into Southern China. Taiwan and the Kingdom of Dali (937 to 1253) remained outside the Chinese sphere.

960-1279
The Kingdom of Dali (Nanzhao, 937-1253) enjoyed political independence. Inscriptions in Siddham script indicate both Indian and Chinese influence, as the script itself resembles Devanagari, but was popular with Chinese Buddhists. Dali was connected by trade routes with Burma; the similarity of bronze items produced in Burma and in Dali has been observed.
Most of Southern China was ruled by the Song Dynasty (Northern Song 960-1127, capital Kaifeng, Southern Song 1127-1279, capital Hangzhou). The Song Dynasty is regarded a climax in Chinese history, having produced innovations which got China to the brink of an industrial revolution. As inventions were sponsored by the monarchy and not triggered by a self-regulating market, this development has concentrated around the capital (which is located outside of Soputhern China. For southern China of eminent importance was the introduction of Champa Rice, which matures quickly and, in Guangdong, makes possible two rice harvests per year. The Song administration thus introduced a two-time taxation per year. During the Song Dynasty, Neo-Confucianism became official philosophy; access to positions in the state bureaucracy required passing the state examinations. Migration of Han Chinese into the southern provinces, and assimilation of part of the local population, took place. China's population in 1000 is estimated at 87 million, in 1200 at 115 million. Taiwan remained outside the Chinese sphere.
Song replaced provinces by circuits; Southern China comprised of the circuits of Fujian, Guangnandong, Guangnanxi, Jiangnanxi, Jinghunan, Kuizhou.

1253-1386
The Mongols conquered and annexed the Kingdom of Dali (Nanzhao) in 1253, Southern Song in 1279. The Yuan Dynasty had been proclaimed in 1271. The Yuan administration employed many foreigners, was distrustful of Confucian literati. A Muslim Turk, appointed governor of Yunnan, is responsible for laying the foundation of the region's Muslim community. Economically, Yuan rule was devastating; the population of China in 1200 is estimated at 115 million, in 1290 at 77 million, in 1400 at 89 million. The eruption of Mount Rinjani in 1257/1258 and the Bubonic Plague, which struck in the 1340s, contributed to this development. Migration of Han Chinese into the southern provinces continued. Taiwan remained outside the Chinese sphere.
Under Yuan, Southern China comprised of the provinces of Huguang (Hunan, w. Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, Guizhou), Jiangxi (which included eastern Guangdong), Jiangzhe (which included Fujian) and Yunnan.

1368-1644
The Red Turban Rebellion which ousted the Mongols from China in 1368 had originated from Guangzhou (Canton) in 1351. The new Ming Dynasty at first established their capital in Nanjing; it took measures to revive agriculture, to repair the country's irrigation system, to engage in reforestation. Zheng He, the famous navigator who undertook 8 expeditions into the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean between 1405 and 1433, was a native of Yunnan.
In 1513 the first Portuguese reached Guangzhou; in the early 17th century, they were joined by traders from Spain, England, the Dutch Republic, France and Denmark. Trade at Guangzhou (Canton) was conducted under Chinese rules; the main product China imported were Spanish silver coins. Taiwan remained outside the Chinese sphere.
Ming introduced the provinces we are familiar with today : Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Yunnan. Only Hunan was part of Huguang and Hainan was part of Guangdong.

1644-1800
In the Mid-17th Century, the Qing Dynasty ousted the Ming. In 1662, Zheng Chenggong ousted the V.O.C. from Taiwan; Taiwan was perceived by Qing to be the last outpost of Ming, and taken in a 1683 expedition. Under Qing rule, China saw a dramatic population increase, from an estimated 123 million in 1650 to an estimated 260 million in 1800; the immigration provinces of Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan saw a markedly higher population increase, largely due to immigration (Guangdong between 1749 and 1812 saw its population triple).
Qing only slightly modified the administrative division in place under Ming : Huguang was split into Hubei and Hunan; Taiwan was made an annex to Fujian Province.

1800-1911
China during the later 17th and the 18th century had experienced extraordinary population growth. The eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815 caused severe damage to harvests; defeat in the Opium War forced China to follow western rules of trade, to open up ports, to permit missionaries to enter the country, to cede Hong Kong. Many of the newly opened ports were located in southern China. The change in economic policy resulted in many poor families in Southern China loose their livelihood. Among such a destitute population, Hong Xiuquan promised a land reform based on equality, and quickly gained a large followership (Taiping Rebellion, 1851-1864). The Taiping took Nanjing, threatened to topple the Qing Dynasty. Simultaneously, Yunnan went through the Panthay Rebellion (1856-1873). Qing retailiated with repression. For desperate impoverished southern Chinese, one option was emigration, as indentured laborers (coolies). The abolition of slavery in plantation economies meant a new work force was needed.

1911-1949
The Chinese Revolution of 1911 ended the Qing Dynasty. Guangzhou (Canton) was the chosen capital of Sun Yat Sen's Chinese Republic. During the 1920s, China had broken up into numerous regions ruled by warlords; Sun Yat Sen's successor, Chiang Kai Shek, in military campaigns extended the control exercized by the KMT, and in 1928 moved the capital of the Republic of China from Guangzhou to Nanjing. The Communist Party had established a communist state in rural Hunan-Jiangxi, which found itself under attack by Nationalist forces from 1927 to 1934; in 1934 the Communists, in the Long March, moved from their southern strongholds to Yenan (Shaanxi). In 1937 the Japanese invaded China; the Nationalist administration moved to Chongqing. With the Japanese forces controlling the coast, and from 1940 French Indochina, Yunnan gained strategic importance for Nationalist China, as the Flying Tigers supplied China by air, using Kunming airport.
When the Chinese Civil War resumed in 1946, most of Southern China was held by Nationalist forces. The end of U.S. subsidies, the costs of the war and a corrupt administration resulted in rampant inflation. An attempt to stop the advancing Communist forces at the Yangtse River failed. In 1949 ther Nationalist administration withdrew to Taiwan.

since 1949
In 1949 the People's Republic of China was declared; the Nationalist administration and forces withdrew to Taiwan. The KMT government on Taiwan continued to claim to represent all of China (Republic of China). In the mainland provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi and Fukien, privately owned land and businesses were nationalized, communes established. The Great Leap Forward (1958) and the Cultural Revolution (1966-1967) resulted in temporary havoc, causing streams of refugees to enter Hong Kong. The One Country Two Systems Policy created zones within China where capitalist rules prevailed, such as Shenzen just outside Hong Kong; these zones attracted foreign investment and brought modern technology into the country; they became focal points of the economic modernization of China which continues today. Simultaneously, China has entered on a policy of providing cultural autonomy to its national minorities and spends effort in preserving their historical heritage. China's one-child-policy has resulted in slowing down the country's population growth; the country's industrialization over the last half century has resulted in severe environmental problems. Hong Kong returned to Chinese (PRC) rule in 1997, Macau in 1999.






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern
Historical C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), posted on Internet Archive (includes data of 1913); Kwangtung pp.109-122
Links Virtual Library : Internet Guide for Chinese Studies (IGCS)
Organizations Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute for Archaeology, IA CASS
Society for East Asian Archaeology
International Society for the History of East Asian Science, Technology and Medicine
Association for East Asian Environmental History
Early Medieval China Group, Society for Song, Yuan and Conquest Dynasties Studies, Society for Ming Studies, Society for Qing Studies
Historical Dictionary Encyclopedia of Taiwan
Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
Digital Gazetteer of the Song Dynasty
Timelines
Accounts of History General
Specific Periods Prehistory
Article : Dabenkeng Culture, Wikipedia (5500-4500 BCE, Guangdong to Taiwan)
Z. Chi et al., The Neolithic of Southern China - Origin, Development, and Dispersal, Asian Perspectives 2008 pp.299-329
S.N. Ren, Several Major Achievements in Early Neolithic China, ca.5000 BC , Kaogu - Archaeology 1996 pp.37-49, Engl. trsl. n.d. [2002 ?]; lists sites in Southern China
T.L.D. Lu, Prehistoric Coexistence: The Expansion of Farming Society from the Yangzi River Valley to Western South China, in K. Ikeya et al. (ed.), Interactions between Hunter-Gatherers and Farmers: from Prehistory to Present, SENRI Ethnological Studies 73 2009 pp.47-52
K.N. Dikshit et al., The Earliest Pottery in East Asia: A Review, Puratattva 42
600 BCE-600 CE
Y. Yong, A Study on Archaeological Cultures of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau from 400 BC to AD 100, thesis abstract IA CASS 2011
Article : Southward Expansion of the Han Dynasty, Wikipedia
R. de Crespigny, To establish peace: being the Chronicle of the Later Han dynasty for the years 189 to 200 AD as recorded in Chapters 59 to 63 of the Zizhi tongjian of Sima Guang, 2004; focusing on Southern China
600-1450
1450-1750
X. Hang, Between Trade and Legitimacy, Maritime and Continent: The Zheng Organization in Seventeenth-Century East Asia, thesis UC Berkeley 2010
K.W. Chiu, The role of Prince Tang in the Southern Ming dynasty (1644-1683), thesis Hong Kong 1970
The Grandeur of the Qing Dynasty. The Southern Inspection Tour Scrolls of the Kangxi and Qianlong Emperors, 2005
1750-1914
Article : Taiping Rebellion, Wikipedia
J.A. Rapp, Clashing Dilemmas: Hong Rengan, Issachar Roberts, and a Taiping "Murder" Mystery, Journal of Historical Biography vol.4 2008 pp.28-57
S. Mossmann, The Great Taiping Rebellion : a Story of General Gordon in China, 1893, IA
C. Spielmann, Die Taiping-Revolution in China, 1850-1864, 1900, IA
J.M. Mackie, Life of Tai-ping-wang, Chief of the Chinese Insurrection 1857, IA
J.M. Callery et al., History of the Insurrection in China : with notices of the Christianity, creed, and proclamations of the insurgents 1853, IA
J. Scarth, Twelve years in China; the people, the rebels, and the mandarins, 1860, IA
Since 1914
Historiography Y.J. Liang, Inalienable Narration : The Nanzhao History between Thailand and China, 2010
Y.Q. Yang, The Role of Nanzhao History in the Formation of Bai Identity, thesis Univ. of Oregon 2008
E.A. Truax, Genesis According to the Miao People, Acts and Facts 20 (4) 1991
K.D. Harrell Washington, From Revered Revolutionaries to Much Maligned Marauders: The Evolution of British and American Images in China of the Taiping Rebels, thesis Miami 2008
O.P.F. Fossgård, The Creation of a Modern Chinese National Identity : Sun Yat-sen's Discourse on Race and Nation, thesis Oslo 2002
Administration / Politics Andrea Worden, Despair and Hope : a Changsha Chronicle, on the pro-democracy movement of 1989, 1991
Military Weapons of the frontier cultures: Dagger-axes on the periphery of Zhou China, ch.2 from K. Blair, Chinese Halberds, 2009
Donald S. Sutton, Ethnic Revolt in the Qing Empire : The "Miao Uprising" of 1795-1797 Reexamined, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.16 pt.2 2003
Prosper Giquel, The Foochow Arsenal, and Its Results, from the Commencement in 1867, to the ... (1874), IA
McCord, Edward A. The Power of the Gun: The Emergence of Modern Chinese Warlordism . Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press, 1993.
Song Yongyi, Case Study : The Dao County Massacre of 1967, from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Article : Ispah Rebellion, from Wikipedia
Article : Miao Rebellions (Ming Dynasty), Wikipedia
Article : Miao Rebellion (1735-1736), Wikipedia
Article : Miao Rebellion (1795-1806), Wikipedia
Article : Miao Rebellion (1854-1873), Wikipedia
Article : Panthay Rebellion 1856-1873, Wikipedia
Article : Red Turban Rebellion (1854-1856), Wikipedia
I. Antin, British intervention in the Taiping rebellion, 1860-1864, thesis Univ. of Wisconsin 1950
A.K.K. Siu, Chinese piracy and coastal defence in the eighteen and early nineteen centuries with an emphasis on the Canton Delta, thesis Hong Kong 1999
Economy & Finances Trade
General Islam and Old Commerce in Yunnan, from CPA Media
K. Pomeranz, The Great Divergence, China, Europe and the Making of the Modern World Economy, 2000
Overland Trade J.A. Anderson, China's Southwestern Silk Road in World History , World History Connected 2009
Ancient Tea-Horse Road, from TuoCha Tea
Yuan Fuquan, The "Ancient Tea and Horse Caravan Road", the "Silk Road of Southwest China", in : Silk Road Newsletter 2004
China's Ancient Tea-Horse-Road in Historical Perspective, from CPA Media
The Structure and Nature of the Traditional Yunnan Caravan Trade, from CPA Media
The Traditional Caravan Trade between Yunnan and North Thailand, from CPA Media
Maritime Trade P.C. Purdue, Rise and Fall of the Canton Trade System
B. Rolett, China's Ancient Seafaring, 2011
The Dutch in Guangzhou : a short history, from Holland in China, Consulate Guangzhou, scroll down
The Foreign Trade Revenue of Sea-traders from Guangdong and Fujian Provinces in Ming and Qing Dynasties, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
The Foreign Trade Revenue of Sea-traders from Guangdong and Fujian Provinces in Ming and Qing Dynasties, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
H. Cordier, Les marchands hanistes de Canton, 1902, IA
W.C. Hunter, The "Fan Kwae" at Canton before treaty days 1825-1844, 1882, IA
R.M. Martin, British relations with the Chinese empire in 1832. Comparative statement of the English and American trade with India and Canton, 1832, IA
P.H. van der Kemp, Oost-Indië's geldmiddelen, Japansche en Chineesche handel van 1817 op 1818, in- en uitvoerrechten, opium, zout, tolpoorten, kleinzegel, boschwezen, Decima, Canton, naar oorspronkelijke stukken, 1919, IA
J. Wong, Global Positioning: Houqua and His China Trade Partners in the Nineteenth Century, thesis Harvard 2012, on Canton trade in the transistional period 1840es
Agriculture Rise of Chinese Civilization Based on Paddy Rice Agriculture, Paper Database
X.L. You, Rice Development and Wu-Yue Culture, Collective Essay on Agricultural History Research, 1999 pp.281-289, Engl. trsl. 2002
S. Fuminori, Expansion of Chinese Paddy Rice to the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau , Agricultural Archaeology 1998(1) pp.255-262, Engl. trsl. 2002
Q.Y. Li et al., Preliminary Investigation on Buckwheat Origin in Yunnan, China, 1992
A History of Wheat-Breeding in China (CIMMYT), pp.51-60 The Southwestern Autumn-Sown Spring Wheat Zone, pp.60-64 the South China Autumn-Sown Spring Wheat Zone
Alfred W. McCoy, Opium History 1850-1940 (Yunnan Opium)
A Brief History of Fujian Tea, from FZRM
Huang Gui, Study of Chaozhou Jincheng Rice 1999
(Sweet Potato in Fujian), from Taiwan Schoolnet
Fujian's Ode to the Sweet Potato, from Far Outliers 2006
Asia for Educators, The Song Dynasty in China, Technological Advances : Rice Cultivation
X.S. Zeng, Huang-Lu Rice in Chinese History, Agricultural Archaeology 1998 (3) pp.292-311, Engl. trsl. 2001
H.T. Zurndorfer, The Resistant Fibre: The Pre-modern History of Cotton in China, n.d.
Crafts H.B. Morse, The Gilds of China (1909), IA
History of Batik in China, from Bali Bintang
Trade Key, search for Guizhou
Guizhou Maotai Liquor, from China Travelz
Other Department of Commerce of Guizhou Province
Article Guizhou Airlines, from Wikipedia
The Ming Dynasty's Fishery Policy System and Its Change: Analysis of the Fishery Organization's Ori, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
A Preliminary Study on Shang Dynasty Bronzes and their Cu-Pb Ore Sources in Jiangxi, Hubei and Henan, summary of a Chinese language article, posted on Shvoong
Lead isotopic study of Shang Dynasty bronzes (13-11 B.C.)and their ore sources, summary of a Chinese language article, posted on Shvoong
Social History Y.K. Lee, Material Representations of Status in the Dian Culture, Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 14 1996 pp.216-225
D. Aldus, Coolie Traffic and Kidnapping (1876), IA
N.G. Gee, The educational directory for China; an account of the various schools and colleges connected with Protestant missions (1905), IA Kwangtung pp.3-4, 11, 19-26, 36-41, 56-57, 63, 71-72, 87, 110, 113-114, 121, 125, 127
E.J. Dukes, Everyday life in China; or, Scenes along river and road in Fuh-Kien. London Missionary Society's ed. With upwards of fifty illus. from sketches and photographs (1885), IA
Judith Banister et al., Population and Migration Characteristics of Fujian Province, China, 1993, U.S. Bureau of Census
Y.F. Gu, Land reform in a North Zhejiang village : the role of 'exploitation' in class determination and land redistribution, thesis Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology 2009
Article : Chinese Emigration, Wikipedia
Esherick, Joseph W., and Mary Backus Rankin, editors Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance., Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
S. Chan, Tang Ah Thye: The Life of an Amah and World History Guangdong emigrant, servant, 1930s
Jiang Tao, Population Distribution and Migration in Qing China 1644-1911, CASS 2003; has population figures for the provinces, beginning in 1749
R.F. Du et al., Chinese Surnames and the Genetic Differences between North and South China, 1991
W. Deng et al., Evolution and migration history of the Chinese population inferred from Chinese Y-chromosome evidence, J Hum Genet (2004) 49:339-348
J. d'Alpoim Guedes, Adaptation and Invention during the Spread of Agriculture to Southwest China , thesis Harvard 2013
Ethnography General S.R. Clarke, Among the tribes in South-west China, 1911, HKU ebooks
W.L. Ballard, Aspects of the Linguistic History of South China, Asian Perspectives 24 1981 pp.163-185
by Ethnic Group
Achang Articles Achang, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Achang
Bai Articles Bai, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Bai
Bai People, from Wikipedia
The Role of Nanzhao History in the Formation of Bai Identity, by Yuqing Yang
Bulang Article Bulang, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Blang
Buyei Article Buyi, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Bouyei
Article : Buyei, Wikipedia
Chashan Articles Chashan, from Ethnic China
Dai Articles Dai, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Dai
Dong Articles Dong, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Dong
Articles Dong People, Wikipedia
Guizhou : History of Dong Ethnic, from Sinoway
Yangshuo Mountain Retreat, Dong History, scroll down
Dulong Article Dulong, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Drung
Gejia Article Gejia, from Ethnic China
Gelao Article Gelao, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Gelao
Yangshuo Mountain Retreat, Gelo History, scroll down
Hakka World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Hakka
R. Heggheim, Three Cases in China on Hakka Identity and Self-Perception, thesis Oslo 2011
D.H. Zheng, Postgraduate Thesis: A study of armed conflicts between the Punti and the Hakka in central Kwangtung, 1856-1867, thesis Hong Kong 1989
N. Constable, Christian Souls and Chinese Spirits, A Hakka Community in Hong Kong, 1994
Sciernce Museums of China, The Hakkas who Love their Motherland and Hometowns, lists five waves of Han migration into Southern China
L.P. Foo, The Indomitable Hakka People of China
T.Y. Hsieh, Origin and Migration of the Hakkas 1929
Hani Article Hani, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Hani
Hui Fan Ke, Ethnic Evolvement in a South Fujian Hui Community, n.d.
Jingpo Article Jingpo, from Ethnic China
Jino Article Jino, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Jino
Lahu Article Lahu, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Lahu
J.X. Ma, The collapse of social life : marginalization and exit among the Lahu minority in southwest China, thesis Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology 2007
Li Articles Li, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Li
General Description of the Hainan Li Minority, from Global Sanya
Lisu Article Lisu, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Lisu
Maonan Article Maonan, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Maonan
Yangshuo Mountain Retreat, Maonan History, scroll down
Miao (Hmong) Article Miao, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Miao
Article : Miao People, from Wikipedia
G.Y. Lee, Diaspora and the Predicament of Origins: Interrogating Hmong Postcolonial History and Identity, Hmong Studies Journal, 8 2007 pp.1-25
Hmong American History Timeline, by Kao-Ly Yang
Hmong History, from Asian Avenue
Yangshuo Mountain Retreat, Miao History, scroll down
Moso Article Moso, from Ethnic China
Mulao Article Mulao, from Ethnic China
Yangshuo Mountain Retreat, Mulam History, scroll down
Nanman Article : Nanman, from Wikipedia
Naxi Article Naxi, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Naxi
Naxi's History, from Lijiang Naxi Net
to the "Women's Country , summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
Nu Article Nu, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Nu
Pumi Article Pumi, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Pumi
Qiang Article Qiang, from Wikipedia
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Qiang
She Article She, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : She
Shui Article Shui, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Shui
Article Shui, from Wikipedia
Tibetan Article Tibetan, from Ethnic China
Tujia Article Tujia, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Tujia
Article Tujia, from Wikipedia
Wa Article Wa, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Wa
J.X. Ma, The Five Buddha Districts on the Yunnan-Burma Frontier: A Political System Attached to the State, Cross Currents no.8 2013
Wu L. Huang, Chinese Linguistic : Wu Chinese
Yao Article Yao, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Yao
Article Yao, from Wikipedia
Yangshuo Mountain Retreat, Yao History, scroll down
Yi Article Yi, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Yi
Article Yi People, Wikipedia
The Discrimination and Analysis of the Yi and Yue in Nanzhong Region from the Han to Jin Dynasty, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
Harrell, Stevan, editor. Perspectives on the Yi of Southwest China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
Yangshuo Mountain Retreat, Yi History, scroll down
Yue (Cantonese) The Discrimination and Analysis of the Yi and Yue in Nanzhong Region from the Han to Jin Dynasty, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
O. Tiffany, The Canton Chinese, or The American's sojourn in the Celestial empire , 1849, IA
Zhuang Article Zhuang, from Ethnic China
World Cultures Encyclopedia : Russia-Eurasia-China : Zhuang
Article Zhuang, from Wikipedia
Yangshuo Mountain Retreat, Zhuang History
Religion General Characteristics of the Religions in Yunnan, from Yunnan Province, Department of Commerce
Hugh Clark, The Religious Culture of Southern Fujian, 750-1450: Preliminary Reflections on Contacts across a Maritime Frontier, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.19 pt.1/2 2006
J.J.M. de Groot, Les fetes annuellement celebrees a Emoui (Amoy): etude concernant la religion populaire des Chinois (1886), in French, IA
Archaic M.C. Bryson, The transformations of Baijie Shengfei : gender and ethnicity in Chinese religion, thesis Stanford 2010, The goddess Baijie is worshipped only in the Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture of Southwest China's Yunnan province, home to the Bai "nationality"
Anne Gerritsen, A Thirteenth-Century Cult in the villages of Ji'an (Jiangxi), or Field Work for Historians, in Journal of Sung-Yuan Studies 33 2003, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Buddhism Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia : Kingdom of Nanzhao
Monastic Asia, Mapping Buddhist Monasteries 200-1200 CE Project; as of Dec. 30 2013 lists 1 monastery in Yunnan, 15 in Guangdong, 28 in Fujian, 7 in Hunan, 13 in Jiangxi, none on Hainan and Taiwan
J.X. Ma, The Five Buddha Districts on the Yunnan-Burma Frontier: A Political System Attached to the State, Cross Currents no.8 2013
Wikipedia : List of Buddhist Temples : China : Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, from Wikipedia, lists just a few temples per province
Taoism Taoist Culture and Information Centre, General Presentation on Daoism, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article : History of Taoism, Wikipedia
Confucianism Confucian Temple, A Sacred Hall of Art in Guizhou, from China Window
Hinduism File:Carving of Shiva from a Hindu Temple at Quanzhou, from Wikimedia
Islam Muslims in China : A Brief History, by Pakhtoon
Moslem Rebellion in Yunnan - brief sources, by M. Berman
Islam and Old Commerce in Yunnan, from CPA Media
G. Cordier, Les Musulmans du Yunnan (1927) in French, IA
Fujian Mosques and Islamic Heritage, from Amoy Magic, Muslims and Mosques in Fujian, from What's on Xiamen, Category " Mosques in Fujian, from Wikipedia
Catholic Chr. Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : China, posted by Kirken i Norge
James F. Roche, The French at Foochow (1884), IA
Metropolitan Archdiocese of Guangzhou, Diocese of Beihai, Diocese of Jiangmen, Diocese of Jiaying, Diocese of Shantou, Diocese of Shaozhou, Diocese of Shunde, Apostolic Prefecture of Hainan, from GCatholic
Apostolic Prefecture of Guilin, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Nanning, Diocese of Wuzhou, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Kunming, Diocese of Dali, Apostolic Prefecture of Zhaotong, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Guiyang, Diocese of Shiqian, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Fuzhou, Diocese of Funing, Apostolic Prefecture of Jian'ou, Apostolic Prefecture of Shaowu, Diocese of Tingzhou, Diocese of Xiamen, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Nanchang, Diocese of Ganzhou, Diocese of Ji'an, Diocese of Nancheng, Diocese of Yujiang, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Changsha, Diocese of Changde, Diocese of Hengzhou, Diocese of Nanyang, Diocese of Weihui, Apostolic Prefecture of Xiangtan, Apostolic Prefecture of Yongzhou, Diocese of Yuanling, Diocese of Zhengzhou, from GCatholic
Protestant Chr. M. Broomhall, The Chinese empire: a general & missionary survey (1907), IA, on Kwangtung pp.43-53, Fukien pp.54-63, Formosa pp.63-73, Kiangsi pp.126-139, Hunan pp.164-189, Yunnan pp.238-251, Kweichow pp.251-271, Kwangsi pp.271-292
Th.J. Cochrane, Survey of the missionary occupation of China (1913), IA, on Kwangsi pp.3-11, Kwangtung pp.12-46, Fukien pp.47-67, Kiangsi pp.127-142, Hunan pp.164-181, Kweichow pp.206-211, Yunnan pp.212-218
E. Stock, The story of the Fuh-Kien mission of the Church Missionary Society (1890), IA
M.E. Darley, The light of the morning : the story of C.E.Z.M.S. work in the Kien-ning Prefecture of the Fuh-kien Province, China (1903), IA
J.V.N. Talmage, History and Ecclesiastical Relations of the Churches of the Presbyterial Order at Amoy, China (1863), IA
Ph.W. Pitcher, Fifty years in Amoy : or, a history of the Amoy Mission, China, founded February 24, 1842 (1893), IA
W.A. Farmer, Ada Beeson Farmer: A Missionary Heroine of Kuang Si, South China (1912), IA
Taiping Rel. S.J. Kim, Liang Fa's Quanshi liangyan and its impact on the Taiping Movement, thesis Baylor 2011
K.Y. Lee, Taiping Tianguo und Donghag: Eine religionswissenschaftliche Studie über den Entstehungsprozess der beiden neuen religiösen Bewegungen, thesis Marburg 2004, in German
T.H. Reilly, The Shang-ti Hui and the transformation of Chinese popular society: the impact of Taiping Christian sectarianism, thesis Univ. of Washington 1997
G.H. Gautier, Domination, institution, et identite : le mouvement Taiping et la Chine du XIXeme siecle, 1992
History of Regions Administrative Division Provinces of China, from www.statoids.com; Prefectures of China, from www.statoids.com
Article : History of the Administrative Divisions of China before 1912, Wikipedia
Imagined Region Article : Zomia, Wikipedia
Frontier J.A. Anderson, Frontier management and tribute relations along the Empire's southern border: China and Vietnam in the 10th and 11th centuries, thesis Univ. of Washington 1999
D.P. Ho, Sealords live in vain : Fujian and the making of a maritime frontier in seventeenth-century China, thesis UC San Diego 2011
Y.C. Dai, The Rise of the Southwestern Frontier under the Qing, 1640-1800 , thesis Univ. of Washington 1996
Historic Regions
Dian Kingdom Article : Dian Kingdom, Wikipedia, Yunnan, 4th century BCE to 109 BCE
A. Yao, Rediscovering the Settlement System of the Dian Kingdom in Bronze Age Southern China
Minyue Article : Minyue (Kingdom), Wikipedia, Fujian, 334 to 110 BCE
Nanyue Article : Nanyue (Kingdom), Wikipedia, or Nam Viet, parts of Guangdong, Guangxi, N. Vietnam, 204-111 BCE
World Monuments Fund, Archaeological Site of the Palace of Nanyue Kingdom 2012
Yelang Article : Yelang (Federation), Wikipedia, Western Guizhou, 3rd to 1st century BCE
Nanzhao, Dali Article : Kingdom of Nanzhao, from Wikipedia, Yunnan 737-902
Article : Kingdom of Dali, from Wikipedia, also referred to as Nanchao, Yunnan 937-1252
History of Nan Zhao, by Charles Kimball
Nanzhao State and Dali State, from dali.gov.cn
China Knowledge : Nanzhao
Y.J. Liang, Inalienable Narration : The Nanzhao History between Thailand and China, 2010
Min Articles Min (Ten Kingdoms), from Wikipedia, Fujian 909-945
China Knowledge : Min Dynasty
The Rise and Continuing of Min Kingdom's Civilization, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong 2004
Southern Han Article : Southern Han, from Wikipedia Guangdong, 917-971
Chu Article : Chu, from Wikipedia, Hunan-Jiangxi 907-951
(Eastern) Wu Article : Eastern Wu, from Wikipedia S. China 222-280
The Wu Empire, from China Knowledge
Shu Han Article : Shu Han, from Wikipedia, Sichuan-Yunnan 221-263
B. Wang et al., The Spatial Analysis of Cultural Characteristics Between Taiwan and Fujian of China During Paleolithic and Neolithic Epoches Based on the Genes Atlas, Scientia Geographica Sinica 2012
Historic Province
Lingnan Article : Lingnan, Wikipedia
Modern Province
Fujian Article : Fujian, Wikipedia
A Brief History of Development, from Fujian Narcotics Control Commission (economic/political history of Fujian) 2005
Article Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet, from Wikipedia
The Official System of the Power of Wang in Fujian During the End of the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
The Southeast Naval Force in the Ming and Ching Dynasties and the Development of the Maritime Rights, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
Article : Ispah Rebellion, from Wikipedia
Quemoy (Kinmen), from Global Security
Article Wokou (Japanese Pirates), from Wikipedia
F.S. Litten, The CCP and the Fujian Rebellion (1988); F.S. Litten, Did Chiang Kai-shek Trigger the Fujian Rebellion ? A look at some Western archival documents (1996)
Pioneers of Modern China : Fujian Ren & Lin Ze Xu: The Fuzhou Hero Who Destroyed Opium
M.S. Erbaugh, R.C. Kraus, The 1989 Democracy Movement in Fujian and its Aftermath (1991)
Franklin P. Metcalf, Travellers and Explorers in Fukien before 1700, The Hong Kong Naturalist 1934
D.P. Ho, Sealords live in vain : Fujian and the making of a maritime frontier in seventeenth-century China, thesis UC San Diego 2011
Guangdong Article : Guangdong, Wikipedia
H.M. Lai, History of Guangdong
Guangxi Article : Guangxi, Wikipedia
Guizhou Article : Guizhou, Wikipedia
Amidst the Clouds and the Mist. China's Colonization of Guizhou, 1200-1700, by John E. Herman
Hainan Article : Hainan, Wikipedia
J.A. Murray, Culturing revolution : the local Communists of China's Hainan Island, thesis UC San Diego 2011
D.L. Michalk, Hainan Island : A Brief Historical Sketch, pp.115-143; posted by H. Scott; no reference to year of publication and title in which this essay appeared
E.C. Bowra, Hainan, pp.332-335 in China Review n.d., posted by H. Scott who gives the date 1870s
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Jiangxi Article : Jiangxi, >Wikipedia
Taiwan E. Vickers, Original Sin on the Island Paradise? Qing Taiwan's colonial history in comparative perspective, Taiwan in Comparative Perspective, Vol.2 Dec. 2008 pp.65-86
D.P. Ho, Sealords live in vain : Fujian and the making of a maritime frontier in seventeenth-century China, thesis UC San Diego 2011
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Deutsche Seewarte, Die wichtigsten Häfen Chinas, 1901
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Environmental History WWF Ecoregions : Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests, Southeastern China, Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests : Eastern China, southeastern China and Northwest Vietnam, Hainan Island, Southeastern Asia : Taiwan
Nargiza Salidjanova, Chinese Damming of Mekong and Negative Consequences for Tonle Sap. ICE Case Studies 2007
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M.Y. Chiang, A Study on the Liangzhu Stone and Jade Artifacts Excavated in Guangdong Province, The National Palace Museum Research Quarterly 30:2 (2012), abstract
Y.L. Yang, Preliminary Investigations of the Xiantou Ling Prehistoric Cultural Remains of Shenzen, China, Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 18, 1999 pp.105-116
Guangxi T.L.D. Lu, New Archaeological Discoveries in South China, Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 23 2003, pp.137-140
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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Lists of Statesmen Kings of Nan Chao, from Regnal Chronologies
Triratna, Kings and Dynasties of Yunnan
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PRC, Abortions and Live Births by Region, Historical Data, from Johnston's Archive, has data by province
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Article : Futschou Amoy, from Meyers Grosses Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, in German, posted by Zeno
Religious Articles Northern Kiang-si, Southern Kiang-si, Eastern Kiang-si, Kwang-si, Kwang-tung, Kwei-Chou, Yun-nan, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1913
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Canton oder Kantong, posted by DTBSWS
Hainan oder Ainan, pp.625-628 in vol.3 of C.G. Ludovici, Neu eröfnete Academie der Kaufleute, 1798, in German, GB
Geographical
South China Fukien-Kiangsi pp.78-81, Yunnan p.84 in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, Universalk Geography, 1827, GB
Kweichew-Formosa pp.214-284 in vol.7 of E. Reclus, The Universal Geography : Earth and its Inhabitants, [1876-1894] IA
pp.59-69, 89-125 in C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), IA (includes data of 1913)
Indiv. Provinces Article : Hainan, in : J. Morse, A New Gazetteer of the Eastern Continent, 1808, GB
Hainan, pp.250-251 in J.H. Tuckey, Maritime Geography and Statistics, 1815, GB
Entry : The Kingdom of Hainan, p.523 in : Jedediah Morse et al., The American Universal Geography, 1819, GB
Hainan, p.7 in vol.11 of Penny Cyclopaedia, 1838, GB
Ethnological The Island of Hainan, pp.234-235 in S. Morewood, A Philosophical and Statistical History of the Inventions and Customs of Ancient and Modern Nations in the Manufacture and Use of Inebriating Liquors, 1838, GB
Historical
Tour Guides Claudius Madrolle, Northern China, the valley of the Blue River, Korea (1912), IA, Chiang-hsi pp.371-378
U.S. Bureau of Naval Personnel, Canton, China, 1920, IA
Travelogues R.J., Diary of a journey overland, through the Maritime Provinces of China from Manchao, on the south coast of Hainan, to Canton in the years 1819 and 1820 (1822), IA
A.R. Colquhoun, Across Chryse, Being an Account of a Voyage .. to Canton (1883), vol.1, vol.2, IA
L. Pichon, Un Voyage au Yunnan (1893) in French, IA
J. Ricolton, Hongkong and Canton; a part of Underwood & Underwood's stereoscopic tour through China, 1902, IA
A. Hosie, On the trail of the opium poppy : a narrative of travel in the chief opium-producing provinces of China vol.2, 1914, IA; only vol.2 on Southern China
Resident Memoirs S. Shaw (died 1794), The journals of Major Samuel Shaw, the first American consul at Canton (1847), IA
J.H. Gray, Fourteen Months at Canton (1880), IA
E.R. Pourias, La Chine. Huit ans au Yun-nan (1889) in French, IA
Institutions Musea Guangxi Museum of Nationalities
Hainan Provincial Museum
Monuments Guizhou, from Showcaves
Sculptural Portraits of Zheng He of the Ming Dynasty: Further Study of Coloured Sculptures Unearthed, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes
Three Kingdoms Period
220-280 CE
Coin History - the Three Kingdoms, from Chinese Coins
Wu Dynasty, from Three Kingdoms Coins
Shu Han Dynasty Coins, from Three Kingdoms
Ten Kingdoms Period
907-979 CE
Wikipedia, Ancient Chinese Coinage : Min Kingdom, Southern Han Kingdom, Kingdom of Chu, from Wikipedia
T.K. Mallon McCorgray, The Coins and History of Asia : Ancient China, scroll down for Southern Han
Provincial Coinage Fukien, Fukien 1821-1932, from Numismaticon
Hunan, from World Coin Gallery
Hunan 1821-1922, from Numismaticon
Kiangsi, Kiangsi Coins 1821-1912, from Numismaticon
Kwangsi Coins 1821-1949, from Numismaticon
Kwangtung Coins 1821-1929, from Numismaticon
Kweichow Coins 1821-1949, from Numismaticon
Yunnan and Szechwan Coins 1906, Yunnan Coins 1821-1949, from Numismaticon
Civil War Era
1927-1949
G. Duncan Raeburn, Chinese Soviet Coins and Notes, Bulletin of the Numismatic Society of China no.2 1937

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies University of Maine at Farmington, China Bibliography
Hmong Studies Research Bibliographies : Hmong in China
Bibliography of Western Language Publications : Three Kingdoms, from Early Medieval China Group
Association of East Asian Environmental History, Publications
H. Scott, Hainan References in English
Online Libraries Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Hong Kong University Theses Online, titles in English, most theses in Chinese
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
IA CASS, Kaogu 2005-2012; English language abstracts
IA CASS, Chinese Archaeology 2001-, English Version, Tables of Contents
IA CASS, Nanfangwenwu (Cultural Relics of Southern China) 2006- Tables of Contents
Cross Currents. East Asian History and Culture Review 2011-
Hmong Studies Journal 1996-
Academia Sinica, Chinese Environmental History Newsletters vol.1.1 1994, vol.1.2 1994, vol.2.1 1995, vol.2.2 1995, vol.3.1 1996, vol.3.2 1996
Early Medieval China, index accessible, requires registration
Sung-Yuan Studies, 1970-
Ming Studies 1975-2013
General Accounts
Specific Topics H.R. Clark, Community, Trade and Networks. Southern Fujian Province from the Third to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge : UP 1990 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Michael Dillon, China, a Cultural and Historical Dictionary, Richmond (Surrey) : Curzon 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 951.003 D579c
James S. Olson, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China, Westport CT : Greenwood 1998 [G]
Michael Dillon, Dictionary of Chinese History, Bournemouth : Frank Cass 1979 [G]
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]