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Five Dynasties Yuan Dynasty
First posted on October 10th 2009, last revised on Julky 12th 2013







For later history, see Yuan Dynasty, Jin Dynasty

Song Dynasty

For earlier history, see Later Zhou, Wuyue, Chu, Southern Han, Later Shu, Southern Tang, Northern Han

Northern Song Dynasty (capital Kaifeng) 960-1127; Southern Song Dynasty (capital Hangzhou) 1127-1279.
The Song Dynasty ended the era of the Five Dynasties (907-960).
The Song Dynasty freed itself from the problem of earlier dynasties - the Emperor often having been merely a pawn of the aristocracy. The political system was despotism with the Emperor in control, his administrators being recruited from those who passed Confucian state examinations open to all social classes. The elimination of the aristocracy resulted in a reduction of the burden on the peasants. Song China experienced population growth, especially in the provinces South of the Yangzi River, where newly introduced Champa Rice made possible two rice harvests per year (notably in Guangdong Province).
In Song China, coal came to replace charcoal and timber as its main fuel; coal mining and the metal industry (notably iron) boomed. With the fall of Northern China to the Jin (1115-1234), trade connections across the sea became even more important. Song China produced numerous technical innovations; in the view of some scholars, the Song Dynasty was on the threshold of an industrial revolution. In 1279 Southern Song was conquered and annexed by Yuan.

Demographic History of China
Historical Atlas : China
List of Wars : China

Timeline History of East Asia (more general)
Historical Dictionary East Asia (general)
Biographies : East Asia (general)

History by Province : Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang


Students' Papers : Lyu, Seungin, History of Water-Power in Korea, in Comparison with China and Europe (2013)
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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Articles Song Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Library of Congress Country Studies : China
Links, General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from dmoz; from Internet Guide for Chinese Studies (Virtual Library China); Links on China (chapter on Ch. History) from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
List of China-related topics, from Wikipedia
Links, on History from IGCS; from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies; from East Asia Digital Library; click for Song Dynasty
Category : Song Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Ancient Chinese Rice Archeology Project, Paper Database
Historical Dictionary Encyclopedia of China, from Jongo Knows
Historical Maps see here
Links, from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
Albert Herrmann, History and Commercial Atlas of China (1935), posted by huhai.net
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 1000 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1025 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Map of Nanzhao, Song, Jin, Kara-Khitan, from China Reference, in Chinese
Map of Northern Song, Southern Song, from China Knowledge
Timelines from www.timelines.ws : to 1925
Chronologie Chine, from Clio, in French
Category : Years in China, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History Concise Political History of China, posted by Chinese Culture (CUNY); based on Comptons; from Chinapedia
Article History of the Song Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty, from Facts and Details
The Song Dynasty, from All Empires
The State's Metamorphosis : From High Tang into Northern Song, ch.26, Neo-Confucian Political Philosophy, ch.27, The Age of Wang Anshi and its Aftermath, ch.28, from Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History, at WWU
J.H. Gray, The Chinese Empire, Past and Present (1900), IA
S.W. Wells, The Middle Kingdom : a survey of the geography, government, education, social life, arts, and history of the Chinese Empire and its inhabitants (1882), posted on Internet Archive
J.A. Whitney, The Chinese, and the Chinese question (1888), IA
F.L.H. Pott, A Sketch of Chinese History (1908), IA
D.C. Boulger, History of China (1881), vol.1, vol.2, posted on IA
Historiography E.R. Lyman, Chronological Tables of the Chinese Dynasties: (From the Chow Dynasty to the Ch'ing Dynasty) (1900), posted on Internet Archive
J. MacGowan, The imperial history of China, being a history of the empire as compiled by the Chinese historians (1906), posted on Internet Archive
Military Articles Mongol Conquest of the Song Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Category : Battles of the Song Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Conceit and Military Weakness during the Song Dynasty, from Cultural China
François Louis, Military Families and the Southern Song Court - the Lü case, from Journal of Sung-Yuan Studies 33 2003
Chronology of Chinese Siege Warfare, from Grand Historian
Politics Chinese History - Song Dynasty 960-1279 - Government, Administration and Law, from China Knowledge
Ari Daniel Levine, Faction Theory and the Political Imagination of the Northern Song, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.19 pt.1/2 2006
The Review for LI Gou's Thought of Reform, summary of a Chinese language article, posted on Shvoong
Hymes, Robert P., and Conrad Schirokauer, editors Ordering the World: Approaches to State and Society in Sung Dynasty China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
Foreign Policy Articles : Foreign Relations of Imperial China : Song Dynasty from Wikipedia
Article : Treaty of Shaoxing, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances Article : Economy of the Song Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Article : Technology of the Song Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Chinese History - Song, Liao, Jin, Western Xia, Science, Technology, Inventions, from China Knowledge
Chinese History - Song Dynasty 960-1279 - Economy, from China Knowledge
Hoyt Cleveland Tillman, Intellectuals and Officials in Action: Academies and Granaries in Sung China, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.4 pt.2 1991
Joseph P. McDermott, Family Financial Plans of the Southern Sung, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.4 pt.2 1991
Article : History of Tea in China, from Wikipedia
China's "Early Industrial Revolution" : Commerce, ch.19, The Early Industrial Revolution's Technology, ch.20, Sung Society, ch.21, Sung Economic and Monetary Thought, ch.22, The Economic Consequences of Sung Legislation, ch.23, Chinese Prices from Han to Early Ch'ing, ch.29, from Edward Kaplan, Chinese Economic History from Stone Age to Mao's Age, at WWU
Ethnography Languages of China (236), from Ethnologue
List of Ethnic Groups in China; articles on individual minorities linked here
China, from World Cultures Encyclopedia
The Hakka People, from OCAC
Religion China, from The Jewish Virtual History Tour; China, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
China's Christian History, by Charles Homer
Chinese Religions, from Overview of World Religions
Article Neoconfucianism, Kaifeng Jews, from Wikipedia
R.A. Eddy, Heresy and Orthodoxy in Song Dynasty China (960-1279 C.E.)
Chinese History - Song Dynasty 960-1279 - Buddhism during the Song Period, from China Knowledge
Mark Halperin, Buddhist Temples, the War Dead, and the Song Imperial Court, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.12 pt.2 1999
Daoism during the Song and Yuan Dynasties, from Development of Daoism
Lewis Hodus, Buddhism and Buddhists in China
History of Regions see History of Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shansi, Sichuan, Zhejiang at this site
Article : History of the Administrative Divisions of China : Provinces under Song Dynasty, History of the Administrative Divisions of China : Provinces under Song Dynasty, from Wikipedia
History of Cities Articles Hangzhou, Kaifeng, from Wikipedia
History of Guangzhou (Canton), from Wikipedia
The Ancient City of Kaifeng, from Cultural China
Jonathan O. Pease, Lin-ch'uan and Fen-ning : Kiangsi Locales and Kiangsi Writers during the Sung, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.4 pt.1 1991
Institutions History of the Educational System of China, by D. Surowski
Article Imperial Examinations, from Wikipedia
Culture History of Chinese Calligraphy : Song Dynasty
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History : Northern Song Dynasty, 960-1127, Southern Song Dynasty, 1127-1279
Culture of the Song Dynasty, from Chinese Clothing
History of Chinese Buddhist Art, Lecture 13 : Song Dynasty, by J.C. Huntingdon
Painting of the Song Dynasty, fromCultural China
Article : Architecture of the Song Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Peng Shijiang, Brief History of Environmental Protection in China
Chinese History - Song Dynasty 960-1279 - Literature, Thought and Philosophy, from China Knowledge
Chinese History - Song Dynasty 960-1279 - Arts, from China Knowledge
Imperial Kilns of the Song Dynasty, from China Today
Acrobatics in Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, from All China's Women Federation
Buda Game of Tang and Song Dynasties, from China Culture
Ting Yen, China and Vegetarianism, scroll down for Song Dynasty; posted by IVU
Patricia Ebrey, Taking Out the Grand Carriage : Imperial Spectacle and the Visual Culture of Northern Song Kaifeng, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.12 pt.1 1999
Jo-shui Chen, Culture as Identity during the T'ang-Sung Transition: The Ch'ing-ho Ts'uis and Po-ling Ts'uis, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.9 pt.1/2 1996
Biographies List of Famous Chinese, from Wikipedia
Bibliography Northern Song, 960-1126, Southern Song 1127-1279, fromThe Dynasties of China - Bibliography, Univ. of Maine at Farmington
Links : Books on Chinese History, from Asia Source
Bibliography of Photo-Albums and Materials related to Photography in China and Tibet before 1949, by Thomas H. Hahn
Studies of Modern Chinese History : Reviews and Essays
Search ISBN Database for China
Publishing and Printing - China - History, from Infography
Colin Jeffcott, Confucianism - a Bibliography (until Song)
Royal Asiatic Society, China Branch, Shanghai, Library
Online Library Catalogues (Academic, selection)
Historical Research, English language abstracts of Chinese language theses, published since 2008
Others Wang Zhenping, Chonen's Pilgrimage to China, 983-986, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.7 pt.2 1994
The History of Chinese Medicine : Five Dynasties & Song, 907-1279, from Shen Nong
Robert M. Hartwell, Fifteen Centuries of Chinese Environmental History. Creating a Retroactive Decision-Support System, 1994
anon. The Environmental History of China and the Sustainable Management of Governments

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Lists of Statesmen China, from Regnal Chronologies; scroll down for Song
Song Emperors, from China Knowledge
Population Figures Article : Han Chinese : Imperial History, from Wikipedia
Document Collections Internet East Asian History Sourcebook
Search Wikisource for Song Dynasty
Texts on Song-Liao Political Relations, translated by Hsingyuan Tsao
Zhu Xi's Proposal for Schools and Official Recruitment, trsl. by Mark Helperin
Two texts from Tingshi, or "Stories Noted at Home on a Small Table", trsl. by Mark Helperin
Richard Bowring, Brief Note Buddhist Translations in the Northern Sung, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.5 pt.2 1992
Asia for Educators : Primary Sources with Questions, China, 1000-1450
Archives, Musea, Libraries Zhejiang Provincial Museum
Southern Song Dynasty Imperial Kiln Museum, from China Hotels Reservation
Kai Feng City Museum, from Muztagh
Luoyang Ancient Tomb Museum, from CRI English
Monuments Song Dynasty : Temple of the Eight Immortals (Xi'an), from Heritage Key
The Great Palace of Southern Song Dynasty, from Dongying
Tombs of Song Dynasty, from China Travel Tour Guide, Tombs of Song Dynasty at Baisha, from China Culture, Imperial Mausoleums of the Song Dynasty, from China Through a Lens, Imperial Tombs of Northern Song Dynasty, from The People's Government of Zhengzhou
Stone Sculptures of the Northern Song Dynasty, from Cultural China
National Symbols Flag, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Coins of the Chinese Empire, from Zeno; Chinese Coinage Website by Vladimir Belyaev
Bronze Coins in the Southern Song Dynasty, from Cultural China
Zaiton Catalogue of Ancient Chinese Coins, Chapter 5 : Northern Song Dynasty
The Coins and History of Asia : Ancient China, Northern Sung Dynasty, Southern Sung Dynasty, by T.K. Mallon McCorgray
Northern Song Cash, by Norman F. Gorny
Coin History - Song Dynasty 960-1279, from Chinese Coins
Others Art and Archeology : Timelines - China - Liao, Song, China : Song, Jin

PRINTED REFERENCE
Online Libraries Project Gutenberg, Online Catalogue; Internet Archive
NACRP Research Library
Austrasasian Digital Theses Program
Hong Kong University Theses Online, titles in English, most theses in Chinese
Hong Kong Journals Online
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Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft (Journal of the German Oriental Society, since 1847, in German)
Journal Asiatique 1822-1937, in French, at Gallica
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