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Literature on the History of East Africa
Eritrea Somalia
First posted on June 21st 2011







After The SULTANATE OF SHOA had been destroyed by the Abyssinians during the rule of Negus Amda Siyon (1314-1344), the SULTANATE OF IFAT, ruled by the Walashma dynasty, emerged as Shoa's successor state; it included Adal and the trading city of ZEILA (SAYLAC).
In 1415 the Abyssinians routed Ifat and conquered Zeyla; Sultan Sa'd ad-Din was killed. The Abyssinians withdrew and the Sultanate, now named ADAL, was reestablished by the descendants of Sa'd ad-Din. The capital was moved to Dakkar, east of Harar.
In 1506-1543, Adal was ruled by Imam Ahmad Ibrahim al-Ghazi; he imported cannons and waged war against Abyssinia, which brought the country close to collapse. Yet meanwhile the Portuguese established contact with Abyssinia (CRISTOPHER DA GAMA, 1541) and Portuguese military aid to the latter saved Abyssinia. Imam al-Ghazi's force was routed in 1542 near Lake Tana, the Imam killed in battle. The capital of Adal was moved to Harar, in 1577 to the oasis of Aussa, located in the Danakil depression.
Adal, from an expanding power, had become the subject of foreign raids - therefore the relocation of the capital to a remote location in a hostile climate. In the later 16th century, both Abyssinia and Adal experienced raids by the Galla. In the late 17th century, the dynasty ruling the Sultanate of Adal was overthrown by the Afar; this event terminates the history of Adal.
Some historians date the existence of the polity of Adal back into antiquity, identifying it with the Aualites. Reference to Adal, under this name, dates back to the 10th century. From 1285 to 1415, the region of Adal was controlled by the Sultanate of Ifat. The Muslim Sultanate of Awdal (Adal, Adel) existed from c.1415 to 1555. Through the port of Zeila (Seilac) it had access to maritime trade. At its climax, it controlled the city of Harar. A Kingdom of Awdal (Adel, Adal) continues to appear in European books into the later 19th century. By the mid 18th century, the polity of Adal had broken up into the Sultanate of Tadjoura and the territory of the Issa.
From the late 1870s to 1884 the territory of Awdal was under the administration of Egypt; from 1884 to 1960 part of British Somaliland; from 1960 to the disintegration of Somalia part of the latter; since then part of unrecognized Somaliland (Awdal).
The (north)westernmost government of Somalia / Somaliland is called Awdal.








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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article : Adal Sultanate, from Wikipedia
Historic
Links on History Category : Kingdom of Adal, from Wikipedia
Timelines
Historical Dictionary
Organizations Institute of Ethiopian Studies, Addis Ababa University
Timelines
Accounts of History General, Modern Article : Adal Sultanate, from Wikipedia
Awdal History, from Awdal Youth Foundation
General, Historical
Specific Periods Article : Ifat Sultanate, from Wikipedia
Military
Economy & Finances
Ethnography Article : Issa (Clan), from Wikipedia
Religion
History of Regions
Local History Article : Zeila, from Wikipedia
History of Zeila, from Zeila TV
Institutions
Culture M. Sheikh Farah, The History of Zeila and the Zeilii Folklore Dance in the Awdal Region, Camuud News
Biographies
Others Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Documents Historical Newspapers
Online Yearbooks International
Image Databanks 19th century image of Zeila, posted by Wikipedia
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections
Document Collections Dialog on Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim (Gran) of Adal, from World History Archives (early 16th century)
Historical Maps map collections 16th to 20th century maps of Africa, Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies at Northwestern University
Category : Old Maps of Somalia, from Wikipedia
Category : Maps of the History of Somalia, from Wikipedia
entire country, hindsight/modern Maps : Ifat c.1300, Sultanate of Adal c.1500, from Wikipedia
Horn of Africa 70 A.D., 560 A.D., 1100 A.D., 1300 A.D., 1550 A.D., 1650 A.D., 1730 A.D., 1890 A.D., from Wikimedia Commons
Eastern Hemisphere 1100 A.D., 1200 A.D., 1300 A.D., 1400 A.D., 1500 A.D., by Thomas Lessman
entire country, contemporary G. Mercator, Abissinorum sive Pretiosi Joannis imperii, 1530, Northwestern University Library
Blaeu, Aethiopia superior vel interior vulgo Abissinorum sive Presbiteri Ioannis Imperium. 1650 Northwestern University Library
G. de l'Isle, Carte de l'Egypte, de la Nubie de l'Abissinie &c. (c.1700) 1792, Northwestern University Library
E. Bowen, A new and accurate map of Nubia & Abissinia, 1747, Northwestern University Library
J. Pinkerton, Abyssinia, Nubia &c. 1814, Northwestern University Library
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Adel, p.118 in vol.1 of Penny cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 1833, GB
Religious
Economic Adel, p.79 in C.G. Ludovici, Allgemeine Schatz-Kammer Der Kauffmannschafft oder Vollständiges Lexicon aller Handlungen und Gewerbe So wohl in Deutschland als auswärtigen K?igreichen und Ländern, 1743, in German, GB
De la Cote d'Ajan, pp.184-185 in vol.1 of J.B.A.M. d'Hertereau, La parfaite intelligence du commerce, 1785, in French, GB
Cotes d'Adel et d"Ajan, pp.32-33 in Tableau general du commerce de l'Europe, avec l'Afrique, les Indes orientales et l'Amerique, 1787, in French, GB
Political Royaume d'Adel, pp.483-485 in P. d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, Part 2 : Description de l'Afrique, 1637, Gallica
Royaume d'Adel, pp.483-485 in P. d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, Part 2 : Description de l'Afrique, 1643, GB
Royaume d'Adel, pp.502-504 in P. d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, Part 2 : Description de l'Afrique, 1660, GB
Geographical Das Königreich Adel oder Zeila, pp.653-654 in O. Dapper, Umbstaendliche und eigentliche Beschreibung von Africa, 1670, in German, GB
Royaume d'Adel, p.245 in vol.2 of J. Robbe, Methode pour apprendre facilement la geographie, 1687, in French, GB
Royaume d'Adel, p.114 in D.M. du Plessis, Nouvelle g?graphie ou description exacte de l'univers, 1700, in French, GB
Kingdom of Adel, pp.409-410 in vol.4 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1825, GB
The Kingdom or Country of Somauli or Adel, p.358 in J. MacGregor, Commercial Statistics, 1850, GB
Adal and East Africa, pp.480-481 in W.L. Bevan, The student's manual of modern geography, 1860, GB
Ethnographical La cote d'Ajan, p.123 in vol.3 of A. Wahlen, J.J. van Beveren, Mours, usages et costumes de tous les peuples du monde, 1844, in French, GB
Historical Adel, Royaume, p.51 in vol.1 of L. Moreri, Le grand dictionaire historique, 1683, in French, GB
Adel, Royaume, p.109 in vol.1 of L. Moreri, Le grand dictionaire historique, 1740, in French, GB
Royaume d'Adel, p.605-623 in vol.24 of G.T.F. Raynal, Histoire universelle, depuis le commencement du monde jusqu'?pr?ent, 1765, in French, GB
The Kingdom of Adel, pp.312-319 in vol.13 of W. Mavor, Universal History, Ancient and Modern, 1804, GB
Other
Tour Guides, Travelogues C.E.X. Rochet d'Hericourt, Voyage sur la cote orientale de la mer Rouge, dans le pays d'Adel et le royaume de Choa, 1841, in French, GB
C. Johnston, Travels in Southern Abyssinia, through the country of Adal to the Kingdom of Shoa, vol.1, 1844, GB
Historical travelogues on Zeila (Seylac), from Djiboutian Sightings
Institutions Archives Ethiopian National Archives and Library Agency
Musea
Monuments
Libraries
State Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general ISBN Database
Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Awdal
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
on Awdal
Online Journals full text online
Table of Contents
Online
General Accounts
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries