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Hebei Henan
First posted on December 9th 2004, last revised on October 26th 2009







History of the Territory of the Modern Province of Shandong

Western Shandong was within the sphere of influence of the Shang Dynasty (1556-1046) and the Zhou Dynasty (1046-221), while Eastern Shandong, inhabited by the "Barbarian" Laiyi People, remained independent for some time; they underwent gradual Sinification. Under the Zhou Emperors, the territory of modern Shandong was divided in two States : Lu and Qi.. Following the sack of the Zhou capital Xi'an in 771, the states became independent in all but name (Spring and Autumn Period 770-403, Warring States Period 403-221). Teng, a vassal of Lu, became independent in its own right until its annexation by Yue. Later, southern Shandong fell to Chu, which annexed Lu in 256. In 221 Chu and Qi were conquered by Qin (until 206). Then Shandong belonged to Western Han (206 BC - 8 AD), Xin (8-22), Eastern Han (25-220), Cao Wei (220-265), Western Jin (265-317), Former Zhao 319-329, Later Zhao (329-353), Former Yan (337-370), Former Qin (351-394), Later Yan (384-409) of whom Southern Yan (398-410), covering most of Shandong, split off. Southern Yan in 410 was conquered by Eastern Jin, later belonged to the Northern Dynasties (Northern Wei, Eastern Wei, Northern Qi, Northern Zhou), then to the Sui Dynasty 581-618, the Tang Dynasty 618-907, the Five Dynasties 907-960, to Song Dynasty 960-1127, to Jin Dynasty 1127-1234, to Yuan Dynasty 1234-1368, to Ming Dynasty 1368-1644, to Qing Dynasty 1644-1911. In 1898 China leased Kiautschou to Germany, Weihaiwei to Britain. From 1911 to 1949 Shandong belonged to the Republic of China. Frpm 1925 to 1928 under the control of "Warlord" Zhang Zongchang. From 1928 to 1937 under the Nanjing administration, from 1937 to 1945 under Japanese occupation, from 1940 to 1945 under the collaborationist Wang Jingwei administration in Nanjing. Since 1949 to the People's Republic of China. In 1922 the Kiautschou territory was returned by Japan to China; in 1930 Britain returned the leased territory of Weihaiwei.

History of the Shandong as a Chinese Province

Under the Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD) Shandong was divided in the Qin and Yan provinces. Under the Sui Dynasty (581-618) Shandong was divided in the Qin, Yan and Xu provinces. Under the Tang Dynasty, Shandong formed part of Henan province. Under the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127), Shandong formed Jingdong West and Jingdong East provinces, under the Jin Dynasty (1127-1234) Shandong East and West. Under the Yuan Dynasty, Shandong was part of the central region, administrated from the capital. Under the Ming Dynasty, the (modern) province of Shandong was established. From 1860 to 1907, Fengtien (Liaoning) was under the administration of Shandong.

Timeline : Shandong

Students' Papers : Suh, Hee-won: History of Water Management in China (2008)
Students' Papes : Park, HyoSong : Premodern Chinese Food. Chinese Culinary History before the Republic of China (2008)






WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Study Article Shandong, from Wikipedia
A. Fauvel, The Province of Shantung, China Review 1875
Links, General Shandong History, from oberlogre blogspot
Historical Dictionary Encyclopedia of China, from Jongo Knows
Historical Maps Map featuring western Shandong (Madrolle 1912), posted by PCL, UTexas
Map featuring Jinan (Madrolle 1912), posted by PCL, Utexas
Map featuring Jinan (Imperial Japanese Govt. 1915), posted by PCL, UTexas
Map featuring Jinan's trading quarter (Imperial Japanese Govt. 1915), posted by PCL, UTexas
Map of Qingdao (Tsingtau; Madrolle 1912), posted by PCL, UTexas
Map of Qufu (Madrolle 1912), posted by PCL, UTexas
Map of Yantai (Madrolle 1912), posted by PCL, UTexas
Maps of Kiaochiow, Weihaiwei, from History and Commercial Atlas of China (Albert Herrmann 1935), posted by huhai.net
Map : NE China political, from History and Commercial Atlas of China (Albert Herrmann 1935), posted by huhai.net
Map : Shandong administrative, from Wikipedia
Map : Languages of China, from Titus
Map : Shan-Tung 1906 , from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
Timelines History of the Administrative Divisions of China, Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History History of Shandong, from Wikipedia
List of Current and Former Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia; scroll down for Shandong
Encyclopedia Entries Articles Shan-Tung, Hwang Ho, Chi-Fu (Chefoo), Kiaochow Bay, Wei-Hai-Wei, from EB 1911
Article Schantung, Tsinan, Tschifu, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Article Schantung, Tsinanfu, Tschifu, Kiautschou, Tsingtau, Weihsien, Itschoufu, Wei-hai-wei, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, in German
Article Huang He, from Columbia Encyclopedia
Article : Schantungbahn, from Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens (Encyclopedia of Railroads) 2nd ed. 1912-1923, in German
Politics Concentration Camps Today : Shandong, from ATTAC
Religion Metropolitan Archdiocese of Jinan, Diocese of Caozhou, Apostolic Prefecture of Linqing, Diocese of Qingdao, Apostolic Prefecture of Weihaiwei, Diocese of Yanggu, Diocese of Yantai, Diocese of Yanzhou, Diocese of Zhoucun, from GCatholic
List of Buddhist Temples : China : Shandong, from Wikipedia
Category : Buddhist Temples in Shandong, from Wikipedia
History of Regions Provinces of China, Prefectures of China, from www.statoids.com
History of Kiautschou, from Deutsche Schutzgebiete, in German; from German History Net (spelled Kautschow); from Traditionsverband, in German
Sammelrezension Kiautschou, (review of several books on K.) in German
Article : Liaodong Peninsula, from Wikipedia
History of Cities see also under Encyclopedia Entries, under Kiautschou, under Weihaiwei
Treaty Ports, Foreign Concessions & Colonies in 1920es China, list compiled by Phil Abbey
History of Jinan (Chinan-fu, Tsinan), from China Travel Information; from Wikipedia
History of Weihai (Weihaiwei), from Invest Weihai; from Wikipedia
History of Qingdao (Tsingtau), from Wikipedia; from Information Center of the City of Qingdao; from China-sd.net; from Jaduland, in German; from DHM, in German
History of Yantai (Chefoo, Tschifu, Chi-fu), from Wikipedia
Qufu, from Wikipedia
Deutsche Seewarte, Die wichtigsten Häfen Chinas, 1901
Structures, Institutions History of Shandong Agricultural University
History of Shandong University
Structurae : Shandong Province
Special Topics Yellow River changed its route, from China the Beautiful
Article Nian Rebellion from Columbia Encyclopedia
The Dress and Personal Adornment Change In Change In Modern Shandong Province, summary of a Chinese language article, posted on Shvoong
Dawenkou Culture, summary of a Chinese language article, posted on Shvoong
Bibliography Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keywords Shantung, Shandong (site in German, most titles listed in English; hundreds of entries; publications mostly since 1970)
Search RHS Bibliography for Shantung

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Lists of Statesmen Provinces and administrative divisions of China, from World Statesmen
China Foreign Colonies and Concessions, from World Statesmen
China Administrative Divisions, from rulers.org
from Regnal Chronologies, on Lu
Population Figures China, historical population statistics by province, from Population Statistics, posted at Univ. Utrecht
Shandong, from UNESCAP Chinadata
City Populations : China - Shandong, from City Population
PRC, Abortions and Live Births by Region, Historical Data, from Johnston's Archive
Shandong, from Database of the Basic Conditions of Family Planning Programme at CIPRC (Text on Demography, 1999)
Document Collections Documents on German Imperialism, posted by psm-data, many in both German and in English translation; see especially Kolonialatlas-series
Search USC Digital Library for Shantung, Shandong
Online Newspapers links from IPL
Archives China Archives Information on the Web, scroll down for Shandong
Internet Public Library : Shandong
Search Janus (catalogues of archives and manuscript collections held throughout Cambridge) for Shandong
China Museums, scroll down for Shandong
Weihsien March 1943 - October 1945 Picture Gallery (Jap. administered Concentration Camp)
Monuments Mansion, Temple and Cemetery of Confucius in Qufu, summary of Chinese language aricle, posted on Shvoong
Coins Search Coin Archives for Shantung
Shantung Coins 1851-1906, from Numismaticon
Others Historic Postcards from Shandong, Chefoo, Qingdao, Jinan, Weihaiwei, from Historical Chinese Postcard Project, 1896-1920
Search Delcampe Picture Postcards for Shantung, Schantung

PRINTED REFERENCE
General Accounts W. Berensmann, Wirtschaftsgeographie Schantung's unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Kiautschau-Gebiets (1907), posted on Internet Archive
E. von Hesse-Wartegg, Schantung und Deutsch-China (1898), in German, posted on Internet Archive
G.M. Stenz, in der Heimat des Konfuzius (1902) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Carnegie Endowment, Shantung : Treaties and Agreements (1921), posted on Internt Archive
Th.F.F. Millard, The Shantung Case at the Conference (1921), posted on Internet Archive
H.S. Quigley, Legal Phases of the Shantung Question (1922), posted on Internet Archive
G.Z. Wood, The Shantung Question : A tudy in Diplomacy and World Politics (1922), posted on Internet Archive
R.C. Forsyth, Shantung, the Sacred Province of China .. (1912), posted on Internet Archive
R.F. Johnston, Lion and Dragon in Northern China (1910), posted on Internet Archive
Carnegie Endowment, Shantung, treaties and agreements (1921), posted on Internet Archive
C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), posted on Internet Archive (includes data of 1913); Shantung pp.35-40
Th.J. Cochrane, Survey of the missionary occupation of China (1913), posted on Internet Archive, on Shantung pp.270-291
D.W. Fisher, Calvin Wilson Mateer, forty-five years a missionary in Shantung, China; a biography (1911), posted on Internet Archive
M. Broomhall, The Chinese empire: a general & missionary survey .. (1907), posted on Internet Archive, on Shantung pp.93-100
W.E. Geil, Eighteen Capitals of China (1911), posted on Internet Archive, Tsinan pp.386-403
Claudius Madrolle, Northern China, the valley of the Blue River, Korea (1912), posted on Internet Archive, Shantung pp.137-178
China Hai guan zong shui wu si shu Reports on Trade at the Treaty Ports (1868), Chefoo pp.23-28, 1869 pp.23-27, 1871 pp.11-16 posted on Internet Archive
N.G. Gee, The educational directory for China; an account of the various schools and colleges connected with Protestant missions (1905), posted on Internet Archive Shantung pp.1, 7-9, 36, 42, 50-51, 65, 68, 78, 99-100, 118-121