|Literature on the History of East Asia|
NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources |
1624-1662 . 1662-1683 . 1683-1860 . 1860-1895 . 1895-1919 . 1919-1945 . 1945-1949 . 1949-1958 . 1958-1975 . 1975-1987 . 1987-2000 . since 2000
see also History of the V.O.C., History of Qing China, History of Japan, History of the Peoples' Republic of China
In 1622 the V.O.C. had established a fort on the Pescadores Islands, intended to serve as a defensible warehouse. The Chinese authorities in Canton explained to the V.O.C. merchants that it had been built on Chinese territory, and had to be razed before China could resume trade with them. When the V.O.C. merchants asked where Chinese territory ended, they were told Taiwan would be outside of it.
The population of Taiwan is estimated at c.70,000 aborigines, over 1,000 Chinese and a number of Japanese (Olds).
In 1624 the V.O.C. established Fort Zeelandia on Taiwan. The Dutch encouraged Chinese settlers to move to Taiwan, in order to grow rice and sugar. The Dutch taxed Taiwan's exports, mainly in deer hides and sugar; Taiwan was profitable. At the time of the arrival of the Dutch, there was already a Chinese community on the island, although most of the island was settled by aborigines. The ethnic Chinese population of Taiwan in 1662 is estimated at 40,000.
The Spanish held on to Tamsui and Keelung from 1627 to 1641; then they were ousted by the V.O.C.
In 1636 the V.O.C. received the pledge of allegiance of 28 aboriginal settlements in southern Taiwan; aboriginal leaders would meet on an annual 'landdag' (diet) from 1641 to 1661.
Contrary to company policy elsewhere, the V.O.C. permitted proselytizing by missionaries, with some success; by 1650 there were 5,900 native converts.
A 1652 rebellion of Chinese settlers was brutally suppressed; 6,000 rebels killed.
In 1662, Ming Admiral Cheng Chen Kung (Koxinga) landed a Chinese force on Taiwan in 1661 and ousted the V.O.C. in 1662. With mainland China falling to the Qing invaders, he established a polity of his own, in Chinese refered to as the Kingdom of Tungning.
Koxinga died in 1662; he was succeeded by his son Zheng Jing (1662-1681) and grandson Zheng Keshuang (1681-1683).
A V.O.C. atempt to retake Taiwan in 1663-1664 failed.
Koxinga's conquest resulted in a greater influx of Chinese settlers. Koxinga dreamt of launching an expedition to retake the mainland, and to eliminate what was perceived to be the last bastion of the Ming was the reason for the Qing expedition of 1683 against Taiwan.
Administration . In 1683, facing a Qing naval expedition, the Ming administration of Taiwan submitted. Taiwan was turned into a prefecture of Fujian province.
Domestic History . The Chinese central administration regarded the island as being of little importance. Admiral Shi Lang, who had commanded the expedition which had forced the submission of the island, even suggested it to be abandoned because of its wildness and remoteness. In 1786 there was a major rebellion of the island's aborigine population against Chinese rule (Copper p.xii).
The Economy . The cultivation of rice, tea and sugar, by ethnic Chinese, was expanded. Conflicts arose between ethnic Chinese and the aborigines over control of camphor production.
Social History . In 1683-1684, the Qing administration repatriated an estimated third of Taiwan's ethnic Chinese population (Olds). All Chinese except for migrant workers were banned from traveling to Taiwan; the ban, occasionally lifted for a brief period of time, was only permanently lifted in 1788 (Olds).
Administration . In 1860 the Qing administration in Beijing undertook the first steps toward modernization. For long, Taiwan was treated as a dependency of Fujian province. In 1885, Taiwan was granted the status of a separate province. Liu Ming-ch'uan was appointed the first governor in 1896.
Foreign Relations . As stipulated by the Treaty of Tianjin 1858, four ports on Taiwan were opened for international trade : Anping, Tamsui, Takou (present Kaohsiung) and Keelung. Taiwan, for centuries, had not been exposed to international trade, and irregularities caused an American bombardment of the southern coast in 1866, a British assault on Anping in 1869, a Japanese expedition to punish Taiwanese aborigines in 1874. In 1884, during the Franco-Chinese War, French troops attacked Keelung, Tamsui and the Pescadores Islands.
Domestic Reforms . Taiwan was connected by telegraph with Fuzhou in 1888; a postal service was established (1888), a first railroad line constructed (opened in 1893). A modern school was established.
The Economy . As stipulated by the Treaty of Tianjin 1858, four ports on Taiwan were opened for international trade : Anping, Tamsui, Takou (present Kaohsiung) and Keelung.
The Liu administration (since 1886) implemented a tax reform, aiming at making the island financially independent. The island experienced a sugar boom (Olds).
Administration . The First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) ended with a Japanese victory. In the Treaty of Shimonoseki, Qing China ceded Taiwan (Formosa) to Japan. From 1895 to 1919 the island was administered by a series of Japanese governors general, chosen from the Japanese military.
Resistance . In 1895 Chinese officials on Taiwan proclaimed independence, in a futile attempt to prevent a Japanese takeover. The Japanese invaded, and defeated the local forces (1895); the number of Taiwanese dead is given as 7,000. Occasionally, armed resistance again flared up, among the ethnic Chinese population the last time in the Tapani Incident of 1915, on the occasion of which an estimated 10,000 died. The minority aborigine population in the remote mountain region proved difficult to control throughout the period of Japanese rule.
Domestic Policies . In 1898 the emphasis of the administration shifted from the suppression of the insurgency to the development of the island. Education was made compulsory (in Japanese), the number of schools expanded. Opium consumption was placed under state control, and declined drastically. Foot binding was discouraged, and in 1915 banned. The restructuring of urban centers, with the object of improving hygiene and the quality of life, was begun.
In 1897, Taiwan had 97 km of railroad lines; in 1919 it were 2,195 km (IHS pp.683, 685). By 1903, Taiwan was electrified.
The Economy . In 1899 the Bank of Taiwan was established.
Japan regarded Taiwan primarily as a provider of rice. In 1910, Taiwan produced 757,000 metric tons of rice; in 1919 890,000 metric tons (IHS p.194). In 1897, Taiwan produced 41,000 metric tons of sugar, in 1916 458,000 metric tons, in 1919 211,000 metric tons (IHS p.214).
Social History . Jan Lahmeyer gives the estimated population of Taiwan of 1897 as 2.7 million, that of 1919 as 3.7 million.
Cultural History . In 1908 the Taiwan Governor Museum (presently National Taiwan Museum), the first museum on the island, was opened.
Administration . Until 1919 the governors general of Taiwan had been chosen from the military; from 1919 onward civilians were appointed. The first civilian governor general, Den Kenjiro, pursued a policy of Doka, i.e. treating Taiwan and the home islands equally.
Domestic Policies . The Japanese administration expanded the island's infrastructure and improved education. In 1919, Taiwan had 2,195 km of railroad lines, in 1938 3,397 km (IHS p.685). In 1928, Taihoku Imperial University, the predecessor of National Taiwan University, was established.
Resistance . In 1921 the Taiwanese Cultural Association was established, aiming for independence. In 1927 the Taiwan People's Party was founded, which tried to forward the cause of independence by filing complaints against Japanese transgressions with the League of Nations; the TPP was banned in 1931. The aborigine population resisted Japanese rule until the end of World War II (Copper p.13); the climax being the Wushe incident, on the occasion of which 134 Japanese nationals attencing a sports festival were killed. In retaliation, c.700 aborigines were killed.
The Economy . After World War I, the Japanese prohibited the activities of foreign enterprises on the island (Copper p.12). In 1935 the Japanese administration organized an exposition in Taipei, on the occasion of 40 years of Japanese administration.
In 1919, Taiwan produced 890,000 metric tons of rice, in 1938 1.8 million metric tons (IHS p.194). In 1939, Taiwan was the world's seventh largest producer of sugar; in 1919 Taiwan produced 211,000 metric tons, in 1939 1.2 million metric tons (IHS p.214).
Social History . Jan Lahmeyer gives the estimated population of the ROC (Taiwan) for 1919 as 1.7 million, for 1945 as 6.9 million. An earthquake in 1935 cost 3,000 lives.
Cultural History . From 1937 the Japanese government pursued a policy of forced assimilation (Kominka). The usage of Chinese language was prohibited (education long had been conducted in Japanese); Chinese language newspapers were suppressed. From 1940 the Taiwanese were compelled to adopt Japanese style names.
The Japanese government in Taiwan long promoted Buddhism; in 1937 it switched to promoting Shintoism.
Taiwan in World War II . During the Sino-Japanese War (1937ff). and World War II, a five-digit number of Taiwanese served in the Japanese Imperial Army, some even having participated in the Nanjing Massacre (Copper p.13). The Japanese maintained several P.O.W. camps on Taiwan, among them Takao and Karenko. During the Island Hopping Campaign, the U.S. forces bypassed Taiwan. The island only was subjected to a few air raids and suffered limited damage (Copper p.13).
Administration . At the Cairo Conference in 1943, Chiang Kai Shek had demanded Taiwan to be restored to the ROC after the war, and neither Roosevelt nor Churchill objected.
Chiang Kai Chek's envoy Chen Yi proclaimed October 25th 1945 Taiwan retrocession day. Chen Yi led a KMT administration consisting of mainland Chinese who were preoccupied with the Chinese Civil War raging on the mainland, with exploiting the island in order to finance the war on the mainland, and with enriching themselves. They had difficulty understanding the local dialect. In 1948 Chen Yi was recalled because of his management of the popular revolt in 1947; General Chen Cheng appointed governor.
The Economy . Taiwan until 1945 had used the Japanese Yen as currency; when Taiwan was annexed by the Republic of China in 1945, the mainland suffered from hyperinflation. On Taiwan, a separate currency, the (Old) Taiwanese Dollar, was issued by the Central Bank of Taiwan. Taiwan also experienced hyperinflation, although to a lesser degree than the mainland; in 1949 the Old Taiwan Dollar was to be replaced by the New Taiwan Dollar at a rate of 10,000 to 1.
Japanese property was confiscated.
In 1946, Taiwan produced 1.0 million metric tons of rice, in 1949 1.7 million (IHS p.194). Sugar production, which had been 1.0 million metric tons in 1942, declined to 81,000 metric tons in 1946 and only rose to 626,000 metric tons in 1949 (IHS p.216).
Social History . Jan Lahmeyer gives the estimated population of the ROC (Taiwan) for 1949 as 7.7 million, for 1958 as 9.8 million. The island experienced the exodus of the island's ethnic Japanese residents (1945) and a massive influx of refugees from the mainland (1949). A popular uprising of native Taiwanese, at the time wrongly attributed to Communism, which began on February 28th 1947, was suppressed, the number of executed victims estimated between 10,000 and 30,000.
Jan Lahmeyer gives the estimated population of the ROC (Taiwan) for 1945 as 6.9 million, for 1946 as 6.1 million, for 1948 as 6.8 million, for 1949 as 7.7 million.
Administration . Note : since the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the ROC controlled territory is almost identical with the Chinese province of Taiwan.
Chiang Kai Shek was president of the Republic of China 1947-1949 and 1950-1975, since 1950 residing in Taipei. Chiang Kai Shek was reelected president in 1954. Since 1949, the territory under control of the ROC was limited to Taiwan and a few small islands off the coast of the Chinese mainland. Taiwan, until 1987, was under martial law; Chiang Kai Shek ruled as a dictator, suppressing political dissent.
In 1951, the Taiwan Provincial Assembly was established.
Foreign Policy and Vietnam War . Chiang Kai Shek, after reisgning the presidency of the ROC in 1949, resumed it on March 1st 1950, thus bginning a Chinese Cold War, as both the PR China and the ROC claimed to be the sole legitimate government representing all of China. The territorial claim of the ROC included Tibet, (Outer) Mongolia and Tannu Tuva.
A visit of U.S. General Douglas MacArthur to Taiwan in July 1950 (during the Korean War) resulted in a U.S. promise to defend Taiwan in case of a naval attack by the PR China. Chiang Kai Shek's offer to send 33,000 ROC soldiers to participate in the Korean War (July 1950) was rejected.
In 1950 the ROC severed diplomatic ties with the UK because of the latter's diplomatic recognition of the PRC.
There were Chinese attacks on the ROC-held islands of Matsu and Quemoy, in 1950, 1955 and 1958 (First, Second Taiwan Straits Crisis).
Japan formally ceded Taiwan in the peace treaty of 1952.
The ROC maintained diplomatic relations with the nations of the Western Bloc.
The ROC held the Chinese seat in the UN Security Council (until 1971). In 1954 the ROC vetoed a bid for the membership of Mongolia.
The Economy . In 1949 a currency reform was implemented; one Taiwan Dollar was worth 10,000 old Taiwan Dollars.
A land reform was implemented in 1949-1953. A first 4 year development plan was implemented in 1953-1956, a second in 1957-1960. The domestic market was protected by tariffs; the policy began the transformation of Taiwan from an agriculture-based economy to an export-oriented manufacturing economy.
In 1949, Taiwan produced 1.7 million metric tons of rice, in 1958 1.8 million metric tons (IHS pp.194, 202). Sugar production was 626,000 metric tons in 1949, 994,000 metric tons in 1958 (IHS p.216).
Social History . When the Communists won the Chinese Civil War, 600,000 Nationalist Chinese military and c. 2 million Chinese civilians moved to Taiwan.
Jan Lahmeyer gives the estimated population of the ROC (Taiwan) for 1949 as 7.7 million, for 1958 as 9.8 million.
Cultural History . Both Academia Sinica and the Central Broadcasting System were established in 1928 in Nanjing, and moved to Taipei in 1949; CBS was renamed Radio Taiwan International in 1998.
ROC athletes, under the ROC flag, participated in the Summer Olympics in Helsinki 1952 and in Melbourne in 1956.
Administration . Chiang Kai Shek was president of the Republic of China 1947-1949 and 1950-1975, since 1950 residing in Taipei. He was reelected president in 1954, 1960, 1966 and 1972. Taiwan, until 1987, was under martial law; Chiang Kai Shek ruled as a dictator, suppressing political dissent.
Foreign Policy and Vietnam War . The Republic of China claimed to be the only legitimate government representing (all of) China, including Outer Mongolia and Tannu Touva. During the Cold War, countries of the western bloc maintained diplomatic relations with the ROC, countries of the eastern bloc maintaind diplomatic relations with the PRC, with most nonaligned countries siding with the PRC. Until 1971 the ROC held China's seat in the UN Security Council.
In 1961 (Outer) Mongolia applied for UN membership. As in the case of an earlier Mongolian application in 1954, the ROC threatened to use her veto. The USSR retaliated by threatening the entry bid of Mauritania, which again was strongly criticized by the African governments. A compromise was found, in which the USSR refrained from vetoing Mauritania's entry and the ROC refrained from vetoing Mongolia's entry.
France severed diplomatic relations with the ROC in 1964 and established diplomatic ties with the PRC.
In 1971 the U.S. and the PR China entered into negotiations which resulted in the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1980. In the process, the ROC was deprived of her seat in the UN Security Council and of UN membership in 1971, and U.S. diplomatic ties with the ROC were severed that year. Canada and Italy established diplomatic relations with the PRC in 1970, Austria, Turkey, Iran, Belgium in 1971, Mexico, Argentina, the Netherlands, Japan, the FRG, Australia, New Zealand in 1972, Spain in 1973, Brazil in 1974; the recognition of the PRC meant severance of diplomatic ties with the ROC, because of the PRC's One China Policy.
The Economy . In 1958 the Republic of China was an agriculture-based economy. Beginning with a protected market, the ROC implemented a series of Development Plans (2nd, 1957-1960; 3rd 1961-1964, 4th 1965-1968, 5th 1969-1972, 6th 1973-1976), the country developed a strong manufacturing industry (electronics) and began what is called the Taiwan Miracle.
In 1958, Taiwan produced 1.8 million metric tons of rice, in 1975 2.4 million (IHS p.202). Sugar production was 994,000 metric tons in 1958, 954,000 in 1975 (IHS p.216).
In 1961 the Central Bank of China (Canton 1924-1949) was reestablished in Taipei, taking over the responsibility of issuing banknotes from the Bank of Taiwan. In 1961 the Taiwan Stock Exchange (TSE) was opened.
Social History . Jan Lahmeyer gives the estimated population of the ROC (Taiwan) for 1958 as 9.8 million, for 1975 as 16.1 million.
Cultural History . In 1962, tv broadcasting began. ROC athletes, under the ROC flag, participated in the Summer Olympics in Rome 1960, Tokyo 1964, Mexico City 1968 and Munich 1972. Teams from Taiwan dominated the Little League World Series (Baseball) from 1969 to 1991.
Administration . President-dictator Chiang Kai Shek died in 1975. He was succeeded by his son Chiang Ching-Kuo (1975-1988). He began as an authoritarian ruler, but in 1986 began to relax authoritarian rule and thus make possible transition to a functioning democratic system.
Foreign Policy and Vietnam War . The Republic of China claimed to be the only legitimate government of all of China, including mainland China, Outer Mongolia and Tannu Tuva. Postage stamps issued by the ROC featured maps showing this territorial claim.
Similarly, the PR China pursued a One-China-Policy, refusing to enter into diplomatic relations with any nation which maintains sch diplomatic relations with the ROC. Following the Sino-American Detente of 1971-1973, a number of nations had severed diplomatic relations with the ROC. With the fall of the governments in Cambodia and South Vietnam in 1975, diplomatic ties with these countris lapsed. In 1975 the Philippines and Thailand severed diplomatic ties with the ROC; amng the nations which maintained ties with the ROC were the ROK and Singapore. The ROC maintained sub-diplomatic level relations with many countries. In 1978, U.S. Congress passed the Taiwan Relations Act which permitted arms sales to Taiwan.
The Economy . Development Plans 1973-1976, 1976-1981, 1982-1985, 1986-1989. Chiang Kai Shek International Airport (Taipei) was opened in 1979.
In the 1970es and 1980es Taiwan experienced a strong economic growth, the transition from an agriculture-based economy to a manufacturing-based (electronics, computers), export-oriented economy (Taiwan Miracle). In 1975, the per-capita GDP was 891 US Dollars, in 1986 3,750 US Dollars.
Social History . Jan Lahmeyer gives the estimated population of the territory controlled by the ROC as 16.1 million in 1975, 19.7 million in 1987. Abortion was legalized in Taiwan in 1985.
Cultural History . Athletes from the Republic of China, for the last time under the ROC flag, participated in the Winter Olympics of Innsbruck 1976, and then, under the flag of Chinese Taipei, in the Summer Olympics of Los Angeles 1984.
Administration . In 1987 President Chiang Ching-Kuo (1978-1988) lifted martial law, thus marking the beginning of transition from authoritarian rule to a functioning multiparty democracy. The Democratic Progressive Party, which would evolve into the main opposition to the ruling Kuomintang (KMT), was established in 1986. President Chiang Ching Kuo was succeeded by Lee Teng-Hui (1988-2000), under whom the policy of transition to a functioning democracy was continued.
The Republic of China is a political curiosity, as it claims to cover the territory of all of China (including Outer Mongolia and Tannu Tuva). According to the constitution of 1947, constituencies in all of China were to elect deputies to the National Assembly. As, in consequence of the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War 1949 no more elections could be held on the mainland, the vast majority of seats in the National Assembly was held by gerontocrats sitting permanently. This arrangement resulted in an overrepresentation of the KMT and provided a major obstacle for the opposition. The National Assembly of the ROC, in the 1980es and 1990es, gained notoriety for occasional fist-fights between parliamentarians.
In 1996 the Council of Indigenous People (or Council of Aboriginal Affairs) was established.
Foreign Policy of the Republic of China . The PR China pursued the One-China-Policy, refusing the diplomatic recognition of any nation which maintained diplomatic relations with the Republic of China. Following economic liberalization in the 1970es, the PR China emerged as a major market. Toward the end of the Cold War, even traditionally anti-Communist nations severed diplomatic relations with the ROC and established diplomatic relations with the PRC : Republic of Korea 1992, Singapore 1992.
APEC was established in 1989; the Republic of China, as Chinese Taipei, participated in annual APEC meetings since 1991.
The Republic of China, facing increased diplomatic isolation, pursued an active policy of seeking to maintain and extend international recognition. In 1995, ROC President Lee Teng-Hui went on an informal visit of the United States, which caused the PR China to react (Third Taiwan Straits Crisis 1995-1996). In 1999 Papua New Guinea recognized the ROC; the event caused massive protest within Papua New Guinea, and within a month the recognition was retracted.
The Economy . In the 1980es the economy of the ROC (Taiwan) grew an average 9 % per annum. During the 1990es, this growth rate slowed down significantly, to an average of 6 % in 1990-1997 (StYB 2000 p.468) to 4.7 % in 1998, 5.7 % in 1999 (StYB 2002 p.413). The ROC was somewhat affected by the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997.
Social History . Jan Lahmeyer gives the estimated population of the ROC in 1987 as 19.7 million, in 2000 as 22.2 million.
Administration : Republic of China . In the 2000 presidential elections, Democratic Progressive Party candidate Chen Shui Bian emerged victorious, ending 55 years of KMT control of the island. Chen Shui Bian was reelected in the presidential elections of 2004.
The official name of the state is Republic of China; the constitution of 1947 was written for a republic covering all of China. The National Assembly, dominated by representatives from mainland constituencies elected in 1947, as no new elections could be held there because of the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, thus was a political body the Kuomintang had a hold on and the opposition could not hope to gain control of; a constitutional amendment of 2000 disempowered the National Assembly.
Administration : Taiwan . Administratively, the territory controlled by the Republic of China consists of the Province of Taiwan and the Counties of Fukien (Fujian) : Matsu, Quemoy and the Pescadores Islands.
Foreign Policy : Republic of China . Since 1949, the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China compete as the PR China claims to be the only Chinese state (One China Policy) and does not enter into diplomatic relations with any nation which recognizes the Republic of China. As the PR China is the most populous state on earth, few governments in the world want to risk access to the mainland Chinese market.
As of 2007, the following countries maintained diplomatic relations with the Republic of China : Belize, Burkina Faso, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Gambia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kiribati, Malawi, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Nicaragua, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Swaziland, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vatican City.
The Republic of China, a major exporting nation, in 2000 maintained "substantive relations" with over 100 nations StYB 2006 p.464).
Foreign Policy : Independence Mocement . The Democratic Progressive Party (in government since 2000) is in favour of renaming the Republic of China into Republic of Taiwan. Such an act, not undertaken yet, would be a declaration of independence from China, and is opposed by both the People's Republic of China and by Taiwan's main opposition party, the KMT.
Foreign Policy : Relations with the PR China . While political relations between the Republic of China and the PR China have been icy since 1949, the policy of the PRC of liberalizing the economy, of establishing special economic zones, resulted in the growth of strong economic ties between both; many Taiwanese businessmen established factories on the mainland. In 2005 direct flight connections between the ROC and PRC were established; until then Taiwanese businessmen had to travel indirectly.
In April 2007 the ROC rejected an offer for the Olympic torch, prior to the Beijing Summer Olympics in 2008, to pass through Taiwan, because the flame was scheduled to go through Taiwan as part of the domestic route, not the international route.
The Economy . Taiwan is an export-oriented economy, with strong computer and electronics industries. Economic growth in 2002 was 3.9 %, in 2003 3.3 %, in 2004 5.7 % (StYB 2006 p.464), in 2006 4.7 %.
The ROC economy was affected by the SARS crisis of 2002-2003; Taiwan registered 238 cases.
Social History . Population in 2001 22,405,568, composed of native Taiwanese (84 %; figure includes descendants of mainland Chinese), 14 % mainland Chinese and 2 % Malayo-Polynesian aborigines (StYB 2006 p.461).
Historical Atlas : Taiwan Page
Students' Papers : Kim, Jae Woo, Heroes and Villains in the History of Taiwan (2010)
Students' Papers : Park, Il Heon, A Condensed Account of the History of Chinese and Korean Communism and the United States China Policy in the years 1921-1959 (2008)
Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources .
Bibliographic and Print Sources |
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
from BBC Country Profiles;
from World Desk Reference ;
from Nations Encyclopedia;
from Index Mundi;
from CIA World Factbook Country : Taiwan
(at end of the list of countries) |
G. Psalmanazar, An historical and geographical description of Formosa,
an Island subject to the Emperor of Japan, 1704, GB |
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Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies |
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European Association of Taiwan Studies |
Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Taiwan Culture Portal |
from New Taiwan |
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|Accounts of History||Taiwanese/ROC Perspective||
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(Republic of China Yearbook 2008) |
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Republic of Formosa,
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|on Taiwanese/ROC Perspective||
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Governments on the WWW : China, Republic (Taiwan) |
Article Politics of Taiwan, from Wikipedia |
Article : National Assembly of the Republic of China
, from Wikipedia |
Brief History, from National Assembly, RoC
|Political Parties, Movements||
Category : Political Parties in Taiwan
(Republic of China), from Wikipedia |
A History of Taiwan's Women Movement, from Taiwan's Women Web
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Taiwan Relations Act, from Wikipedia |
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, RoC
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|Economy & Finances||
A Global History of Currencies :
Article Economy of Taiwan, from Wikipedia |
The Economic History of Taiwan, from Economic History Encyclopedia
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Article Taiwan Stock Exchange, from Wikipedia
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A.J. Aviles, Impacts of Japanese colonialism on state and economic development in Korea and Taiwan, and its implications for democracy, thesis Calhoun 2009
Alcohol and Drugs History Society :
Taiwan : History of the Third Sector, from Philanthropy and the Third Sector in Asia and the Pacific
Crime and Society : A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Taiwan
I-Ling Liu and Tadayoshi Taniguchi, The Size and Structure of the Workforce in Colonial Taiwan, 1905-1940, IEHC 2006
C.S.F. Fewings, Japanese colonial language education in Taiwan and assimilation, 1895-1945, thesis Curtin 2004
L. Stevenson, Assimilation and Discrimination: The Contradictions of Japanese Colonial Education in Taiwan, 1895-1945, thesis Oberlin 2010
K.C. Lee, Study of Taiwanese 'National' Curriculum in Japanese Colonial Period, thesis NSYSU 2006
A.H.C. Lee, The development of school music education in Taiwan (1895-1995), thesis Monash 2002
H.W. Chen, A Study of Japanese Colonial Education Policies in Taiwan; the Case of Language Textbooks for Elementary School, thesis NSYSU 2001
Languages of Taiwan (26), from Ethnologue |
Minorities at Risk, scroll down for Taiwan - Aboriginal Taiwanese, Mainland Chinese, Taiwanese
The Tribes of Taiwan, from TiT Culture
Article Taiwanese Aborigines, from Wikipedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Taiwan
T. Andrade, How Taiwan Became Chinese : Dutch, Spanish, and Han Colonization in the Seventeenth Century, thesis Columbia UP n.d.
A.C. Taintor, The Aborigines of Northern Formosa (1874), IA
Th.F. Hughes, Among the Sons of Han: Notes of a Six Years' Residence in Various Parts of China and Formosa .. (1881), IA
J.B.M. McGovern, Among the Head Hunters of Formosa (1922), IA
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Taiwan, from Kirken i Norge |
Category Religion in Taiwan, from Wikipedia
Ordo Fratrum Minorum, scroll down for Taivania
Zhiru, The Emergence of the Saha Triad in Contemporary Taiwan: Iconic Representation and Humanistic Buddhism, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.13 pt.2 2000
Taiwan, from The Virtual Jewish History Tour
Chapter III : Formosa, pp.25-28 in W. Brown, The history of Christian missions of the sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, 1804, GB
W. Caspar, C. Sibelius, An Account of Missionary Success in the Island of Formosa: Published in London in 1650 .. (1889), IA
G.L. MacKay, From Far Formosa: The Island, Its People and Missions (1895), IA
M. Broomhall, The Chinese empire: a general & missionary survey .. (1907), IA, on Formosa pp.63-72
H.C. Chen, The development of Taiwanese folk religion, 1683-1945, thesis Univ. of Washington 1995
|History of Regions||
Provinces of Taiwan,
Counties of Taiwan, from www.statoids.com |
Article Political Divisions of the Republic of China, from Wikipedia
Y. Palemeq, After All Ambivalence: The Situation of North Formosa and Its Inhabitants in the Seventeenth Century, thesis Leiden 2012
Taipei History, from Lonely Planet;
from Taipei City Government,
from Wikipedia |
History of Keelung, from Wikipedia
History of Kaohsiung, from Wikipedia
Article Taiwan Stock Exchange, from Wikipedia |
Article Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport, from Wikipedia; Formosa, Taiwan, from Airline History
History, from National Taipei University
Structurae : Taiwan; Search Lighthouse Depot for Taiwan
Taiwan Railway History, from Taiwan Railway Administration; Building History of Main Routes of Taiwan Railway, from Taiwan Railway Administration
Category Sport in Taiwan, from Wikipedia |
C.Y. Huang, Performing an 'Absent' China: Cultural Propaganda in anti-Communist Taiwan in the 1950's and 1960's, thesis Univ. of Washington 2013
J.Y. Lai, Cultural Identity and the Making of Modern Taiwanese Painting During the Japanese Colonial Period (1895-1945), thesis Univ. of Michigan 2008
Famous Taiwanese, from Nations Encyclopedia |
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF |
WWF Ecoregions : Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests : Southeastern Asia : Taiwan
Disaster History by Country : Taiwan, from Relief Web; Category Disasters in Taiwan, from Wikipedia
Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan, Historical Development and Background
Academia Sinica, Taiwan Archaeology |
K.C. Chang, Prehistoric Archaeology of Taiwan, Asian Perspectives, XIII, 1970 pp.59-77
Z.F. Guo et al., Searching for the Neolithic Interactions across the Taiwan Strait: Isotopic Evidence of Stone Adzes from Mainland China, Journal of Austronesian Studies 2(1) June 2008 pp.31-39
K.T. Li, Rethinking Tapenkeng Culture in the Earliest Neolithic Taiwan and the Issue Relating to Austronesian Homeland, abstract, n.d.
Z.F. Chen, China Rock Art, The Southeast Coast of China
W.C. Chen, Models of prehistoric land use in the Gaoping region, southwest Taiwan , thesis Univ. of Arizona 1998
C.H. Tsang, Recent advances in the iron age archaeology of Taiwan, Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 20, 2000, pp.153-158
K.C. Chang, The Neolithic Taiwan Strait, Kaogu 1989(6): pp.541-550,569; Engl. trsl. n.d.
Development during Ming and Fighting Dutch,
from China Daily (on Chinese immigration to Taiwan 1620 and following) 2003 |
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List of U.S. Ambassadors to Taiwan, from NNDB |
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National Statistics, Republic of China (Taiwan) |
Historical Population Statistics : Taiwan, from
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Population of Cities : Taiwan, from City Population
Historical Abortion Statistics, ROC - Taiwan, from Johnston's Archive
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China Hai guan zong shui wu si shu Reports on Trade at the Treaty Ports
Tamsui pp.73-83, Takow pp.85-88, 1869 pp.77-81,
1871 pp.79-82 posted on Internet Archive |
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Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken (Mofa, NL ; enter "Taiwan" in field : "Lijst samenstellen op land of regio", 3 entries; sources posted in Dutch language
U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, search for Formosa/Taiwan/China
Search Janus for Formosa
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL for Formosa
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for Formosa/Taiwan/China
Search CIA Released Documents for Formosa/Taiwan/China
New Archival Evidence on Taiwan's Nuclear Intentions, 1966-1976, from National Security Archive
J.A. Gothe (ed.), Archief voor de Geschiedenis der Oude Hollandsche Zending, vol.1-3, vol.1 : Aanteekeningen uit de acta der provinciale synoden van Noord-Holland, vol.2 : Aanteekeningen uit verschillende synodale en classicale acta, vol.3 : Formosa. 1628-1643; vol.4-6, vol.4 : Formosa 1643-1661, vol.5 : Molukken 1603-1624, vol.6 : Molukken 1625-1638, posted by Internet Archive
Constitutional Court of Taiwan 1949- , from AsianLII |
Global Legal Information Network, Taiwan, 1947- , from AsianLII |
International Law Library : China (both RoC, PRC)
Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce,
Japan : Taiwan, June 1 1915, IA;
May 8 1916, IA;
June 4 1918, IA |
Links, from UWashington Library |
Chrystal Dragon of Taiwan, offers some documents
Taiwan Documents.org; site may prove difficult to access
Virtual Taiwan : Historical Archives, offers some primary documents
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National Land Surveying and Mapping Centre, Taiwan |
click WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Taiwan Page |
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for Taiwan, Formosa
Search Koninklijk Instituutvoor de Tropen, Nederlandse Koloniaale Kaarten
Atlas of Mutual Heritage
Taiwan Maps, PCL, UTexas
Atlas of Taiwan, from Wikimedia Commons
Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in New York, Taiwan History in Maps
Map of Ethnic Groups in China, from IKAP - MMSEA |
Map : Languages of China, from Titus
Muturzikin, Asian Linguistic Maps : China
Kiangnanese, Minority Languages in Hainan and Taiwan, comment in Chinese
1938, from Probert Encyclopedia |
Southeastern China Political, from Albert Herrmann, History and Commercial Atlas of China (1935), posted by huhai.net
U.S. Army Map Service, Taiwan 1:250,000, 1951-,
Formosa City Plans 1944-1945, PCL, UTexas |
Article : Formosa, pp.351-354 in vol.7 of
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1797, GB |
Article : Formosa, pp.14-16 in vol.9 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1823, GB
Article : Formosa, pp.439-440 in vol.9 of The London Encyclopaedia, 1829, GB
Article : Formosa, p.182 in vol.5 of Encyclopaedia Americana, 1831, GB
Article Formosa, from Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885-1892, in German
Article Formosa, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon 1894-1896, in German
Articles from EB 1911 (Formosa)
from Catholic Encyclopedia (of 1907; Apostolic Vicariate of Amoy) |
Formosa, pp.158-159 in J.Chr. Schedel, Historisches Handbuch für
Kaufleute oder darstellendes Gemählde der Handlung, 1793, in German, GB |
Formosa, p.548 in vol.2 of W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
Article : Formosa, in R. Brookes,
Brookes's General Gazetteer Improved, 1812, GB |
Article : Formosa, p.603 in vol.1 of J.E. Worcester, A geographical dictionary or universal gazetteer, ancient and modern, 1823, GB
Island of Tai-ouan or Formosa, pp.576-579 in C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1826, GB
Article : Formose, Ile de, pp.293-294 in vol.11 of Encyclopedie des gens du monde, 1839, in French, GB
Formosa pp.235-237 in S. Morewood, A Philosophical and Statistical History of the Inventions and Customs of Ancient and Modern Nations in the Manufacture and Use of Inebriating Liquors, 1838, GB |
The Formosans pp.222-223 in A.H. Keane, The World's Peoples: A Popular Account of Their Bodily & Mental Characters , 1908, GB
Formosa, pp.2107-2128 in vol.3B of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
from Cyclopedia of Political Economy, Political Science and Political History of the United States (J.J. Lalor 1899) |
Article : Formosa, from Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens (Encyclopedia of Railroads) 2nd ed. 1912-1923, in German
Hansard (British Parliament) |
M. Cramer, Borts voyagie naer de kuste van China en Formosa
1670, in Dutch, GB |
W.A. Pickering, Pioneering in Formosa: Recollections of Adventures Among Mandarins, Wreckers, & Head-hunting Savages (1898), IA
W.B. Mason, B.H. Chamberlain, A Handbook for Travellers in Japan: Including the Whole Empire from Yezo to Formosa (1899), IA
W.B. Mason, B.H. Chamberlain, A Handbook for Travellers in Japan Including the Whole Empire from Saghalien to Formosa (1907), IA
National Archives Administration, RoC |
Chinese Taipei Film Archive, Kaohsiung Film Archive
The Archives of Institute of Taiwan History, Academica Sinica
National Museum of History, Taiwan |
Category : Monuments and Memorials in Taiwan,
from Wikipedia |
Showcaves : Taiwan
National Central Library Taiwan |
Libraries in Taiwan, from LibDex, 12 entries
|National Symbols||Flags, Coats of Arms||
Flag, from FOTW; Republic of China National Emblem, from
National Anthem, from National Anthems Net |
Banknotes of Taiwan from Ron Wise's World Paper Money |
Banknotes of Taiwan, from World Currency Museum
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES |
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Search ISBN Database |
|on Taiwan||survey of bibliographies|
W.C. Lee, World Bibliographical Series No.113 : Taiwan, Oxford : Clio 1990 [G] |
pp.119-177 in J.F. Copper, Historical Dictionary of Taiwan, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1993 [G]
pp.287-336 in J.F. Copper, Historical Dictionary of Taiwan, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 2007 [G]
Internet Archives |
Gutenberg Library Online
International Boundary Studies
|on the RoC/Taiwan||
National Digital Central Library, Taiwan |
Open Access Theses and Dissertations |
|Online Journals||full text online||
Directory of Open Access Journals |
Asia Major 1923-1934, 1949-1975, 1988-2010 Academia Sinica
Search Parameters, US Army War College Quarterly 1971- for Taiwan
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
B.C. Asian Review, clickable index
Asian Perspectives, 2003-
IIAS Newsletter, 1993-2003
|General Accounts||on RoC/Taiwan|
John F. Copper, Historical Dictionary of Taiwan, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1993 [G] |
IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G] |
Article : Taiwan, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.199-201, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.199-201, 4th ed. 1984 pp.199-201 [G]
|Yearbook Entries||Britannica Book of the Year||Formosa, 1913 p.1062, 1944 p.295, 1945 p.296, 1946 pp.323-324, 1947 p.339, 1948 p.325, 1949 pp.280-281, China, 1950 pp.177-181, 1951 pp.180-183, 1952 pp.175-177, 1953 pp.171-174, 1954 pp.171-173, 1955 pp.223-226, 1956 pp.161-164, 1957 pp.219-222, 1958 pp.157-159, 1959 pp.157-160, 1960 pp.157-160, 1961 pp.166-169, 1962 pp.150-153, 1963 pp.387-388, 1964 pp.378-379, 1965 pp.372-373, 1966 pp.326-327, 1967 pp.351-352, 1968 pp.356-357, 1969 pp.710-712, 1970 pp.717-718, 1971 pp.697-698, 1972 pp.655-656, 1973 pp.647-648, 1974 pp.646-647, 1975 pp.653-654, Taiwan, 1976 pp.643-644, 1977 pp.644-645, 1978 pp.657-658, 1979 pp.650-651, 1980 pp.650-651, 1981 pp.644-645, 1982 pp.651-652, 1983 pp.646-647, 1984 pp.648-649, 1985 pp.506, 790, 1986 pp.501-502, 789, 1987 pp.470-471, 757, 1987 pp.470-471, 757, 1988 pp.428, 709, 1989 pp.428-429, 709, 1990 pp.445-446, 725, 1991 pp.428, 710, 1992 pp.400-401, 710, 1993 pp.401-402, 725, 1994 pp.402, 725, 1995 pp.480-481, 725, 1996 pp.476-477, 725, 1997 pp.478-479, 723, 2002 pp.499-500, 737|
|Statesman's Year-Book||Japan : Formosa, 1905 pp.888-889, 1910 pp.990-991, 1918 pp.1059-1060, 1919 pp.1035-1038, 1924 pp.1071-1072, 1925 pp.1080-1081, 1926 pp.1046-1048, 1928 pp.1076-1077, 1929 pp.1059-1060, 1932 pp.1074-1076, 1937 pp.1110-1111, 1943 pp.1066-1067, China, Taiwan, 1970-1971 pp.816-819, 1975-1976 pp.828-830, 1976-1977 pp.839-842, 1978-1979 pp.346-349, 1979-1980 pp.345-349, 1980-1981 pp.348-352, 1981-1982 pp.353-357, 1983-1984 pp.358-362, 1984-1985 pp.356-360, 1985-1986 pp.358-362, 1986-1987 pp.363-366, 1987-1988 pp.363-367, 1988-1989 pp.365-369, 1989-1990 pp.368-372, 1990-1991 pp.366-371, 1991-1992 pp.366-371, 1992-1993 pp.367-372, 1993-1994 pp.367-372, 1994-1995 pp.358-363, 1995-1996 pp.346-351, 1996-1997 pp.357-362, 1997-1998 pp.365-371, 1998-1999 pp.401-407, 2000 pp.464-471, 2001 pp.452-458, 2002 pp.470-477, 2003 pp.468-475, 2004 pp.470-476, 2005 pp.467-473, 2006 pp.461-467|
|(New) Int'l Yearbook||Formosa, 1898 p.319, 1899 p.330, 1900 pp.354-355, 1907 p.279, 1908 pp.254-255, 1909 p.253, 1913 pp.258-259, 1914 p.261, 1916 p.235, 1918 pp.221-222, 1919 pp.252-253, 1920 p.240, 1921 p.241, 1923 p.252, 1925 p.251, 1928 p.269, 1930 p.280, 1932 p.294, 1933 pp.277-278, 1934 p.242, 1935 pp.249-251, 1938 p.262, 1939 p.285, Events of 1940 pp.275-276, 1941 p.214, 1942 p.256, 1943 p.216, 1944 pp.229-230, 1945 p.216|
|Americana Annual||Taiwan, 1927 p.820, 1928 p.748, 1930 p.738, 1931 p.733, 1932 p.682, 1933 pp.734-735, 1934 p.566, 1935 p.686, 1936 p.695, 1937 p.669, 1938 pp.663-664, 1939 p.726, 1940 p.744, 1943 p.693, 1944 pp.669-670, 1945 pp.684-685, Formosa, 1946 p.296, 1947 pp.266-267, Taiwan, 1957 pp.773-765, 1961 pp.742-743, 1962 pp.747-748, 1963 pp.664-666 China, 1961 pp.138-143, 1968 pp.152-157, 1970 pp.167-171, 1974 pp.172-176, 1976 pp.168-173 China - Nationalist China, 1964 pp.141-147, 1965 pp.153-157, 1967 pp.164-169, 1968 pp.152-157, 1969 pp.165-169, 1971 pp.202-205, Taiwan : A Time for Reassessment, 1972 pp.35-37, Republic of China, 1973 pp.189-190, Taiwan, 1988 pp.589-590, 1989 pp.517-518, 1990 pp.506-507, 1992 pp.510-511, 1993 pp.521-522, 1994 pp.522-523, 1998 pp.528-530, 2006 pp.363-364 [G]|
Article : Formosa, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1932 p.264, 1933 pp.217-218, 1934 p.241, 1935 pp.232-233,
1936 p.205, 1937 p.206, 1938 pp.213-214, 1946 p.175, 1952 pp.166-167 [G] |
Article : Taiwan, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1961 pp.322-323 [G]