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Literature on the History of East Africa
Rwanda Tanzania
First posted on July 2nd 2002, last revised on November 12th 2013

History of Burundi : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

until 1897 . 1897-1916 . 1916-1962 . Since 1962
see also Ruanda-Urundi 1916-1962

Precolonial History
Burundi, together with it's neighbour Rwanda, thanks to fertile volcanic soil, grows 4 harvests per year and therefore has, together with Java (Indonesia) the highest agrarian population density in the world.
The Hutus, a Bantu people, immigrated ca. 1000 A.D., soon outnumbering the indigenous Twa. In the 15th century, the Tutsi immigrated, a proud people. The Tutsi subdued the Hutus and established a number of statelets. Tutsi and Hutu lived strictly segregated, preserving both their ethnicity and their mutual disregard.
The Tutsi Kingdom of Burundi was established by Ntare Rushatsi in the 17th century, who ruled under the title of Mwami. His successors continued to rule until 1966.
In an Anglo-German treaty of 1890, Burundi was allocated to the German sphere of interest. By 1897, it was incorporated into the colony of German East Africa.

Colonial History
German Rule
In a treaty signed in 1890, Britain recognized Germany's claim to Burundi. German rule was not established until 1897. In 1899, the village Usambara (Bujumbura) was selected as a German police station; it developed into Burundi's capital.
The Germans treated the Kingdom of Burundi as a protectorate, interfering little in it's internal affairs. Christian mission began during the period of German colonialism.

Belgian Rule, 1916-1962
In 1916, Belgian troops from the Belgian Congo invaded German East Africa, occupying both Rwanda and Burundi. In the Treaty of Versailles, all German colonies were taken from it. In 1920, the League of Nations transferred Rwanda and Burundi as mandates to Belgium.
In 1922, the Belgians created the colony of Ruanda-Urundi (administrated as an annex to the Belgian Congo). Yet, they left both kingdoms, Rwanda and Burundi, intact, and established administrations in which the real authority lay with the Belgian officials 'advising' the king.
The elite was educated in French, drawing the country into the circle of francophone countries. Catholic mission, begun under the Germans, was intensifyed. Coffee was introduced as a crop in 1918.

Independence since 1962
Just before Burundi was released into independence, parliamentary democracy, universal adult suffrage and majority rule were introduced. At the same time, the monarchy was maintained, in a country where, for centuries, the minority Tutsi had ruled over the majority Hutu.
The country became independent in 1962, now officially changing it's name from Urundi into Burundi. The young republic went through years of political instability, characterized by coups (a failed coup 1965, a successful coup 1966, another failed coup 1969, a successful coup in 1993), rebellions (1972) and massacres the ethnic groups committed on each other (1965, 1972, 1988, 1997). The Tutsi, meanwhile, controlled both the army and the ruling UPRONA party. In 1966 King Ntare V. was deposed, the monarchy abolished.
The situation remains tense, as the Tutsi minority is not willing to relinquish their control over the army. Experiments to ease tensions by appointing moderate Hutus to government positions, such as under President Pierre Buyoya in 1987, have failed.
Since independence, Burundi has experienced a doubling of its population. As all good farmland is under cultivation, the ethnic tension it aggreviated by a competition for land.

Historical Atlas, Burundi Page

Students' Paper : Sung Ji Yun, History of Nutrition in East Africa (2012)

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Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Article : Burundi, from Wikipedia
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Links General from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford; from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Burundi, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Burundi, from Wikipedia
Virtual Library History : Burundi
Historical Dictionaries East Africa Living Encyclopedia
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Jim Jones, Timeline of Events in Ruanda and Burundi
Accounts of History Current from Wikipedia
Specific Periods DADM : Burundi 1962-present
Burundi : Descent into Chaos or Manageable Crisis ? from writenet, article from 1995, covers history 1850-1966.
EISA : Pre-colonial Burundi (c.1300-1890) 2010
EISA : Burundi: German colonialism (1890-1916) 2010
EISA : Burundi: Belgian colonial rule (1916-1962) 2010
EISA : Burundi: Fall of the Monarchy (1962-1966) 2010
EISA : Burundi: First Republic (1966-1976) 2010
EISA : Burundi: Second Republic (1976-1987) 2010
EISA : Burundi: Third Republic (1987-1996) 2010
EISA : Burundi: Fourth Republic (1996-2001) 2010
EISA : Burundi: Transitional Government (2001-2005) 2010
EISA : Burundi: The Presidency of Nkurunziza (2005-2007) 2010
Historiography T. Hartley, Rwanda and Burundi: Historical and Historiographical Explanations for Ethnic Violence thesis Sheffield 2011
Politics Politics of Burundi, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Burundi
Governments on the WWW : Burundi
Entry Burundi, from EISA Web Encyclopedia
Burundi Profile, from International Crisis Group
International Boundary Studies : Burundi-Rwanda Boundary 1966
S. Bizimana, The Burundi Legal System and Research 2007
Burundi : Descent into Chaos or Manageable Crisis ? from writenet, article from 1995, covers history 1850-1966.
Military Wars of Burundi, 1800-1999, from ACED
Orders, Decorations and Medals from Burundi, posted by Jean Paul le Blanc, from ODM
Category : Military History of Burundi, from Wikipedia
Global Security : African Paramilitary Groups : Forces de Liveration Nationale (FALINA); Forces Nationales de Liberation, Forces pour la defense de la democratie
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Burundi, Hutu vs. Tutsi, 1969, 1972-1973, 1988, 1993-2004
Economy & Finances Entry Burundi, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor; Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Burundi
Article Economy of Burundi, from Wikipedia
Catregory : Economy of Burundi, from Wikipedia
24hGold, Burundi : History of Gold Production since 1996
Social History Burundi, from Crime and Society, A Comparative Crimonology Tour of the World (R. Winslow)
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Burundi
Ethnography Category Languages of Burundi, from Wikipedia
Languages of Burundi (3), from Ethnologue
Country Report : Burundi, from U.S. Committee for Refugees
Burundi, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
Burundi : Hutus, Tutsis, from Minorities at Risk
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Burundi
Rene Lemarchand, Case Studies : The Burundi Killings of 1972 , from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Forest Peoples Programme, Land Rights and the Forest Peoples of Africa : J.P. Amani, Historical developments in Burundi's land law and impacts on Batwa land ownership, 2009
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Burundi, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in Burundi, from Wikipedia
Burundi, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
by Region Category : Provinces of Burundi, Subdivisions of Burundi, from Wikipedia
Article Provinces of Burundi, from Wikipedia
Provinces of Burundi, from www.statoids.com
Communes of Burundi, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Republique du Burundi 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Local History List of Cities in Burundi, from Wikipedia
Institutions Burundi, from Airline History
Article University of Bujumbura, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Burundi
Cultural History Article Burundi at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Luxor African Film Festival, History of Film in Burundi
Biographies List of Burundians, from Wikipedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
Environmental History Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Disaster History by Country : Burundi, from Relief Web

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Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Regnal Chronologies : Eastern Africa, scroll down for Burundi
Lists of Ambassadors U.S. Ambassadors to Burundi, from NNDB: Chinese Ambassadors to Burundi, from PRC MOFA; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Bujumbura (Burundi), from Wikipedia German edition
Statistical Data Responsible Institution
Population Figures from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
World Life Expectancy, Health Profile : Burundi
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1965
Inflation Rates Trading Economics : Burundi Inflation Rate, 1974-
Index Mundi, Burundi Inflation Rate 1999-2011
Election Results from Psephos, since 2005; from IFES Election Guide, since 2005; from African Elections Database, since 1961
Search IPU Parline for "Burundi"
EISA Burundi Election Archive
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Online Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Burundi, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
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Online Yearbooks - Burundi Entries Yearbook of the United Nations, Africa - Central Africa - Burundi 1994, Africa - Burundi 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007
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Document Collections History of Burundi, from World History Archives
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Burundi, from ILO, 31 docs. since 1963
Information by country : Burundi, from U.S. Committee for Refugees, 19 reports 1993-2002
Peace Agreements Digital Collection : Burundi, from United States Institute of Peace
Security Council Report : UN Documents on the Great Lakes Region, UN Documents on Burundi
Individual Documents UN Security Council Resolutions 1962 res. 173, 1995 res. 1012, 1996 res. 1040, 1049, 1072, 1078, 1080, 1087, 1997 res. 1097, 2000 res. 1286, 2001 res. 1375, 2004 res. 1545, 1577, 2005 res. 1602, 1606, 1641, 1650, 2006 res. 1653, 1692, 1719, 2007 res. 1791, 2008 res. 1804, 1858, 2009 res. 1902, 2010 res. 1959, 2011 res. 2027,
Historical Maps responsible institutions Institut G?graphique du Burundi, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Burundi Burundi Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Burundi, Maps of the History of Burundi, Wikimedia Commons
Ruanda-Urundi, Topographical Maps 1:100,000, 1942, PCL, UTexas
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Burundi, Modern
Burundi, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique ?l'?helle de 1:2 000 000 41. Tabora 1885, 41. Tabora 1892, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheet 23 Kisangani (1968), sheet 24 Nairobi (1968), sheet 27 Lubumbashi (1969), 28 Dar es Salaam (1969), PCL, UTexas
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Urundi, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th ed. 1885-1892, in German, Retrobibliothek
Parliamentary Debates
Institutions Archives
Musea Museums in Burundi, from International Council of African Museums
Libraries Libraries in Burundi, from LibDex
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, posted by David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Burundi, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Burundi coins from World Coin Gallery
Stamps see under Ruanda-Urundi

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Burundi survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
general bibliographies pp.147-198 in E.K. Eggers, Historical Dictionary of Burundi, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 1997 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Ritimo, Burundi, une reconciliation inachevee
serial publications
general bibliographies
Burundi entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Burundi-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Burundi Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.15, pp.627-630 Article Central Africa : Burundi. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.15
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries Ellen K. Eggers, Historical Dictionary of Burundi, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1997 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Ruanda-Urundi, 1963 pp.708-709 [G]
Burundi, 1964 p.206, 1965 pp.203-204, 1966 p.161, 1967 p.183, 1968 p.181, 1969 p.182, 1970 pp.181-182, 1971 p.175, 1972 p.161, 1973 p.158, 1974 p.166, 1975 p.150, 1976 pp.177-178, 1977 pp.180-181, 1978 pp.233-234, 1979 pp.231-232, 1980 p.228, 1981 p.226, 1982 p.226, 1983 p.223, 1984 p.220, 1985 pp.461, 649, 1986 pp.456, 645, 1988 pp.385-386, 566, 1989 pp.385, 566, 1990 pp.402, 581, 1993 pp.357, 575, 1994 pp.355, 575, 1995 pp.385, 575 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Burundi, 1970-1971 pp.790-792, 1975-1976 pp.802-803, 1978-1979 pp.252-255, 1980-1981 pp.253-256, 1983-1984 pp.255-257, 1984-1985 pp.254-256, 1985-1986 pp.256-258, 1987-1988 pp.258-260, 1988-1989 pp.257-259, 1989-1990 pp.258-260, 1990-1991 pp.258-260, 1991-1992 pp.259-261, 1992-1993 pp.259-262, 1993-1994 pp.259-262, 1994-1995 pp.253-256, 1995-1996 pp.245-248, 1996-1997 pp.261-265, 1997-1998 pp.266-269, 1998-1999 pp.291-294, 2000 pp.346-350, 2001 pp.334-338, 2002 pp.350-354, 2003 pp.347-351, 2004 pp.348-352, 2005 pp.343-347 [G]
Americana Annual Burundi, 1963 pp.108-109, 1964 pp.108-109, 1965 p.129, 1967 pp.137-138, 1968 p.128, 1969 p.140, 1970 p.144, 1971 p.168, 1972 p.170, 1973 p.164 [G]
Africa - Burundi, 1974 p.78 [G]

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