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Jin Dynasty Ming Dynasty
First posted on October 10th 2009







The Mongol Empire was established in 1206. The conquest of China began with the taking of the Jin capital of Yanjing (modern Beijing) in 1215 and ended with the conquest of Southern Song in 1279. Formally, the Yuan Dynasty was proclaimed in 1271. The process of the disintegration of the Mongol Empire, which had begun in 1261, was completed by 1295.
This page refers to China, or parts of it, under Mongol rule, from 1215 to 1368.
Confucian state examinations abolished when Yuan was established; reintroduced in 1313.


For later history, see Ming Dynasty 1368-1644

Yuan Dynasty
For earlier history, see Song Dynasty, Jin Dynasty, Nanzhao, Western Xia, Kara Khoja


Demographic History of China
Historical Atlas : China
List of Wars : China

Timeline History of East Asia (more general)
Historical Dictionary East Asia (general)
Biographies : East Asia (general)

History by Province : Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tibet, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang
For Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang see Manchuria


Students' Papers : Lyu, Seungin, History of Water-Power in Korea, in Comparison with China and Europe (2013)
Students' Papers : Lee, Hye Jin, Maritime History : The South China Sea until the later 19th Century (2012)
Students' Papers : Choi, Jeong Hoon, Impact of Climate Change in East Asian History (2009)
Students' Papers : Cho, Yeon Ju, History of Textiles in East Asia (2009)
Students' Papers : Nam, Sangjoon, History of Transportation in China and Japan (2009)
Students' Papers : Kim, Young Yoon, Slavery in Imperial China (2009)
Students' Papers : Ko, Young Kon, The Changing View of Confucius in Chinese History. From Ancient China to Communist China (2009)
Students' Papers : Kim, Do-Gyun, Old Cities : Beijing and Nanjing in Historic Encyclopedias (2009)
Students' Papers : Suh, Hee-won: History of Water Management in China (2008)
Students' Papers : Lee, Jong Wha: History of Transportation in China (2008)
Students' Papers : Lee, Si-eun : History of Indian and Chinese Coolies and their Descendants (2008)
Students' Papers : Park, HyoSong : Premodern Chinese Food. Chinese Culinary History before the Republic of China (2008)
Students' Papers : Ko, Young Kon, Academic History of China and Korea before 1800 (2008)









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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Articles Yuan Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Library of Congress Country Studies : China
J.H. Gray, The Chinese Empire, Past and Present (1900), IA
S.W. Wells, The Middle Kingdom : a survey of the geography, government, education, social life, arts, and history of the Chinese Empire and its inhabitants (1882), posted on Internet Archive
J.A. Whitney, The Chinese, and the Chinese question (1888), posted on Internet Archive
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from dmoz; from Internet Guide for Chinese Studies (Virtual Library China); Links on China (chapter on Ch. History) from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
List of China-related topics, from Wikipedia
on History from IGCS; from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
Category : Yuan Dynasty, from Wikimedia Commons
Mongolian History Sources, from Mongolian Cilture
Organizations
Historical Dictionary Encyclopedia of China, from Jongo Knows
Timelines from www.timelines.ws : to 1925
Timeline of Chinese-European Cultural Relations, posted by Institute of Asian Affairs, Hamburg
Chronologie Chine, from Clio, in French
Category : Years in China, from Wikipedia
E.R. Lyman, Chronological Tables of the Chinese Dynasties: (From the Chow Dynasty to the Ch'ing Dynasty) (1900), posted on Internet Archive
Accounts of History Concise Political History of China, posted by Chinese Culture (CUNY); based on Comptons; from Chinapedia
Mongols and Yuan China, by Sanderson Beck
Chinese History - Yuan Dynasty 1206/1279-1368, Events History, from China Knowledge
The "Barbarian" States, Liao, Jin and Yuan, ch.29, from Edward Kaplan, Chinese Political History, at WWU
F.L.H. Pott, A Sketch of Chinese History (1908), IA
D.C. Boulger, History of China (1881), vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
J. MacGowan, The imperial history of China, being a history of the empire as compiled by the Chinese historians (1906), posted on Internet Archive
Politics / Administraton Reign of Yuan Dynasty, from Travel China Guide
Politics of Yuan Dynasty, from History of China
Chinese History - Yuan Dynasty 1206/1279-1368, Government and Administration, from China Knowledge
Tansen Sen, The Yuan Khanate and India : Cross-Cultural Diplomacy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.19 pt.1/2 2006
Michael C. Brose, Realism and Idealism in the Yuanshi Chapters on Foreign Relations, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.19 pt.1/2 2006
Paul Ratchnevsky , Jurisdiction, Penal Code, and Cultural Confrontation under the Mongol-Yuan Law, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.6 pt.1 1993
Military see here
J.J. Trombetta, The Emergence of Seapower in the Yuan Dynasty: The Transformation of Mongol Warfighting through a Revolution in Military Affairs (1258-1281) from Military History Online
J. Gilbert, The Battle of Poyang Lake (1363), from Military History Online
Articles Mongol-Jin Dynasty War, Mongol Invasion of China, Mongol Invasions of Korea, Battle of Ngasaunggyan, Battle of Pagan, Mongol Conquest of the Song Dynasty, Mongol Invasions of Japan, Mongol Invasions of Vietnam, Mongol Invasion of Java, Mongol Invasion of Burma (1300), from Wikipedia
Article Naval History of China : Yuan Dynasty, Chinese Armies (pre 1911) : Yuan Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Article : Red Turban Rebellion, from Wikipedia
Chronology of Chinese Siege Warfare, from Grand Historian
Article : Ispah Rebellion, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : China; Economic History of Premodern China, from Economic History Encyclopedia
The Economic History and the Economy of China, by Thayer Watkins
Social Economy of the Yuan Dynasty, from Travel China Guide
The Economic of Yuan Dynasty, from History of China
Chinese History - Yuan Dynasty 1206/1279-1368, Economy, from China Knowledge
Thomas T. Allsen, Mongolian Princes and Their Merchant Partners, 1200-1260, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.2 pt.2 1989
Elizabeth Endicott-West, Merchant Associations in Yuan China : The Ortoy, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.2 pt.2 1989
Economic Consequences of the Mongol Conquest, ch.24, Social Consequences of the Mongol Conquest, ch.25, Chinese Prices from Han to Early Ch'ing, ch.29, from Edward Kaplan, Chinese Economic History from Stone Age to Mao's Age, at WWU
Social History Yuan Dynasty, from Gender, Culture and Society
Four Class System of Yuan Dynasty, from Travel China Guide; from History of China
The Hakka People, from OCAC
Bettine Birge, Levirate Marriage and the Revival of Widow Chastity in Yuan China, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.8 pt.2 1995
Ethnography Languages of China (236), from Ethnologue
List of Ethnic Groups in China; articles on individual minorities linked here
China, from World Cultures Encyclopedia
The Uyghur Ethnic Group, from China through a Lens
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : China, from Kirken i Norge
China, from The Jewish Virtual History Tour; China, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
China's Christian History, by Charles Homer
Patron Saint Index : China
Chinese Religions, from Overview of World Religions
Islam during the Yuan Dynasty, from The Temasek Review
Article : Christianity among the Mongols : Catholic Missions to Mongol China, from Wikipedia
Yuan Dynasty : Religion and Culture, from Travel China Guide; from History of China
Article White Lotus, from Wikipedia
Chinese History - Yuan Dynasty 1206/1279-1368, Religion, from China Knowledge
Daoism during the Song and Yuan Dynasties, from Development of Daoism
Lewis Hodus, Buddhism and Buddhists in China
History of Regions see History of Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Manchuria, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shansi, Sichuan, Tibet, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang at this site
Tibet's History during Yuan Dynasty, from Embassy of the People's Republic of China in India
Manchuria under the Mongol Empire, from Wikipedia
Article History of Yunnan : Yunnan under the Mongol Empire and the Yuan Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Article : History of the Administrative Divisions of China : Provinces under the Yuan Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Local History Article Khanbaliq, from Wikipedia
History of Beijing (Peking), by Lee Min Ju (at this site), from china.org, from Wikipedia
History of Tianjin (Tientsin), from Wikipedia
History of Nanjing (Nanking), from Wikipedia
History of Guangzhou (Canton), from Wikipedia
A Historical Introduction to the History of Beijing 1153-1368, from The Beijing Report
Institutions History of the Educational System of China, by D. Surowski
Article Zongli Yamen, from Wikipedia
Article Imperial Examinations, from Wikipedia
Culture, Arts Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368, from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
Art and Archeology : Timelines - China : Yuan
Yuan Dynasty, from The Jade Road
Yuan Landscape Painting, from A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization by P.B. Ebrey
Imperial Tombs of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), from China through a Lens
Painting of the Yuan Dynasty, from Cultural China
Memories of Yuan Dynasty Blue and White Porcelain, from CRI
Chinese History - Yuan Dynasty 1206/1279-1368, Literature, Thought, Philosophy, from China Knowledge
Acrobatics in Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, from All China's Women Federation
Ting Yen, China and Vegetarianism, scroll down for Yen Dynasty; posted by IVU
Biographies List of Famous Chinese, from Wikipedia
Category : Yuan Dynasty Emperors, from Wikipedia
Others Peng Shijiang, Brief History of Environmental Protection in China
Ruth Dunnell, The Hsia Origins of the Yuan Institution of Imperial Preceptor, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.5 pt.2 1992
The History of Chinese Medicine : Jin & Yuan, 1115-1368, from Shen Nong
Robert M. Hartwell, Fifteen Centuries of Chinese Environmental History. Creating a Retroactive Decision-Support System, 1994
anon. The Environmental History of China and the Sustainable Management of Governments

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Chinese History - Yuan Dynasty 1206/1279-1368, List of Rulers and Emperors, from China Knowledge
Lists of Ambassadors
Population Figures China, from Population Statistics
Article : Han Chinese : Imperial History, from Wikipedia
Documents Historical Newspapers
Image Databanks
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties
Consular Reports
Document Surveys Ch.11 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Orientalium atque Asiaticarum, Par.5 : Sinarum rerum scriptores, pp.239-244 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Document Collections Links to sources, from UWashington Library
Documents : China, from CEAS, from UCLA Center for East Asian Studies
Internet East Asian History Sourcebook
Search Wikisource for Yuan Dynasty
Chinese History Documents, from John Fairbank Memorial Chinese History Virtual Library
Chinese History : Government Documents, posted by R.R. Wertz
Asia for Educators : Primary Sources with Questions, China, 1000-1450
Historical Maps see here
Links, from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
Albert Herrmann, History and Commercial Atlas of China (1935), posted by huhai.net
Map of Yuan China, from A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization by P.B. Ebrey
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Map of Yuan China, from Cultural China (in Chinese)
Map of Yuan China, from China Knowledge, has provinces
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries Repositories of Primary Sources : Asia : China, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 9 entries
UNESCO Archives Portal : National Archives Asia Pacific, has one entry for China (Nov. 20th 2006), scroll down; has also 12 entries on provincial, 31 entries on municipal level
UNESCO Archives Portal : State and Regional Archives, 1 entry for Taiwan
Libraries in China, from LibDex, 23 entries
Online Library Catalogues (Academic, selection)
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flags, by Phil Abbey
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of China, from World Currency Gallery, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; Chinese Banknotes, from Numismondo; Pre Qing, from Zeno
Coins of the Chinese Empire, from Zeno; Chinese Coinage Website by Vladimir Belyaev
Coin History Yuan Dynasty 1271-1368, from Chinese Coins

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies General Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keyword Brunei (site in German, most titles listed in English; hundreds of entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
on Yuan China Yuan Dynasty, 1271-1368, fromThe Dynasties of China - Bibliography, Univ. of Maine at Farmington
Links : Books on Chinese History, from Asia Source
Search ISBN Database for China
Royal Asiatic Society, China Branch, Shanghai, Library
Historical Research, English language abstracts of Chinese language theses, published since 2008
Online Libraries General Project Gutenberg, Online Catalogue; Internet Archive
NACRP Research Library
on China Austrasasian Digital Theses Program
Hong Kong University Theses Online, titles in English, most theses in Chinese
Online Journals Asia Major, journal published by Institute of History and Philology of the Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft (Journal of the German Oriental Society, since 1847, in German)
Journal Asiatique 1822-1937, in French, at Gallica
Bulletin de l'Ecole Française de l'Extreme Orient 1901-1937, in French, at Gallica
Search Shvoong [provider of English language summaries of articles published in Chinese language academic magazines]
Journal of Northeast Asian History (since 2004)
Journal of Song-Yuan Studies
Hong Kong Journals Online
Orientalia Parthenopea Journal 2005- , mostly in Italian
Historiography Article : Chinese Historical Thought - Ancient to Ming, by M.R. Drompp, pp.158-161, Article : Chinese Historiography - Chronicle/Annal Form Histories (Biannian Shi), by G. Hardy, pp.161-162, Article : Chinese Historiography - Commentaries, by Shoucheng Yan, pp.162-163, Article : Chinese Historiography - General Histories (tongshi) premodern and Imperial, by J.W. Jay, p.163, Article : Chinese Historiography - Histories of Illegitimate Dynasties (wei shi), by Q.E. Wang, pp.163-164, Article : Chinese Historiography - Histories of Institutions, by Q.E. Wang, p.164, Article : Chinese Historiography -Local Gazetteers (Fengzhi), by G. Alista, pp.164-165, Article : Chinese Historiography - Miscellanea, by J.W. Jay, pp.165-166, Article : Chinese Historiography - Records of the Beginnings and Ends of Events, by J. Lee, pp.170-171, Article : Chinese Historiography - Standard Histories, by G.R. Hardy, pp.171-172, in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Article China, pp.36-231 in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., Macropaedia, vol.16, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862n
David C. Wright, The History of China, Westport CT : Greenwood 2001, KMLA ib.Sign. 951 W947h
Specific Topics
Atlasses Nathan Sivin (ed.), The Contemporary Atlas of China, Boston : Houghton Mifflin 1988 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Michael Dillon, China, a Cultural and Historical Dictionary, Richmond (Surrey) : Curzon 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 951.003 D579c
James S. Olson, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China, Westport CT : Greenwood 1998 [G]
Michael Dillon, Dictionary of Chinese History, Bournemouth : Frank Cass 1979 [G]