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Comores Reunion
First posted on July 2nd 2002, last revised on September 18th 2013







History of Madagascar : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
until 1800 . 1800-1895 . 1895-1960 . since 1960


Pre-Merina, until 1800
The first European on record to discover Madagascar was Diogo Diaz in 1500. By that time, the island was populated by people of African as well as of Malay stock, who had immigrated centuries ago.
Portuguese missionaries had made attempts to convert the island's population, but Portugal made no attempt to settle or establish a colony. France established forts from 1642 onward : Fort-Dauphin, later Ile Sainte Marie. French influence did not go far beyond these forts. The French settlement at Fort Dauphin was abandoned in 1674. French pirates afterward established the pirate republic of Libertalia, possibly at the former Fort Dauphin.
The indigenous population concentrated in interior highland regions which offered a better climate than the humid lowlands. In the 17th century there were a number of indigenous kingdoms, notably the Kingdoms of Antemoro, Betsileo, Merina, Sakalava. The latter expanded in the later 17th century, covering much of the north and west, then disintegrated in the two kingdoms of Boina and Menabe.


Merina Kingdom, c.1800-1895
In the final years of the 18th century, King Andrianampoinimerina (1787-1810) established a Merina kingdom in the central highlands, with the capital at Antananarivo. His successor, Radama I. (1810-1828), allowed English missionaries in and, with British advice, modernized his administration and army. The Merina kingdom expanded by conquering the Betsimisareaka Kingdom. Missionaries opened schools and began to write in Malagasy; a Malagasy literature emerged. It was missionaries who introduced vanilla to the island in ca. 1840.
Under Radama's widow and successor Ranavolana I (1828-1861), christianity was outlawed and suppressed; the country fell into civil war. Ranavalona's successors reestablished ties with the English missionaries, English and permitted Catholic French missionaries in, too. Under Quuens Ranavolana II (1868-1883) and Ranavolana III (1883-1896), the Merina Kingdom extended over most of Madagascar, except the very south and some areas in the west.
France began a campaign of conquest in 1883; in 1885 they took Diego Suarez (Antsirane) and declared a protectorate over the entire island, which was recognized by Britain in 1890. In 1896, the Merina were decisively defeated and the Kingdom abolished. Resistance against French rule, however, continued until 1904.

French Colony. (1883) 1895-1960
French colonization of Madagascar began in 1883. In 1885, they established the colony of Diego Suarez on the island's northern end. In 1885, the French declared a protectorate over the entire island, at that time a mere claim. In 1840 France acquired Nossi-Be, in 1894 at Ste Marie de Madagascar, both islands off Madagascar. In 1896, the central region of the Merina kingdom, with the capital Antananarivo (Tananarive) was conquered; the Merina Kingdom was declared dissolved. and the French protectorate over all of Madagascar declared. Diego Suarez was integrated into the protectorate, the seat of administration moved to Tananarive. Queen Ranavalona III., and her prime minister were deported, first to Reunion, then to Algeria. Nossi-be and Ste Marie de Madagascar were annexed in 1898.
The French developed the capital region; French settlers came into the country. A railroad was built to connect Tananarive (altitude 1,400 m) with the east coast port of Tamatave (modern Toamasina), which subsequently replaced Diego Suarez/Antsirabe as Madagascar's main port. In 1911, the Comoro Islands (Anjouan, Grand Comore, Mayotte and Moheli), French since the 1880es, were annexed to Madagascar as dependencies. Resistance against French rule until 1904. In 1913, VVS, a Malagasy secret society aiming to overthrow French colonial rule, was founded, inspired by Japan's economic and technical progress; it was uncovered and suppressed in 1916.
During World War I, thousands of Malagasy have served in the French army. After the VVS secret society had been crushed in 1916, Malagasy political movements now aimed for more realistic political goals, such as reforms in labour legislation and equal rights for the Malagasy. In France the contribution of Malagasy soldiers to the defence of the country was well remembered, and celebrities such as novelist Anatol France suggested that French citizenship be granted to all Malagasy.
Yet the movement for equality and political representation made limited progress. While Economic and Financial Delegations - one each for the French settlers and for the Malagasy - were established in 1924, the Malagasy delegation elected, it was never given any political authority; it lay with the governor residing in Tananarive.
In this situation, radical ideologies such as socialism and communism found many followers among the native intellectuals.
As early as 1885, Paul de Lagarde has suggested to deport Eastern Europe's large Jewish minority to Madagascar. In 1926, Polish politicians had taken up that idea, and in 1937, Poland, being a close ally of France, sent a delegation to the island to establish the feasibility of the Madagascar and their result was disappointing.
On June 25th 1940, France surrendered to Germany. Madagascar remained loyal to the new French administration at Vichy. German officials now briefly seriously considered the Madagascar Plan as an option for the ill-described Final Solution of the Jewish Question envisaged in Hitler's "Mein Kampf".
In 1942, British and South African troops occupied Madagascar; in 1943 they handed the island's administration over to the Free French.
After World War II, both Madagascar's French and Malagasy population, were finally granted representation in the constituent assembly to the French Fourth Republic. In 1946, Madagascar was declared an overseas territory (thus ending the status of colony); the Comoro Islands were again separated from Madagascar. The MDRM (Democratic Movement of Malgache Reform) emerged as the dominant political organization.
France offered full citizenship to the Malagasy; yet the measures aimed at the assimilation of the Malagasy. The MDRM objected to this policy, and in 1947 an anti-French revolt broke out, which was suppressed. The French assimilation policy had failed. In 1956, universal adult suffrage was introduced, as well as parliamentary government. In 1960, Madagascar declared full independence.

Independence
In 1960, Madagascar became independent, now called Republique Malgache. President Tsirana pursued a pro-western policy, leaning strongly on France.
In 1972, the army staged a coup d'etat. After a military junta ruled for 3 years, the country, by now Repoblika Malagasy, was proclaimed a People's Republic. Soviet advisers were called into the country.
As a consequence of strong population growth, deforestation resulted in large-scale soil erosion. Madagascar has a distinct fauna and flora; numerous species are threatened because of their continually shrinking biotopes.







WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
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Category : Madagascar, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Madagascar, from Wikipedia
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Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
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Accounts of History Portal
General, Modern from Wikipedia
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EISA : Madagascar: Late Merina Kingdom (1828-1896) 2005
EISA : Madagascar: Early French Colonialism (1896-1945) 2005
EISA : Madagascar: Late French Colonialism (1945-1960) 2005
EISA : Madagascar: Tsiranana government (1960-1972) 2005
EISA : Madagascar: Socialist experiments (1972-1979) 2010
EISA : Madagascar: Authoritarian capitalism (1979-1993) 2010
EISA : Madagascar: Zafy and Ratsiraka governments (1992-2002) 2010
EISA : Madagascar: Ravalomanana government (2002-2009) 2010
EISA : Rajoelina government (2009-2012) 2012
Politics Politics of Madagascar, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Madagascar
Governments on the WWW : Madagascar
Entry Madagascar, from EISA Web Encyclopedia
L. Ploch, N. Cook, Madagascar's Political Crisis, Congressional Research Service 2012
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H.M. Rakotomanga, Democratic Transition in Madagascar, Malawi and Mozambique, thesis UTexas 2011
Military Wars of Madagascar, 1800-1999, from ACED; Wars of Merina, from ACED
Orders, Decorations and Medals from Madagascar, posted by Jean Paul le Blanc, from ODM; from Malagasy, posted by Jean Paul le Blanc
Article Battle of Madagascar, from Wikipedia
R. Burley, Two Campaigns: Madagascar and Ashantee 1896, IA
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J. Morel, Calendrier des crimes de la France outre-mer, 2005 : 15 octobre 1896: Exécution sur ordre de Galliéni du ministre Rainandriamampandry (Madagascar), 30 mars 1947: Massacre de Moramanga par l'armee française, 2000 morts? (Madagascar), 5 mai 1947: Massacre de Moramanga par l'armee française, 165 morts (Madagascar), 20 juillet 1948: Le dirigeant des insurges du Sud, Michel Radaoroson est tue (Madagascar), 4 octobre 1948: Condamnation des parlementaires malgaches du MDRM (Madagascar)
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Madagascar Revolt, 1947
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Category : Economy of Madagascar, from Wikipedia
L. Locamus, Madagascar et ses richesses: betail, agriculture, industrie (1896) in French, IA
Currency & Finances Entry Madagascar, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor; Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Madagascar
Congres de l'Afrique orientale, Madagascar et dependances-Cote française des Somalis, tenu a Paris, du 9 au 14 octobre 1911, 1912, IA; La question monetaire, pp.313-342 C. Martin, Rapport (on Madagascar)
Wharton Financial Institutions Center : Madagascar
Trade G. Foucart, Le commerce et la colonisation a Madagascar 1894, IA
Congres de l'Afrique orientale, Madagascar et dependances-Cote française des Somalis, tenu a Paris, du 9 au 14 octobre 1911, 1912, IA; Commerce et industrie. Transports maritimes. pp.229-266 H. Mager, Rapport (to/from Madagascar); Transports terrestres. Leur etat actuel, leur ameliorations a y apporter, pp.561-608 P. Mot (on Madagascar)
Agriculture The Agricultural Products of Madagascar, Science 18 1891, IA
Congres de l'Afrique orientale, Madagascar et dependances-Cote française des Somalis, tenu a Paris, du 9 au 14 octobre 1911, 1912, IA; Agriculture, son etat actuel, pp.369-415 H. Jumelle, Rapport (on Madagascar); Forets, leur mise en valeur, pp.449-488 A.J. Bourdariat, Rapport (on Madagascar)
Round Table Cocoa, Mme. Razanakoto, Le Cacao de Madagascar
Madaville, Pratiques, Evolutions
R.W. Johnson, Tobacco production and trade in southern Africa, 1975, IA on Rhodesia, Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, The Malagasy Republic, Zaire, The Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, Angola
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Social History Education Congres de l'Afrique orientale, Madagascar et dependances-Cote française des Somalis, tenu a Paris, du 9 au 14 octobre 1911, 1912, IA; pp.39-94 : Politique indigene. G. Pillias, Enseignement. Son etat actuel. Resultats a en attendre. Reformes a y apporter; G. Pillias "Ancien administrateur des colonies a Madagascar"
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F.B. Wietzke, The Long Shadow of History: 19th Century Missionaries and Intergenerational Educational Persistence. Evidence from Madagascar, draft 2012
Labour Congres de l'Afrique orientale, Madagascar et dependances-Cote française des Somalis, tenu a Paris, du 9 au 14 octobre 1911, 1912, IA; pp.185-200 G. Julien, Le travail indigene : Rapport (on Madagascar)
Slavery E.C. Andre, De l'esclavage a Madagascar (1899) in French, IA
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Health Congres de l'Afrique orientale, Madagascar et dependances-Cote française des Somalis, tenu a Paris, du 9 au 14 octobre 1911, 1912, IA; pp.117-162 Dr. Lasnet, Assistance medicale : Rapport (to Madagascar)
Social Organization M. Cournot, La famille a Madagascar 1897, IA
F. Raison-Jourde, Individualisation sociale et production d'identites dans la societe Merina au XIXme siecle, Omaly Sy Anio, vol.29-32, 1989-1990 pp.173-187, Madarevues
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Crime & Punishment Madagascar, from Crime and Society, A Comparative Crimonology Tour of the World (R. Winslow)
M. Pappenheim, Madagascar: Studien, Schilderungen und Erlebnisse 1906, IA
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Madagascar : Merina, from Minorities at Risk
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Madagascar, from Virtual Jewish History Tour
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Local History List of Cities in Madagascar, from Wikipedia
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History of the FCE (railroad Antananarivo-East Coast)
Malagasy, Madagascar, from Airline History
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Structurae : Madagascar, search Lighthouse Explorer for Madagascar
J.J. Marie, Voies de communication et moyens de transport a Madagascar (1900) in French, IA
Cultural History Article Madagascar at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Article : Sorabe alphabet, from Wikipedia
Biographies African Women Bibliographic Database
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
Environmental History Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Disaster History by Country : Madagascar, from Relief Web
Environmental Literacy Council : Madagascar
C. Randrup, Evaluating the Effects of Colonialism on Deforestation in Madagascar: A Social and Environmental History, thesis Oberlin 2010
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Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated); Political Leaders, from ZPC
Regnal Chronologies : Southern Africa, scroll down for Ambohimanga, Madagascar (Merina)
Lists of Ambassadors U.S. Ambassadors to Madagascar, from NNDB: Chinese Ambassadors to Madagascar, from PRC MOFA; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Antananarivo (Madagaskar), from Wikipedia German edition
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Institut Nationale de la Statistique de Madagascar
Population Figures from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
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Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1965
Inflation Rates Trading Economics : Madagascar Inflation Rate, 1997-
Index Mundi, Madagascar Inflation Rate, 1999-2011
Election Results from Psephos, since 2001; from IFES Election Guide, since 1998
from African Elections Database, since 1960
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EISA Madagascar Election Archive
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes Journal officiel de Madagascar et dependances 1898-1902, Gallica
Revue de Madagascar 1899-1911, Gallica
Colonie de Madagascar et dependances, Bulletin economique, 1901-1939, Gallica
Hist. Newspaper Articles History of Madagascar, from World History Archives
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Madagascar, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Individual Articles
Online Yearbooks - Madagascar Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Madagascar 1886, pp.729-732, IA, 1887, pp.754-758, IA, 1888, pp.758-762, IA, 1889, pp.766-770, IA, 1890, pp.504-509, IA, 1891, pp.508-512, IA, 1892, pp.516-520, IA, 1894, pp.516-520, IA, 1895, pp.516-520, IA, 1896, pp.516-520, IA, 1898, pp.514-518, IA, 1899, pp.556-560, IA, 1903, pp.619-624, IA, 1913, pp.830-834, IA, 1919, pp.862-866, IA, 1921, pp.888-892, IA
Yearbook of the United Nations, 1946-2007
Africa : 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988
Staatskalender Annuaire de Madagascar et dependances 1892, 1899, 1900, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1907, in French, IA
Gouvernement-general de Madagascar et dependances, Annuaire general, 1905, 1908-1914, 1916-1918, 1926, Gallica
Documentaries Magnus Brechtken, Univ. of Nottingham : The Madagascar Plan - Words of the World, youtube
Madagascar : Le temps de la colonie, youtube
The Battle of Madagascar, youtube
C. Champclaux, La bataille de Diego Suarez, youtube
Madagascar (1955), youtube
D. Roussellier, L'insurrection d'isle rouge, Madagascar 1947, documentaire, youtube
1/2 L'insurrection de Madagascar (1947-1948) Empire Colonial Français, youtube
Insurrection du 29 mars 1947, youtube
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Archives nationales d'outre-mer, Base Ulysse, image base (France)
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Madagascar
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Madagascar
Archival Deposits Archives nationales d'outre mer, France
Mundus, Gateway to missionary collections in the United Kingdom, Madagascar
Constitutions Constitution of 1992, from ICL
Laws South African Legal Information Institute, Databases (scroll down for Madagascar etc.)
Treaties Madagascar, pp.742-759 in vol.9 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1972, GB
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Madagascar, from ILO, 38 docs. since 1960
Environmental Treaties : Madagascar, from Pop Planet
Consular Reports Chambre de Commerce de Rouen et des Vosges, Mission commerciale de Madagascar, Rapport 1897, Gallica
Report of the U.S. Consul in Madagascar on Rice-hulling machines in Madagascar 1897 pp.105-107, Notes on Machines, Flour in Madagascar 1897 pp.122-125, Tariff in Madagascar 1897 pp.446-449 in United States Consular Reports 1897, GB
Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce French East Africa, Madagascar 7 Dec 1915, 4 Mar. 1918, 16 May 1919, 3 Mar. 1920, IA
Historiography
Document Surveys Ch.12 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Africanarum et Americanarum, pp.263-273, in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Scriptores de insula S. Laurentii s. Madagascar pp.203-209 in vol.3 pt.1 of B.G. Struve/J.G. Meusel, Bibliotheca historica 1787, in Latin, GB
Document Collections e-corpus : Malagasy - Bibliotheque electronique des archives historiques et scientiques a Madagascar
Ch. Guillain, Documents sur l'histoire, la geographie et le commerce de la partie occidentale de Madagascar (1845) in French, IA
Documents diplomatiques. Affaires de Madagascar. 1881-1883, 1886 in French, IA
A. Grandidier, Collection des ouvrages anciens de Madagascar, vol.1 : Ouvrages ou extraits d'ouvrages anglais, hollandais, portugais, espagnols, allemands et latins relatifs a Madagascar, 1500-1613, 1903; vol.2 : Ouvrages ou extraits d'ouvrages français (jusqu'a 1630), portugais, hollandais, anglais, allemands, italiens, espagnols et latins relatifs a Madagascar 1613-1640, 1904, IA; vol.3 : Ouvrages ou extraits d'ouvrages anglais, hollandais, portugais, espagnols et allemands relatifs a Madagascar, 1640-1716, 1905; vol.4 : Les avontures de Robert Drury pendant ses quinze annees de captivite a Madagascar et son second voyage dans cette ile (1701-1717 et 1719-1720), 1906, IA
vol.5 : Ouvrages ou extraits d'ouvrages anglais, hollandais, portugais, espagnols, suedois et russes relatifs a Madagascar, 1718-1800, 1907
Tantara my andriana eto Madagascar: documents historiques d'apres les manuscrits malgaches vol.1 1908, IA
Individual Documents 1940 German document refering to the Madagascar Plan, from Jewish Virtual Library
Epilogue to : The disastrous ordeal of 1987, from H-Net
Rapport du gouverneur au Conseil d'administration, sur la fondation de la Compagnie et sur l'organisation de la mission d'exploration, 1863, Gallica
Rapport a l'Empereur sur la question malgache et la colonisation de Madagascar, 1865, Gallica
L'Oeuvre missionnaire de l'Eglise lutherienne de Norvege a Madagascar, rapport presente en novembre 1896 au Synode particulier de l'Eglise de la Confession d'Augsbourg a Paris. 1897, Gallica
La liberte religieuse a Madagascar : rapport de la Societe des missions evangeliques de Paris sur la mission accomplie a Madagascar en 1896 1897, Gallica
Situation economique de Madagascar en 1901 : industrie, agriculture, richesses minieres, travaux publics, methodes et usages commerciaux du pays, rapport a M. le ministre des colonies, 1901, Gallica
Petition de 51 colons français au Gouverneur general de Madagascar, le 13 janvier 1900, from cliotexte, in French, scroll down
Historical Maps responsible institutions Foiben-Taosarintanin'i Madagasikara (Institut Geographique et Hydrographique de Madagascar)
collections Search David Rumsey Map Collection for Madagascar
Madagascar Maps, PCL, UTexas
Atlas of Madagascar, Wikimedia Commons
Category : Old Maps of Madagascar, from Wikimedia Commons
Philographikon, Antique Maps of Madagascar, Mauritius, La Reunion and the Seychelles , commercial site
Madagascar, Modern
Madagascar, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 47. Nosy-Be 1884, 47. Nosy-Be 1884, 47. Nosy-Be 1889, 47. Antsirana 1895, 51. Quilimane 1884, 51. Quilimane 1889, 51. Quilimane 1892, 52. Antananarivo 1885, 52. Antananarivo 1889, 52. Antananarivo 1894, 56. Tullear 1884, 56. Tullear 1885, 56. Tullear 1889, 57. Ambahy 1884, 57. Ambahy 1889, 57. Ambahy 1894, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheet sheet 32 Tananarive (1968), PCL, UTexas
Madagascar 1906, 1907, 1922, 1932, 1938, from Probert Encyclopedia
Madagascar, Oeuvre Ecclesiastique des Missions Protestantes, 1948, DEFAP
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary Carte des missions protestantes dans l'Emyrne et le Betsileo (Madagascar) 1899, Districts missionnaires de l'Imerina et districts du Betsileo, n.d., Champs de mission de la Mission de Londres et de la Mission des Amis aux alentours de Tananarive, n.d., DEFAP
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Madagascar, Tamatave, Nossi-Be, EB 1911, from Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article Madagaskar, Diego Suarez, Nossi Be, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Madagascar, pp.99-110 in C.F. Blumhardt, Christian missions: or a manual of missionary geography and history, 1799, GB
Madagascar, pp.266-269 in The Missionary Gazetteer 1832, GB
Article Madagascar, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907
Economic
Geographical Madagascar pp.222-223 in vol.8 of T.G. Smollett, The Present State of all Nations, 1769, GB
Madagascar pp.93-101 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1827, GB
Madagascar pp.420-465 in vol.13 of E. Reclus, Universal Geography [1879-1894], IA
Madagascar p.356 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Ethnological Madagascar, pp.693-696 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Madagascar, pp.3383-3428 in vol.5A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
The Malagasy pp.223-225 in A.H. Keane, The World's Peoples: A Popular Account of Their Bodily & Mental Characters , 1908, GB
E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, The Earth and its Inhabitants Africa vol.4 : South and East Africa, 1890, IA : Madagascar, pp.420-466
E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, Africa and its Inhabitants vol.4 1899, IA; Madagascar pp.420-466
Historical Island of St. Laurence otherwise called Madagascar, pp.90-91 in vol.1 of Leo Africanus. The history and description of Africa [1600] ed. R. Brown 1896, IA
Madagascar p.89 in vol.3 of T. Salmon, Modern History or the Present State of All Nations, 1746, GB
Madagascar, pp.315-316 in vol.43 of G. Sale, An universal history: from the earliest accounts to the present time, 1765, GB
other Hans Meyer, Die Eisenbahnen im Tropischen Afrika (The Railroads in Tropical Africa), Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot 1902, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Madagaskar, pp.161-163
Parliament Protocols Delegations economiques et financieres, Madagascar et dependances : Proces-verbaux des seances, rapport general 1928, 1929, 1932, 1936, 1938, 1940, Gallica
Proces-verbaux des seances du Conseil representatif ["puis" des seances de l'Assemblee representative] de Madagascar et dependances 1946, Gallica
Tourist Guides
Travelogues A. Grandidier, Collection des ouvrages anciens de Madagascar, vol.1 : Ouvrages ou extraits d'ouvrages anglais, hollandais, portugais, espagnols, allemands et latins relatifs a Madagascar, 1500-1613, 1903; vol.2 : Ouvrages ou extraits d'ouvrages français (jusqu'a 1630), portugais, hollandais, anglais, allemands, italiens, espagnols et latins relatifs a Madagascar 1613-1640, 1904, IA; vol.3 : Ouvrages ou extraits d'ouvrages anglais, hollandais, portugais, espagnols et allemands relatifs a Madagascar, 1640-1716, 1905; vol.4 : Les avontures de Robert Drury pendant ses quinze annees de captivite a Madagascar et son second voyage dans cette ile (1701-1717 et 1719-1720), 1906, IA
vol.5 : Ouvrages ou extraits d'ouvrages anglais, hollandais, portugais, espagnols, suedois et russes relatifs a Madagascar, 1718-1800, 1907
A. Rochon, Voyage a Madagascar et aux Indes orientales 1791, IA
B.F. Leguevel de Lacombe, Voyage a Madagascar et aux iles Comores 1840, IA
W. Ellis, Three Visits to Madagascar 1858, IA
E. Wilkinson, Journey from Tamatave to the French Island Colony of St. Mary, Madagascar, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London 14, 1869, IA
I. Pfeiffer, F.M. Riaux, Voyage a Madagascar, 1881, IA
M. Pappenheim, Madagascar: Studien, Schilderungen und Erlebnisse 1906, IA
Residence Memoirs J. Mullens, Twelve Months in Madagascar, 1875, IA
C. Buet, Six mois a Madagascar 1884, IA
R, Drury, Madagascar, or Robert Drury's Journal during fifteen Years of Captivity on that Island 1890, IA [captivity 1701-1717]
T.T. Matthews, Thirty Years in Madagascar, 1904, IA
J.S. Gallieni, Neuf ans a Madagascar 1908, IA
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries Archives Nationales, Madagascar
Museums in Madagascar, from International Council of African Museums
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Madagascar, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Madagascar coins from Collections of Coins, bilingual Russian and English page; from World Coin Gallery
Stamps Rare Stamps British Consular Mail, Madagascar, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Madagascar Stamps 1889-1908, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Madagascar survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
general bibliographies Bibliography, from Library of Congress Country Studies : Madagascar
Library of Congress, Bibliography Division : J.W. Witherell, Madagascar and Adjacent Islands, 1965, IA
Zomare, Bibliographie malgache I (general)
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies California Academy of Sciences Library : Madagascar Bibliography
J. Dunnavant, The Slave Trade from Madagascar to Jamaica: a short bibliography 2012
serial publications (Listing) H. Poisson et al., Le cinquantenaire de l'Academie Malgache 1952, posted by Bibliotheque Numerique Mauritiana; lists publications of the academy 1902-1952
general bibliographies
Madagascar entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Madagaskar-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
booksellers Madagascar Library
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Africa Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
on Madagascar L'express de Madagascar, 1 Mar. 2012 : Bibliotheque numerique. Des documents sur Madagascar sur le net; listing of digital libraries relevant for Madagascar
Bibliotheque Malgache Electronique Gratuit
Fonds Patrimoniaux de l'Ocean Indien : Fonds Iarivo, Bibliotheque Numerique Mauritiana
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals full text online Madarevues, le portail des revues scientifiques malgaches
Omaly Sy Anio (Hier et Aujourd'hui), revue d'etudes historiques 1975-1996, Madarevues
The Antananarvio Annual and Madagascar Magazine 1885, 1892, 1893, 1896, 1897, IA
General Accounts
Specific Topics Madagascar, in : Jasper H. Stembridge, The Oxford War Atlas Volume II, 1 September 1941 to 1 January 1943, Oxford : UP 1943 [G]
Historical Dictionaries
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Madagascar, 1913 pp.1006-1007 [G]
French Colonial Empire, 1946 pp.329-330, 1947 pp.344-345 [G]
French Overseas Territories, 1948 pp.330-332, 1949 pp.287-290 [G]
French Union, 1950 pp.305-308 [G]
Madagascar, 1951 p.436, 1952 pp.438-439, 1953 pp.432-433, 1954 p.437, 1955 pp.479-480, 1956 p.416, 1957 pp.477-478, 1958 p.418, 1959 pp.413-414, 1960 pp.407-408 [G]
Malagasy Republic, 1961 pp.413-414, 1962 p.414, 1963 pp.536-537, 1964 p.529, 1965 p.511, 1966 pp.487-488, 1967 p.498, 1968 pp.497-498, 1969 p.483, 1970 pp.487-488, 1971 pp.470-471, 1972 p.443, 1973 p.441, 1974 pp.443-444, 1975 p.471, 1976 p.499
Madagascar, 1977 pp.499-500, 1978 pp.530-531, 1979 pp.518-519, 1980 pp.518-519, 1981 pp.522-523, 1982 pp.522-523, 1983 pp.516-517, 1984 pp.513-514, 1985 pp.469, 729, 1986 pp.463, 727, 1987 pp.431, 695, 1988 pp.392, 647, 1989 pp.392, 648, 1990 pp.409, 663, 1991 pp.388, 647, 1992 pp.360, 648, 1993 pp.364, 659, 1994 pp.362, 660, 1995 pp.440, 659, 1996 pp.438-439, 659, 1997 pp.447, 657, 2002 pp.460-461, 664 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Diego Suarez, Nossi-Be and St. Marie, 1895 p.520, 1898 pp.518-519 [G]
Nossi-Be and St. Marie, 1901 p.596 [G]
Madagascar, 1895 pp.516-520, 1898 pp.514-518, 1901 pp.591-596, 1905 pp.652-658, 1910 pp.797-802, 1919 pp.862-866, 1924 pp.911-916, 1925 pp.923-927, 1926 pp.896-900, 1928 pp.911-916, 1929 pp.898-903, 1932 pp.901-905, 1937 pp.942-948, 1943 pp.926-930, 1970-1971 pp.935-938, 1975-1976 pp.1138-1141, 1978-1979 pp.801-805, 1980-1981 pp.808-812, 1981-1982 pp.811-816, 1982-1983 pp.812-817, 1983-1984 pp.805-808, 1984-1985 pp.805-808, 1985-1986 pp.807-810, 1986-1987 pp.807-811, 1987-1988 pp.811-814, 1988-1989 pp.813-816, 1989-1990 pp.822-825, 1990-1991 pp.823-826, 1991-1992 pp.824-827, 1992-1993 pp.907-910, 1993-1994 pp.903-907, 1994-1995 pp.901-905, 1995-1996 pp.898-902, 1996-1997 pp.847-851, 1997-1998 pp.861-865, 1998-1999 pp.924-928, 2000 pp.1054-1058, 2001 pp.1030-1034, 2002 pp.1071-1075, 2003 pp.1074-1078, 2004 pp.1080-1084, 2005 pp.1087-1091, 2006 pp.1088-1093 [G]
Americana Annual Madagascar, 1927 pp.519-520, 1928 p.474, 1930 p.463, 1931 p.457, 1932 pp.430-431, 1933 p.450, 1934 pp.351-352, 1935 pp.423-424, 1936 pp.425-426, 1937 pp.425-426, 1938 pp.408-409, 1939 pp.458-459, 1940 pp.470-471, 1943 pp.446-447, 1944 pp.421-422, 1945 pp.446-447, 1946 pp.466-467, 1947 pp.423-424, 1957 p.469 [G]
Malagasy Republic, 1961 p.442, 1962 pp.451-452, 1963 p.406, 1964 p.401, 1965 p.436, 1967 p.423, 1968 pp.419-420, 1969 pp.429-430, 1970 p.426, 1971 p.432, 1972 p.430, 1973 p.431, 1976 p.73 [G]
Other Article : Madagascar, in : The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events 1863 pp.599-603 [G]
Article : Africa, in : The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events 1862 pp.1-4, 1863 pp.1-2, 1864 pp.1-2 [G]
Article : Madagascar, in : International Year Book 1898 p.493 [G]
Article : Madagascar, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1886 pp.576-579, 1894 pp.448-451 [G]
Madagascar pp.138-139, in : Year Book and Guide to East Africa 1963 [G]