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Reunion Seychelles
First posted on July 2nd 2002, last revised on November 14th 2013

History of Mauritius : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

1507-1598 . Dutch Rule, 1598-1710 . French Rule, 1715-1810 . British Rule 1810-1880 . 1880-1918 . 1918-1939 . 1939-1968 . Independence, since 1968

The Island, 1507-1598
Early visitors, the Arabs and the Portuguese (Portuguese discovery 1507), used the island belonging to the Mascarenes, together with Reunion and Rodrigues to supply their provisions, among others with the meat of the Dodo bird, easy prey for it was not accustomed to predators, and soon became extinct.

Mauritius Dutch, 1598-1710
Mauritius was uninhabited when Admiral Wybrand van Warwyck landed in 1598 and claimed it for the Dutch Republic, naming it after stadholder Prince Maurits (Maurice) of Oranje-Nassau. In 1602 the Dutch claim was transferred to the newly established V.O.C. (Dutch United East India Company), whose most valuable asset became the Spice Islands (= the Moluccas).
It turned out that Dutch sailors travelling to India suffered dfrom a disease called Beri Beri (scurvy), i.e. the lack of vitamins. In order to provide fresh vegetables on their way home, a settlement was established on Mauritius in 1638; the Dutch also introduced Sugar Plantations.
The foundation of Kaapstad (Cape Town, Cape Colony) by Jan van Riebeeck in 1652 made vitamin supply at Mauritius unnecessary; the first Dutch settlement was abandoned soon after, in 1658. Another attempt to settle was made in 1664, but in 1710 the V.O.C. finally abandoned Mauritius.

Mauritius French, 1715-1810
In 1715, Guillaume Dufresne d'Arsel landed on Mauritius, renamed the island Ile de France and claimed it for France. French settlement began in 1721. Under Governor Mahe de la Bourdonnais (1735-1746), the colony prospered and its population quickly expanded. He established the capital, Port Louis, in 1735. Sugar, cotton, indigo, coffee, manioc were cultivated for export; the governor encouraged the production of food for the consumption of the islanders. At Port Louis, ships could be repaired. In 1744 the island's first sugar mill was taken in operation. Later that century, Pierre Poivre introduced pepper cultivation to the island.
Mauritius became the principal stopover for French vessels sailing to the East Indies; under the French, the sugar plantations became profitable, at the expense of harsh conditions under which the imported slaves had to work. The island was property of the French East India Company.
To Mauritius belonged a number of further islands, Rodrigues, then Reunion, and the Seychelles, claimed for the French in 1756 by Captain Nicholas Morphy, who found them uninhabited and named the main island Mahe, after Mauritius' governor Mahe de la Bourdonnais.
In 1748, the fortress Le Reduit was built.
From 1767, the island was governed by a royal governor; in 1785 the governor of Ile de France was placed in charge of all French possessions east of the Cape. In 1790 the administration of Mauritius greeted news of the French Revolution; when they were told of the abolition of slavery in 1793 (in French India), they refused to accept the new governor and, in defiance of the current French government, held out until 1803 (a time, by which slavery had been reintroduced). Yet, it was via Mauritius that Tippoo Sultan of Mysore had communicated with France, requesting military aid against the English, which again launched Napoleon's Egyptian campaign and his plan to further proceed to India.
Governor Charles Decaen (1803-1810) introduced the Code Napoleon and established the Lycee Colonial (later renamed Royal College). In 1810, Ile de France was taken by an English fleet; in 1815, France ceded the island, now again called Mauritius, to Britain.

Mauritius British, 1810-1880
The Mauritian coat of arms includes the inscription stella clavisque maris indicio (star and key of the Indian Ocean), and it was the island's strategic importance which made it a desirable possession for the British. In 1810, the British Navy occupied the Isle de France. At the Vienna Congress (1813-1815), France formally ceded the island to Britain. The British renamed it Mauritius. In 1825 a Council of Government was introduced, all members of whom were appointed. The abolition of slavery in 1834 had a strong impact on the plantation economy, already suffering under declining sugar prices. To replace the workforce, indentured workers were brought in from India, and later, in smaller numbers, from China.
Mauritius gained world fame for 2 stamps issued in 1847, an orange 1 penny and a blue 2 pence stamp. Only about a dozen of each still exist, making the Blue Mauritius one of the most prized objects of philately.
From 1864 onward, steamships of the Union steamship line regularly stopped at Port Louis, from 1872 onward joined by steamships of the Castle line (both companies later merged). The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 had an impact on Mauritius, as fewer ships took he route from Asia around the Cape, and thus fewer ships called at Port Louis.

Mauritius British, 1880-1918
In 1886, Mauritius' constitution was amended, resulting in the inclusion of elected representatives into the Council of Government (est. 1825). The population continued to increase and reached ca. 370,000 by 1900.
In 1888, separate administrative councils were established for Mauritius and the Seychelles; in 1903 the Seychelles were separated from Mauritius and declared a separate colony. In 1893 Mauritius was connected to the outside world by sea cable (telegraph).

Mauritius British, 1918-1939
The franchise was restricted to property owners, which originally ensured that only whites, mostly plantation owners could vote and be represented in the island's Executive and Legislative Council. Some members of the island's Indian community, which had come into the country as indentured workers in the later 19th century, began to get politically organized, as did the island's Creole community. In 1936 the population numbered 399,878, of whom 131,667 were referred to as the 'general population' (Europeans, Chinese, persons of mixed descent) and 268,211 Indians; population of Mauritius' dependencies 10,952. The currency was the Indian Rupee. English and French were both used as official languahes; the Code Napoleon provided the basic law. The main export product was cane sugar; other export-oriented industries/cultures included the production of aloe fibres, coconut, coffee, tobacco, tea and vanilla cultures. The majority of the population was Roman Catholic. The South and East African Year Book and Guide (1949 p.1041) states : "The war with Germany happily has onliterated the few traces of aloofness between the two white races".

Mauritius British, 1939-1968
1584 Jews who had been denied entry to Palestine were detained on Mauritius from 1940 to 1945. In 1948, a new constitution was adopted, introducing universal adult suffrage. The Council of Government was replaced by a Legislative Council, with a majority of elected members and a minority of members nominated by the governor.
In 1961, Seewoosagur Ramgoolam was elected the country's first indigenous chief minister. He continued to serve as prime minister after independence, until 1982.
In 1964 Port Louis was elevated to the status of a city. In 1968, Mauritius was proclaimed independence and adopted a new constitution. The country joined the British Commonwealth of Nations.

Mauritius Independent, since 1968
In 1968, Mauritius proclaimed independence. The country remained within the Commonwealth of Nations; Queen Elizabeth nominally was head of state, represented on Mauritius by a Governor General. The most important political position, however, was that of the Prime Minister. In 1992 Mauritius proclaimed the republic. Now, the country's head of state is a president.
Mauritius' recent history is characterized by a remarkable political stability. Prime minister Seewoosagur Ramgoolam ruled from 1968 to 1982, his successor Anerood Jugnauth from 1982 to 1995.
The country experiences strong population growth. The majority of the population is very poor. In recent years, the manufacturing economy (textiles) is growing; tourism is a major industry.
As a result of colonial history, the dominant languages are Mauritien (a Creole language strongly influenced by French) and Bhojipuri (from India); the dominant religion is Hinduism. The island Rodrigues, located ca. 700 km to the east, belongs to Mauritius.

Historical Atlas, Mauritius Page .. British East Africa Page

Students' Papers : Lee, Si-eun : History of Indian and Chinese Coolies and their Descendants (2008)

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Library of Congress, Country Studies : Mauritius
Article : Mauritius, from Wikipedia
Country Profile : Mauritius, from ISS
Historical An Account of the Island of Mauritius (1842), IA
Ch. Pridham, An Historical, Political and Statistical Account of Mauritius (1849), IA
J. Anderson, Descriptive Account of Mauritius: Its Scenery, Statistics &c with Brief Historical Sketch 1858, IA
C. Keller, Madagascar, Mauritius and the other East-African Islands, 1901, IA; on Mauritius pp.189-200
Links General from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford; from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Mauritius, from Wikipedia
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Historical Dictionaries Encyclopaedia Mauritiana
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Accounts of History Modern History of Mauritius, from Mauritius.org
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Historical R.M. Martin, History of Southern Africa: Comprising the Cape of Good Hope, Mauritius .. (1836), posted on Internet Archive
A. Pitot, T'eylandt Mauritius: esquisses historiques (1598-1710). (1905) in French, IA
F. Averbeck, Geschichte und Physiographie der Kolonie Mauritius 1905, IA
Specific Periods J. Jeremy et al., Recent Events at Mauritius 1835, IA
A short appeal to the House of Commons, in answer to the charges brought against the inhabitants of Mauritius, more particularly in a pamphlet by John Jeremie, entitled "Recent events at Mauritius" 1835, IA
EISA : Mauritius: European settlement and the slave economy (1638-1835) 2009
EISA : Mauritius: Sugar, indentured labour and their consequences (1835-1910) 2009
EISA : Mauritius: Socio-economic change and political conflict (1910-1945) 2009
EISA : Mauritius: The road to independence (1945-1968) 2009
EISA : Mauritius: Towards social democracy (1968-1982) 2009
EISA : Mauritius: Resurgent communalism and economic success (1982-1995) 2009
EISA : Mauritius: More communal coalitions and new socio-economic difficulties (1996-2005) 2009
EISA : Mauritius: Economic reform and recovery (2005-2009) 2010
Politics Politics of Mauritius, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Mauritius; Governments on the WWW : Mauritius
Entry Mauritius, from EISA Web Encyclopedia (Elections)
Military Wars of Mauritius, 1800-1999, from ACED
M. Rupiya, In defence of the "star and key of the Indian Ocean": A contemporary history of the Mauritian Police Force , ch. 11, in M. Rupiya (ed.), Evolutions and Revolutions, A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa, ISS 2005
History of the fortress Le Reduit, from Mauritius Postal Museum
D. Carmichael, Account of the Conquest of Mauritius 1811, IA
Economy & Finances Entry Mauritiusfrom Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor; Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Mauritius
Article Economy of Mauritius, from Wikipedia
Catregory : Economy of Mauritius, from Wikipedia
Economic History of Mauritius, by Thayer Watkins
Mauritius, from Ministry of Rum
L. Simonin, Underground Life: or, Mines and miners, 1869, GB; p.256 lists Mauritius as a coaling station
Wharton Financial Institutions Center : Mauritius
Social History J. Ridgway, Representation of the State of Government Slaves and Apprentices in the Mauritius: With Observations .. (1830), IA
Mauritius, from Crime and Society. a Comparative Criminology Tour of the World by R. Winslow
C.J. Boyle, Far away; or, Sketches of scenery and society in Mauritius 1867, IA
C. Telfair, Some account of the state of slavery at Mauritius 1830, IA
D.E. Anderson, The epidemics of Mauritius : with a descriptive and historical account of the island (1918), IA
C. Anderson, Outlines of a plan submitted to her Majesty's government for the purpose of establishing an authorized committee to regulate and carry on the introduction of Indian laborers at Mauritius 1840, IA
Ethnography Languages of Mauritius (6), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Mauritius, from Wikipedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Mauritius
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Mauritius, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in Mauritius, from Wikipedia
Mauritius, from Virtual Jewish History Tour; Mauritius, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Muslims in Mauritius, from Islam for Today
History of Regions Districts of Mauritius, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : British Colony of Mauritius 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, State of Mauritius 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, Republic of Mauritius 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Local History List of Cities in Mauritius, from Wikipedia
History of Port Louis, from Wikipedia
Institutions Mauritius, from Airline History
Structurae : Mauritius; search Lighthouse Depot for Mauritius
History of Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation
Hans Meyer, Die Eisenbahnen im Tropischen Afrika (The Railroads in Tropical Africa), Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot 1902, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Mauritius, pp.164-165
Cultural History Article : Mauritius at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Mauritians, from Wikipedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
Biography of Governor Bertrand Francois Mahe de la Bourdonnais, from Mauritius Postal Museum
Environmental History Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Disaster History by Country : Mauritius, from Relief Web
H.E. Strickland, The dodo and its kindred; or, The history, affinities, and osteology of the dodo, solitaire, and other extinct birds of the islands Mauritius, Rodriguez and Bourbon, 1848, IA

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Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Regnal Chronologies : Southern Africa, scroll down for Mauritius
Lists of Ambassadors U.S. Ambassadors to Mauritius, from NNDB; Chinese Ambassadors to Mauritius, from PRC MOFA
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Mauritius (incomplete list of U.S. consuls)
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Laws J. Rouillard, A Collection of the Laws of Mauritius and Its Dependencies (1868), IA
W. Greene, L.E. Schmidt, Labor Laws of Mauritius or a Collection of the Laws Specially Relating .. (1869), IA
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Mauritius, from ILO, 38 docs. since 1969
Consular Reports Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce British East Africa, Mauritius, 21 Dec. 1915, Mauritius, 20 Dec. 1916, British East Africa, Mauritius, 14 May 1918, IA
Document Surveys Ch.12 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Africanarum et Americanarum, pp.263-273, in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Scriptores de insulis Bourbon et France pp.209-211 in vol.3 pt.1 of B.G. Struve/J.G. Meusel, Bibliotheca historica 1787, in Latin, GB
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Bonne, Ile de France, 1791, Wikipedia
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Secular Articles Mauritius, Rodriguez, EB 1911, from Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article Mauritius, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Article Diocese of Port Louis, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Maskarenen, posted by DTBSWS
Ch. Pope, The yearly journal of trade, 1837-8 : comprising laws of customs and excise, treaties and conventions with foreign powers, tariffs of United Kingdom, Russia, Monte Video ... parliamentary speeches and papers, proclamations, orders in Council and of government boards, reports of law cases, translations of foreign documents (1838), posted on Internet Archive, on Mauritius pp.307-308
Geographical Mauritius pp.356-357 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Travelogues Ch.J. Boyle, Far away; or, Sketches of scenery and society in Mauritius (1867), IA
Residence Memoirs A. Bartram, Recollections of Seven Years Residence at the Mauritius, Or Isle of France 1830, IA
P. Beaton, Creoles and coolies; or, Five years in Mauritius (1859), IA
V.W. Ryan, Mauritius and Madagascar: journals of an eight years' residence in the diocese of Mauritius, and of a visit to Madagascar 1864, IA
Institutions Archives National Archives Mauritius
Musea Mauritius Museums Council; Museums in Mauritius, from International Council of African Museums
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National Anthem, from Mauritius Embassy
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Mauritius, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Coin Catalog of Mauritius, from Numismaticon, Mauritius coins from Collections of Coins, bilingual Russian and English page; from World Coin Gallery, Search Coin Archives for Mauritius, Mauritius, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Stamps Rare Mauritius Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Mauritius Stamps 1847-1895, 1896-1920 , from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer
The orange and blue Mauritius, from Mauritius Postal Museum

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Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
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on Mauritius survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
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general bibliographies Mauritius, from Electronic Journal of Africana Bibliography vol.1 1996
Bibliography, from Library of Congress Country Studies : Mauritius
Mauritius, from The Online Books Page
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annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Aapravasi Ghat World Heritage Site : Bibliography (on Indian immigration to M.)
Mauritius Stamps Bibliography
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Mauritius entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Mauritius-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
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on Mauritius Fonds Patrimoniaux de l'Ocean Indien : Fonds Iarivo, Bibliotheque Numerique Mauritiana
Bibliotheque Numerique : Maurice, from Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie Universite de Maurice 2007
Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals On the Indian Ocean
General Accounts T.E. Palmer, The Mauritius Register: Historical, Official & Commercial (1859), posted on Internet Archive
Specific Topics Ravinder K. Thiara, Indian indentured workers in Mauritius, Natal and Fiji, pp.63-68 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Historical Dictionaries
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Mauritius, 1913 pp. 646-647 [G]
British East Africa, 1944 p.127, 1945 pp.124-125, 1946 pp.146-147, 1947 pp.149-150 [G]
Mauritius, 1948 p.466, 1949 p.410, 1950 p.435, 1951 p.446, 1952 p.449, 1953 p.446, 1954 p.449, 1955 p.491, 1956 p.427, 1957 p.488, 1958 p.427, 1959 p.423, 1960 p.417, 1961 p.424, 1962 p.423, 1963 p.546 [G]
Commonwealth of Nations, 1964 pp.268-269, 1965 pp.257-258 [G]
Colonies and Other Dependencies : Mauritius, 1966 p.204, 1967 p.218, 1968 pp.216-217 [G]
Mauritius, 1969 pp.488-489, 1970 pp.492-493, 1971 p.476, 1972 p.448, 1973 p.446, 1974 p.449, 1975 p.479, 1976 p.507, 1977 p.507, 1978 pp.538-539, 1979 pp.525-526, 1980 p.526, 1981 p.530, 1982 p.530, 1983 pp.522-523, 1984 pp.520-521, 1985 pp.470, 737, 1986 pp.464, 735, 1988 pp.393, 655, 1989 pp.393, 656, 1990 pp.410-411, 671, 1993 pp.365, 668, 1994 pp.363-364, 669, 1995 pp.441-442, 668 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Mauritius, in : 1895 pp.182-185, 1898 pp.185-188, 1901 pp.201-205, 1905 pp.218-222, 1910 pp.179-182, 1919 pp.190-192, 1924 pp.198-201, 1925 pp.202-205, 1926 pp.206-209, 1928 pp.204-207, 1929 pp.205-208, 1932 pp.208-211, 1937 pp.227-230, 1943 pp.219-222, 1970-1971 pp.506-509, 1975-1976 pp.431-434, 1978-1979 pp.837-841, 1980-1981 pp.846-850, 1983-1984 pp.842-846, 1984-1985 pp.842-845, 1985-1986 pp.844-847, 1987-1988 pp.847-850, 1988-1989 pp.849-852, 1989-1990 pp.858-861, 1990-1991 pp.859-862, 1991-1992 pp.860-863, 1992-1993 pp.945-948, 1993-1994 pp.944-947, 1994-1995 pp.941-945, 1995-1996 pp.938-941, 1996-1997 pp.887-890, 1997-1998 pp.896-899, 1998-1999 pp.961-965, 2000 pp.1096-1100, 2001 pp.1070-1074, 2002 pp.1115-1119, 2003 pp.1115-1119, 2004 pp.1120-1124, 2005 pp.1127-1132 [G]
Americana Annual Mauritius, 1927 p.532, 1928 p.486, 1930 p.489, 1931 p.469, 1932 p.441, 1933 p.469, 1934 p.358, 1935 p.440, 1936 p.434, 1937 p.432, 1938 p.418, 1939 pp.477-478, 1940 p.488, 1943 p.459, 1944 pp.432-433, 1945 pp.455-456, 1946 pp.477-478, 1947 pp.434-435, 1957 p.482, 1961 p.455, 1962 p.463, 1963 p.416, 1964 pp.415-416, 1967 p.434, 1968 p.431, 1969 p.440, 1970 p.436, 1971 p.440, 1972 p.439, 1973 p.440 [G]
Other Africa, in : The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events 1863 pp.1-2 [G]
South and East African Year Book and Guide, 49th edition, 1949, pp. 1039-1050 [G]
Mauritius, in : International Year Book 1898 p.505 [G]
Mauritius pp.127-136, in : Year Book and Guide to East Africa 1963 [G]

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