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Shaanxi Hebei
First posted on December 10th 2004, last revised on September 25th 2009







History of the Territory of the Modern Province of Shanxi

Southern Shanxi was under the Xia Dynasty (1989-1558 BC), which was followed by the Shang Dynasty (1558-1046 BC) and the Zhou Dynasty (1046-220 BC). After the sack of Xi'an in 771, the Zhou Dynasty disintegrated (Spring and Autumn period 770-403, Warring States period 403-220), southern and central Shanxi came under Jin, NE Shanxi under Zongshan. In 403, Jin was partitioned into Zhao (N), Wei (S), with Shangtang being an exclave belonging to Han. Zongshan became a vassall of Han before being annexed by Zhao. By 221 BC Zhao, Wei and Han had been annexed by Qin (221-206), which was followed by Western Han (206 BC - 8 AD), Xin (8-22) and Eastern Jin. From 220 to 265, Shanxi belonged to Cao Wei, from 265 to 317 to Western Jin, then to Former Zhao (318-329 ) Later Zhao (329-353), Former Yan (337-370), Former Qin (351-394), Later Qin and Western Yan (384-394), the latter being absorbed by Later Yan (394-409), which fell to Wei. Wei then expanded establishing the Northern Dynasties (Northern Wei, Eastern Wei, Western Wei, Northern Qi, Northern Zhou), which were followed by Sui (581-618), Tang (618-907). Then southern Shanxi fell under the Five Dynasties (907-960), followed by Northern Song (960-1127); northern Shanxi came under Liao (918-1125). Shanxi was reunited under Jin 1127-1234, which was annexed by Yuan 1234-1368. Shanxi then came under Ming 1368-1644 and Qing 1644-1911.
During the Republic of China 1911-1949, Shanxi saw frequent change of governments. From 1912 to 1925 under the Northern Government. In 1926, Shanxi "Warlord" Yen Hsi-shan recognised the Chiang Kai Shek administration, but in 1929 plotted against him, was ousted but returned soon after. From 1937 onward, most of Shanxi was occupied by the Japanese; from 1940 to 1945 the Japanese-held part of Shanxi was under the collaborationist Wang Jingwei administration (Nanjing). From 1946 to 1949 Shanxi was battleground between communist forces and those of Yen Hsi-shan. Since 1949, Shanxi forms part of the People's Republic of China

History of the Shanxi as a Chinese Province

Under the Han Dynasty, eastern Shanxi formed part of Ji province, western Shanxi of Bing province, small stretches of southern Shanxi of Zili province. Under Western Jin, Zili province became Si province. Under Sui, all of Shanxi was part of Ji province. Under Tang, the territory of Shanxi largely was covered by Hedong province, a unit maintained under Northern Song. Under Jin, Hedong province was split into Eastern and Western Hedong. Under the Yuan Dynasty, Shanxi was part of the centrally administratyed area (= Zhili). Under Ming, the province of Shanxi was created; it remained a province under Qing, the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China.

Timeline : Shanxi






DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles from Wikipedia
Links, General
Historical Dictionary Encyclopedia of China, from Jongo Knows
Historical Maps Northeastern China Political, from Albert Herrmann, History and Commercial Atlas of China (1935), posted by huhai.net
Map : Languages of China, from Titus
Timelines click here
History of the Administrative Divisions of China, Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History from Wikipedia
List of Current and Former Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia; scroll down for Shanxi
Encyclopedia Entries Article Shan-Si, from EB 1911
Article Schansi, from Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, in German, posted by Zeno
Article Schansi, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek
Article Schansi, from Meyers Grosses Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, in German, posted by Zeno
Politics Concentration Camps Today : Shanxi and Shaanxi, from ATTAC
Economy Randall Morck and Fan Yang, The Shanxi Banks, Corporate Governance with Chinese Characteristics 2009 (Qing)
Ethnography Article : Jin Chinese, from Wikipedia
History of Religion Metropolitan Archdiocese of Taiyuan, Diocese of Datong, Diocese of Fenyang, Diocese of Hongdong, Apostolic Prefecture of Jiangzhou, Diocese of Shuozhou, Diocese of Yuci, from GCatholic
List of Buddhist Temples : China : Shanxi, from Wikipedia
Foguan monastery, (in) Taihuai, Luohou monastery, (in) Wutaishan, Nanchan monastery, (in) Taihuai, Nanshan monastery, (near) Taihuai, Tayuan monastery, (in) Taihuai, Xiantong monastery, (in) Taihuai, from Monastic Asia
The Temple Treasures of Shanxi, from China Daily
Guandi Temple, Shanxi Province, from Cultural China
Chongyang Temple (Hu County, Shanxi), from General Presentation of Daoism
Hanging Temple of Hengshan, from Atlas Obscura
Xuangongsi Hanging Temple, Shanxi, from Asian Historical Architecture
Taiyuan Ancient Mosque, from China Culture
History of Regions Prefectures of China, from www.statoids.com
History of Cities Treaty Ports, Foreign Concessions & Colonies in 1920es China, list compiled by Phil Abbey
History of Taiyuan, from China Window, from Wikipedia
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Shanxi
Article Shanxi University, from Wikipedia
Article Taiyuan Wusu Airport, from Wikipedia
Special Topics Shanxi Merchants in Yangloudong Tea Area since Qing Dynasty, summary of Chinese language article, posted on Shvoong
Ancient Passes in Shanxi, summary of Chinese language article, posted on Shvoong
Bibliography Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keywords Shensi, Shanxi (site in German, most titles listed in English; hundreds of entries; publications mostly since 1970)

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Lists of Statesmen Provinces and administrative divisions of China, from World Statesmen
China Administrative Divisions, from rulers.org
Population Figures China, historical population statistics by province, from Population Statistics, posted at Univ. Utrecht
Shanxi, from UNESCAP Chinadata
City Populations : China - Shanxi, from City Population
PRC, Abortions and Live Births by Region, Historical Data, from Johnston's Archive
Shanxi, from Database of the Basic Conditions of Family Planning Programme at CIPRC (Text on Demography, 1999)
Document Collections Search USC Digital Library for Shansi, Shanxi
Archives China Archives Information on the Web, scroll down for Shanxi
China Museums, scroll down for Shanxi
Coins Search Coin Archives for Shansi
Shansi Coins 1821-1912, from Numismaticon

PRINTED REFERENCE
General Accounts C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), posted on Internet Archive (includes data of 1913); Shansi pp.15-20
Th.J. Cochrane, Survey of the missionary occupation of China (1913), posted on Internet Archive, on Shansi pp.237-253
M. Broomhall, The Chinese empire: a general & missionary survey .. (1907), posted on Internet Archive, on Shansi pp.209-223
W.E. Geil, Eighteen Capitals of China (1911), posted on Internet Archive, Taiyuanfu pp.370-386
Claudius Madrolle, Northern China, the valley of the Blue River, Korea (1912), posted on Internet Archive, Shan-hsi pp.179-200
N.G. Gee, The educational directory for China; an account of the various schools and colleges connected with Protestant missions (1905), posted on Internet Archive Shansi pp.11, 48-50, 65, 115, 117