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Literature on the History of East Africa
Ethiopia Somaliland
First posted on July 2nd 2002, last revised on November 14th 2013

History of Somalia : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

until 1889 . 1889-1922 . 1922-1941 . 1941-1950 . 1950-1960 . 1960-1991 . Since 1991

Precolonial Era, -1889
Somalia stands out among the states of Africa, because although it's borders were shaped by the colonial powers, it is a nation-state. The Somali live not only in present-day Somalia and breakaway Somaliland to the north, but also in adjacent stretches of territory in Ethiopia (the Ogaden province) and Kenya.
The coastal region was settled by Arabs between the 7th and 10th century; trading centers such as Mogadishu and Kisimayo emerged. Islam became the dominant religion.
Mogadishu was visited by Ibn Battuta in 1331 and by Chinese explorer Zheng He in the 15th century. At that time, Mogadishu was an Islamic Sultanate, ruled by the Muzaffar Dynasty which in the 14th century was succeeded by the Dynasty of Fakhr ad-Din; the latter were dependent on the Ajuran, who in the early 17th century were defeated by the Hawiye Somali, thus becoming the new force dominating Mogadishu. The Portuguese visited the city, but never succeeded in taking it. In 1704, the Omanis established control; Mogadishu never regained it's old position. In the early 19th century, Mogadishu followed Mombasa's example and threw off Omani sovereignty; in 1828, Mogadishu had to surrender to Omani forces. In 1841, with the partitioning of the Sultanate of Oman, Mogadishu became part of the Sultanate of Zanzibar. When Mogadishu was visited by French traveller Charles Guillain in 1846-1848, Mogadishu was dependent on both the Sultanate of Zanzibar and the Somali Geledi Clan.

Further north on the Somali coast were located the Majeerteen Sultanates - the Sultanates of Migiurtina or Majeerteen, Obbia or Hobyo and Nogal. The Sultanate of Majeerteen emerged in the middle of the 18th century; in the early and middle 19th century Sultan Boqor Ismaan Mahamuud received British 'tribute' for protecting British shipwrecked sailors. In 1878, a disgruntled relative, Keenadiid, broke away from Majeerteen a part of the state, creating the Sultanate of Hobyo.
European colonial powers, notably the British, have shown little interest in the region, the hinterland of which is mostly desert and promised little profit. It was the Italians who finally established a colony here in 1889 : Benadir.

Colony of Liberal Italy, 1889-1922
Italy (through Italian consul on Zanzibar, Vincenzo Filonardi) obtained treaties with the Sultans of Obbia (Hobyo, Dec. 1888, renewed 1895) and Caluula (Majerteen or Boqor, April 1889, renewed 1895), in which the latter formally placed their territories under Italian protection - at that time, however, Italians were hardly presented in these areas and the old conditions continued.
In 1889, the Italians declared a protectorate over Benadir (the Mogadishu coastal region) for which Italy paid an annual tribute to the Sultan of Zanzibar, of 160,000 Rupees, later reduced to 120,000 Rupees (Italian-Zanzibari Convention of 1892).
Mogadiscio became the capital. The Juba River was established as the borderline between the British and Italian spheres of influence in Anglo-Italian negotiations of 1886, and recognized in an agreement by Britain and Germany in 1890. Agreements regarding the colony's western border were signed with Ethiopia and Britain (1897, 1908) in which the latter recognized Italy's claim over the territory between Cape Gardafui and the Juba river. Benadir was ruled by the V. Filonardi Co. (Filonardi had given up his diplomatic career and founded the company). The company opened her first station at Adala in 1891. In 1893, Italians were attacked at Merca; Italy responded by bombarding the city. In 1896, the Filonardi Co. went out of business; she was succeeded by the Societa Commerciale Italiana del Benadir, with seat in Milano. At that time there were 7 stations, Adala, Giumbo, Washeilata, Brava, Merca, Mogadishu, Lergh. Italian settlers took up residence in the extreme south, where they cultivated bananas and sugar cane. The Benadir Co. returned her charter in 1905; the Italian government took over.
That year, Italy annexed the territories leased from the Sultan of Zanzibar outright.
In 1909 the Italian Rupia of 100 Bese was introduced as the colony's only legal currency (until 1925); an Italian Rupia had the value of 8 Italian Lira.
Early in the 20th century, the "Mad Mullah" opposed colonial rule in British Somaliland. He used the Nogal valley, nominally part of the domains of the Sultan of Hobyo (Obbia) as his operation base. In 1903 the Italians deposed Sultan Yusyf Ali of Hobyo (Obbia) and exiled him to Assab in Eritrea. Mohamad Abdullah Hasan, the "Mad Mullah" in 1905 at Nogal proclaimed himself the Mahdi; he continued to harass the British in Somaliland. He was in control of Nogal until 1911.

Colony of Fascist Italy : Somalia 1922-1960
Since 1922, Benito Mussolini headed a fascist administration of Italy. Settlement in southern Somalia was intensified; economically Somalia outperformed British Somaliland further north. On March 1st 1925, Britain (Kenya) ceded the Jubaland to Italy; the region was called Oltre Giuba (Trans-Juba) by the Italians, with the port city of Kisimayo (Treaty of London, June 15th 1924). After a period of transition, in which Oltre Giuba was ruled as an autonomous entity under Commissioner General Corrado Zoli, it was annexed into Somalia on June 10th 1926.
In 1925 the fascist administration undertook military action in order to establish Italian control over the regions of Obbia (Hobyo), Nogal and Migiurtinia (Majerteen), hitherto only superficially recognizing Italian sovereignty. The Sultanate of Obbia was occupied, posts established at strategic locations throughout Migurtinia (the Sultan of which, Osman Mahamud, fled into British Somaliland), the Sultanate of Nogal occupied, up to the border of British Somaliland.
The colony's population in 1929 was estimated at 1,500,000, the population of capital Mogadiscio c. 27,000. In 1925, the Italian Rupee was replaced by the Italian Lira as the colony's official currency. In 1925 the colony was renamed Somalia.
The population was almost entirely Muslim, of the Sunnite branch. Catholic missionaries were active since 1904; in 1928 Italian Somalia was established as an Apostolic Vicariate under Monsignore Gabriele Perio.
The economy was dominated by pastoral herding (cattle, camels, goats, donkeys), irrigation agriculture practised in the valleys of the Uebi and Juba; native agricultural products included maize, sesame, cotton. The Italians tried to improve the cultivation of cotton, sugar cane, sesame, the sisal agave, the banana). Industry was limited to a sugar refinery (Societa Saccarifera Somala), oil-extracting factories (S.A.I.S.) and a few minor enterprises. Native industries included pottery and textile production. A specific product of the country was frankincense.
Imports were 2.5 - 6 times the value of exports; Italy figured second in the table of origins of imports (25-30 %), behind British Aden, but clearly dominated exports (60-70 %); the dominating export products were cotton andodorous substances, skins, Benadir textiles, cattle and goats, salted fish. In 1929 there was one railway line, total length 113 km. In 1920 the Banco d'Italia opened a branch in Mogadiscio. The colony's budget in 1926-27 of 67 million Lire was subsidized by the Italian state (subsidy 42 million Lire).
The colony was administrated by a governor who presided over a number of departments (civil and political affairs, economic and financial affairs, justice ..). The Comitato Amministrativo was a consultative body, comprising of the heads of the various departments, the military commander, legal counsels and two citizens appointed by the governor. In 1929 the troops stationed in the colony numbered 130 officers, 50 NCO's and 7000 indigenous soldiers. Two naval vessels were stationed in Somalian waters, "Lussin" and "Arimondi".
When World War II broke out in September 1939, Italy stayed out of the war. When German troops had penetrated France's defences in June 1940 and a French defeat was obvious, Italy entered the war on the German side. Italian forces from Somalia and Eritrea invaded and occupied British Somaliland.

Somalia 1941-1960
In 1941, the British, from Kenya and Sudan and Aden, invaded Italian East Africa; the Italian forces surrendered that year.
Former Italian East Africa, from 1941 until 1950, was under British military administration. Meanwhile in 1943 the Italian government had switched sides.

Somalia 1941-1960
In 1950 Somalia was handed back to Italian administration as a UN mandate (trusteeship). A new currency, 1 Somali = 100 Centesimi, was introduced; it was valid until 1962.
Britain, in 1948/1954, returned Ogaden, with it's Muslim Somali population, to Ethiopia. In 1956 Somalia was granted political autonomy. A new constitution widely extended the franchise; elections were held. A Legislative Assembly was established. Aden Abdullah Osman was elected president, ABDULLAHI ISSA prime minister. In 1960, independence was proclaimed.

Strive for a Unified Nation State, 1960-1991
Both Italian Somalia and British Somaliland gained independence in 1960. Within months, the unification of both countries was proclaimed, now forming the United Republic of Somalia.
In 1962, Somalia introduced a new currency, the Scellino Somali (Somalian Shilling) of 100 Centesimi. A first Five Year Plan was launched in 1963, followed by a short term development program 1968-1970, a development program 1971-1973 and another five year plan 1974-1978. In a 1972 language reform the Arab script was replaced by the Latin Alphabet.
In 1969, newly elected President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke was assassinated. After a coup in 1969, new strongman Siad Barre dissolved parliament. In 1970, Scientific Socialism was declared state ideology. In 1970, certain industries (oil companies, foreign banks etc.) were nationalized; in 1972, health services, private schools, the printing press followed. The Somali National University was established in Mogadishu in 1970. A National Theater had been constructed in 1966, with Chinese aid.
The war with Ethiopia over the Ogaden was a huge burden on the country's weak economy. The Sahel Drought of 1972-1974 had a detrimental impact in the country, as both the population and the livestock herds had considerably expanded over the previous decades. When Soviet aid suddenly ceased after the 1974 coup in Ethiopia, the country faced a serious crisis; In addition to a staggering economy and disappointed expectations, they had to cope with large numbers of refugees. In 1977 West German RAF terrorists hijacked a Lufthansa plane, which after an odyssey, ended up on Mogadishu airport. Somalia's president Siad Barre granted West German special forces permission to liberate the hostages, which they did. From then on, Somalia topped the list of countries receiving financial aid from West Germany. With these credits, for example Somalia's fishing industry was modernized. Once, the Somali-Ethiopian conflict had been part of the cold war. With the breakdown of the Soviet system in 1989/1991, the west's interest to finance such conflicts ended. Somalia found itself in a serious financial crisis; aid the country depended on was sharply reduced.
Pan-Somali sentiment aimed at uniting all territories settled by Somalis, including French Somaliland (Djibouti), the Ogaden (Ethiopian) and stretches of Kenya. The Somali government supported ethnic Somalis in Kenya and Ethiopia agitating for or committing acts of violence in order to achieve self-gocernment and eventual unifiCation with Somalia (Irredentism). A first Somali-Ethiopian war over Ogaden was fought 1964-1967.
Siad Barre (since 1969) pursued a pro-Soviet policy; Somalia received military aid from the USSR (archenemy Ethiopia was a client of the USA). War over the Ogaden renewed and the Somali side was able to claim some successes, when a coup brought a pro-Soviet regime in power in Ethiopia. The USSR dropped Somalia, now supporting Ethiopia. Somali forces quickly were expelled from the Ogaden; the war continued until 1994.
The Somali government, socialist, was at a loss regarding how to respond.

since 1991
In 1991, president Siad Barre was ousted. The country fell apart in numerous districts controlled by warlords. In 1992 the country experienced a devastating famine. Humanitarian aid organizations found Somalia an extremely difficult terrain to work in, as they were targetted as potential hostages by the various political factions, who also tried to direct the food supplies to their respective clientele. In 1992, UN forces, the most important contingent being from the U.S., landed to establish order. In 1993, UN forces made an attempt to arrest one warlord, Mohammed Farah Aidid; it ended in a disaster. Un forces were withdrawn; Somalia again in the hands of the various warlords. Former British Somaliland unilaterally declared it's independence (1994), as did the northern stretch of former Italian Somalia, under the name of Puntland. Both secessionist states lack international recognition.


Historic Encyclopedia Entries : Somalis 1854-1902, Ajan 1854-1885, Adal 1854-1885
Historical Atlas, Somalia Page

Students' Paper : Sung Ji Yun, History of Nutrition in East Africa (2012)

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Somalia
Article : Somalia, from Wikipedia
Country Profile : Somalia, from ISS; from IRIN
UK Border Agency, Country of Origin Report : Somalia 2013, 2012, 2011, covers Somaliland, Puntland
Links General from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford; from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Somalia, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Somalia, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Somalia - Year in Brief : 2005, from Global Security
Accounts of History General, Modern from Wikipedia
General, Historical
Specific Periods L.S. Finkelstein, Somaliland under Italian administration: a case study in United Nations trusteeship 1955, IA
A. Mah, The Colonial Discourse of Development in Africa. The Somalia Experience, thesis Toronto 1999
W.A. Degu, Political Development in the Precolonial Horn of Africa, thesis Amsterdam 2002
Politics Politics of Somalia, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Somalia
Governments on the WWW : Somalia
Somalia : Local Governments (1999 Report) from Global Security
Somalia Profile, from International Crisis Group
DADM : Somalia 1960-present, Somalia/Somaliland 1960-present
Tracy L. Cousins, Somalia, the Fallen Country, ICE Case Studies 1998
R.E. Gyampo, Somalia: An Anti-Thesis of the Western Conception of Failed States, Univ. of Ghana 2011
D. Balthasar, State-Making in Somalia and Somaliland, thesis LSE 2013
S.J. Hansen, The collapse of Somalia : of selective incentives and state collapse, thesis Oslo 1999
M.A. Mohamed, U.S. strategic interest in Somalia: From Cold War era to War on Terror, thesis State Univ. of NY at Buffalo 2009
A.A. Ismail, Somali State Failure : Players, Incentives and Institutions, thesis Helsinki 2010
L. Ahmad, Unity and Secession in Somali Political and Traditional Contexts, Hiiraan Online 2013
R.D. Sharamo, Predatory Politics and Struggles of Peacemaking in Somalia, thesis George Mason Univ. 2012
S. Nurhussein, Global Networks, Fragmentation, and the Rise of Telecommunication in Stateless Somalia, thesis Univ. of Oregon 2008
T.M. Hutcheson, Soviet foreign policy in Guinea and Somalia, implications for American policy toward Africa, thesis U.S. Naval Postgraduate School 1980, IA
T.A. Kahssay, Keeping the Peace: Intervention and Security Challenges in Africa The Case of African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), thesis Den Haag 2009
S.A. Robertson, A delayed response: analysis of the international response to the famine in Somalia, thesis Simon Fraser Univ. 2013
K. Menkhaus, Political Islam in Somalia
K. Mendrok, Connection between human rights and the state capacity in Somalia, thesis Halmstad Univ. 2010
A. Abdullahi, Tribalism, nationalism and Islam : the crisis of political loyalty in Somalia thesis McGill 1993
Military Wars of Somalia, 1800-1999, from ACED
Orders, Decorations and Medals from Somalia, posted by Jean Paul le Blanc, from ODM
J.T. Manuszak, The U.S. Army in Somalia 1992-1994
Global Security : Somalia Military Guide; Somalia : Operations other than War; Somalia Civil War; Somalia Civil War - Southern Somalia; Somalia-Ethiopia, Kenya Conflict; A.G. Hendrickson, Somalia : Strategic Failures and Operational Successes (1995); L.M. Martin, Somalia : Humanitarian Success and Political/Military Failure (1995)
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Ogaden War, 1962-1992, Conflict with Kenya 1963-1967, Siad Barre Regime, 1969-1990, Somalia : Chaos, 1991-
Zach Baxter, Somalia's Coal Industry, Deforestation and the Recent Conflict, ICE Case Studies 2007
Somalia Waste Imports and Civil War, ICE Case Studies 1998
The 1st South African Light Tank Company : Personal Reminiscences of the Campaign in East Africa, by M. Centner, from South African Military History Society (WW II)
La Guerra in Africa Orientale (The War in East Africa), from La Seconda Guerra Mondiale, in Italian
I Porti Militari e le Difese Costiere anti Nave e anti Aeree Italiane in Africa Orientale 1936-1941 (The naval ports and the Italian sea and air coastal defense in East Africa, 1936-1941) by Alberto Rosselli, in Italian
CASCON Case OGA : Somalia - Ethiopia (Ogaden) 1977-1988, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
CASCON Case SEK : Somalia - Ethiopia - Kenya 1960-1964, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
S. Agada, The Challenges of United Nations Peacekeeping in Africa : Caede Study of Somalia, thesis United Nations Institute for Training and Research 2008
Economy & Finances Entry Somalia, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor
Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Somalia (w. Somaliland, Puntland)
Article Economy of Somalia, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Somalia, from Wikipedia
K.A. Angeltveit, Counting the Costs of Piracy around the Horn of Africa, thesis Univ. of Agder 2010
M.D. Abdirahman, Exchange Rate Policy: The Somalia Experience (1960-91) 2000
D. Varda, Tackling Development and Maritime Security in the Horn of Africa 2011
S.M. Maimbo, Remittances and Economic Development in Somalia. An Overview 2006 (World Bank : Social Development Papers)
M.A. Osman, Somali Remittance Companies. A New Financial System for Somalia, thesis Aarhus 2006
D.K. Leonard, The Political Economy of Livestock Policy among the Somalis IGAD 2007
Wharton Financial Institutions Center : Somalia
Social History Somalia, from Crime and Society, A Comparative Crimonology Tour of the World (R. Winslow)
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Somalia
A.A. Handulle, Impact of development on traditional pastoralism in Somalia, thesis Utah Univ., n.d.
F. Warsame, Barriers and Constraints to Education in Sub-Saharan Africa A Case Study in Somalia thesis Univ. of Alberta n.d.
M.F. Hersi, The Possibilities of International Prosecution against the former Somali Military Regime for Human Rights Abuses in Somaliland from 1981 to 1991 : Establishing Individual Criminal and Civil Responsibility under International Law, thesis Univ. of Pretoria 2008
C.L. Besteman, Land tenure, social power, and the legacy of slavery in southern Somalia, thesis Univ. of Arizona 1991
A.I. Farah, Somalia, Educational Institutions and Total Quality Management in Education, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, vol. 4, Issue 11, November 2013
H.S. Ahmed, An Analytical Understanding of How External Sources Inform and Impact Upon Somaliland's National Education and Teacher Education Policy Making Processes thesis Brunel 2009
Ethnography Languages of Ecuador (13), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Somalia, from Wikipedia
Country Report : Somalia, from U.S. Committee for Refugees
Forced Migration Online Research Guide Somalia 2003
Somalia, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
Somalia : Issaq, from Minorities at Risk
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Somalia
History of Somalis, from Malik's Homepage
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Somalia, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in Somalia, from Wikipedia
History of Regions Category : Regions of Somalia, from Wikipedia
Article Regions of Somalia, from Wikipedia
Regions of Somalia, from www.statoids.com
Districts of Somalia, from www.statoids.com
BBC Country Profiles : Puntland
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Benadir Coast Italian Protectorate 1900-07-08, Colonia della Somalia Italiana 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, Provincia di Somalia 1938-07-08, British Administration of Occupied Italian Somaliland 1948-07-08, United Nations Trust Territory of Italian Somalia 1958-07-08, Somali Republic 1968-07-08, Somali Democratic Republic 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, National Salvation Council of the Republic of Somalia 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
The Majerteen Sultanates, by Faduma, detailed account of Italian conquest 1925-1927
History of the Ogaden, by Salahdin Maow
Local History List of Cities in Somalia, from Wikipedia
History of Mogadishu, of Kismayo, Zeila, Berbera, Hargeisa, from Wikipedia
Mogadishu from the Past, by Enrico Cerulli
Institutions Somalia, from Airline History
List of Universities in Somalia, Somalia National University, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Somalia, search Lighthouse Explorer for Somalia
Cultural History Article Somalia at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
B.W. Andrzejwski et al., Somalia. The Writing of Somali, UNESCO 1966
Biographies List of Somalians, from Wikipedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
The Mad Mullah, Hero of Somali Nationalism, by Leo Silberman, detailed
Environmental History Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Disaster History by Country : Somalia, from Relief Web
Zach Baxter, Somalia's Coal Industry, Deforestation and the Recent Conflict, ICE Case Studies 2007
Somalia Waste Imports and Civil War, ICE Case Studies 1998

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Regnal Chronologies : Eastern Africa, scroll down for Mogadishu
List of Rulers of Majerteen, Hobyo, Jaladi, Nogal, from rulers.org, from World Statesmen by Ben Cahoon
Lists of Ambassadors U.S. Ambassadors to Somalia, from NNDB: Chinese Ambassadors to Somali, from PRC MOFA
Statistical Data Responsible Institution
Population Figures from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
World Life Expectancy : Health Profile : Somalia
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1965
Inflation Rates Trading Economics : Somalia Inflation Rate, 1961-
Index Mundi, Somalia Inflation Rate, 2001-2003
Election Results from African Elections Database, since 1956
Search IPU Parline for "Somalia"
Documents Hemerotheques University of Bologna; search Catalogo Italiano dei Periodici for Somalia
Historical Newspapers
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Somalia, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Individual Articles History of the Horn of Africa, from World History Archives, scroll down for Somalia
Online Yearbooks - Somalia Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Italy : Foreign Dependencies 1890, pp.701-702, IA, 1891, pp.705-706, IA, 1892, pp.714-715, IA, 1894, pp.714-715, IA, 1895, pp.714-715, IA, 1896, pp.714-715, IA, 1898, p.712, IA, 1899, pp.757-758, IA, 1903, pp.833-835, IA, Italy : Somaliland 1913, pp.1004-1005, IA, 1919, pp.1009-1010, IA, 1921, pp.1029-1030, IA
Yearbook of the United Nations, 1946-2007
Africa : 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Mogadishu - Images from the Past, by Rick Davies
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Somalia
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Somalia
License Plates : Africa Orientale Italiana, from Targhe Italiane, text in Italian
Archival Deposits Archivio Centralo della Stato (Italy), Ministero dell' Africa Italiana
Visual Anthropology : Archivi Fotografici in Italia
Museo Pigorini, Archivio Storico Fotografico
Banca d'Italia, Archivi Amministrazione Centrale, Affari Coloniali. Filiali Coloniali e Dalmate
Search National Archives (UK) for Somalia, Italian Somaliland, Somaliland
Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Somalia, from ILO, 14 docs. since 1960
Search Prassi Italiana di Dirito Internazionale, Indice delle leggi e degli altri atti normativi, for Somalia, Benadir, 37 resp. 4 entries, in Italian
Treaties Peace Agreements Digital Collection : Somalia, from United States Institute of Peace
Consular Reports
Document Collections Memorie Coloniali
Information by Country : Somalia, from U.S. Committee for Refugees, 16 Reports 1997-2001
Search Hansard for Somalia
Security Council Report, UN Documents for Somalia
United Nations : Oceans & Laws of the Sea, UN Documents on Piracy; mostly on Piracy off Somalia
Individual Documents W.E. Ratliff, Follow the leader in the Horn, 1986; A pamphlet about the spread of communism in east Africa in the 1980s.
UN Security Council Resolutions 1992 res. 733, 746, 751, 767, 775, 794, 1993 res. 814, 837, 865, 878, 885, 886, 1994 res. 923, 946, 953, 954, 2001 res. 1356, 2002 res. 1407, 1425, 2003 res. 1474, 1519, 2004 res. 1558, 2005 res. 1587, 1630, 2006 res. 1676, 1724, 1725, 2007 res. 1744, 1766, 1772, 2008 res. 1811, 1814, 1816, 1831, 1838, 1844, 1846, 1853, 2009 res. 1863, 1897, 2010 res. 1910, 1916, 1918, 1950, 1964, 2011 res. 1972, 1976, 2002, 2010, 2015, 2012 res. 2036, 2060, 2067, 2072, 2013 res. 2093, 2102, 2111, 2124
Historical Maps responsible institutions National Cartographic Directorate, National Mapping Agency in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Somalia Somalia Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Somalia, Maps of the History of Somalia, from Wikimedia Commons
David Rumsey Map Collection : Somalia
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Somalia, Modern Clan e Sottoclan nel Corno d'Africa
Map showing the area settled by ethnic Somalis (ca. 1980), from Perry Castaneda Library at UTexas, CIA map
Somalia, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique ?l'?helle de 1:2 000 000 29. Gondar 1891, 29. Gondar 1899, 30. Berbera 1887, 30. Berbera 1888, 30. Berbera 1898, 37. Barderah 1886, 37. Barderah 1888, 37. Barderah 1898, 38. Mouqdicha 1886, 38. Mouqdicha 1888, 42. Zanzibar 1885, 42. Zanzibar 1892, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheet 20 Adis Abeba (1978), sheet 21 Djibouti (1968), sheet 24 Nairobi (1968), sheet 25 Mogadiscio (1967) PCL, UTexas
Maps : Abyssinia 1906, Abyssinia 1922, Abyssinia 1930, Abyssinia 1932, from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary Map of Mogadiscio (Mogadishu), 1915, from Mappe di Citta Italiano ed Altre Mappe Antiche Diverse
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Somaliland, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article Somal, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Benadir, Somaliland, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907 edition
Ethnographical E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, The Earth and its Inhabitants Africa vol.4 : South and East Africa, 1890, IA : Somali and East Galla Lands, pp.377-416
E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, Africa and its Inhabitants vol.4 1899, IA; Somali and East Galla Lands; Italian Somaliland pp.377-412
Parliamentary Debates
Travelogues Medieval reports from visitors of Kilwa, from University of Minnesota, Dept. of History (also on Mogadishu)
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives
Libraries Libraries in Somalia, from LibDex
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Somalia, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Banknotes of Italian Somaliland, from World's Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money, from Numismondo
Somalian coins from Collections of Coins, bilingual Russian and English page; from World Coin Gallery
Stamps Catalogue Somalia Stamps 1903, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Somalia survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
general bibliographies pp.165-213 in M. Castagno, Historical Dictionary of Somalia, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1988 [G]
Schomberg, Annotated Bibliography of English-language Books Published about Somalia since 2000
Bibliography, from Library of Congress Country Studies : Somalia
Somalia, from The Online Books Page
Somalia Bibliography, from NNDB
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies
serial publications
general bibliographies
Somalia entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Somalia-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Somalia Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Search Parameters, US Army War College Quarterly 1971- for Somalia
Anglo-Somali Society, Journal, ToC 2009-
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.17, pp.831-836 Article Eastern Africa : Somalia. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.17
L.V. Bertarelli, Guida D'Italia del Touring Club Italiano : Possedimenti e Colonie, Milano 1929, pp.687-808
Specific Topics Chapter 16 : More about Ethiopia, Eritrea and the Somalis, pp.274-284, in : John Gunther, Inside Africa, NY : Harper & Bros. (1953) 1955 [G]
Horn of Poverty, pp.58-59 in : The State of War and Peace Atlas, ed. by Dan Smith, Penguin 1997 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Margaret Castagno, Historical Dictionary of Somalia, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1975 [G]
Terry M. Mays, Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Italian Somaliland, 1913 p.1049 on events of 1912) [G]
Italian Colonial Empire, 1945 pp.376-377, 1946 pp.408-409, 1947 pp.426-427, 1948 pp.413-414, 1949 pp.364-365, 1950 pp.387-388
Italian Somaliland 1951 p.641, 1952 p.643, 1953 pp.651-652
Somalia 1954 p.655, 1955 p.702,1956 p.640, 1957 p.702, 1958 p.644, 1959 p.636, 1960 p.638 [G]
Somali Republic, 1961 p.640, 1962 pp.631-632, 1963 pp.738-739, 1964 pp.754-755, 1965 pp.643-644, 1966 p.690, 1967 p.690, 1968 pp.698-699, 1969 p.681 [G]
Somalia, 1970 pp.688-689, 1971 pp.673, 1972 pp.630-631, 1973 p.617, 1974 p.620, 1975 pp.620-621, 1976 pp.617-618, 1977 p.617, 1978 pp.631-632, 1979 pp.625-626, 1980 pp.620-621, 1981 pp.620-621, 1982 pp.623-624, 1983 pp.616-617, 1984 pp.620-621, 1985 pp.473-474, 779, 1986 pp.467, 778, 1988 pp.397, 698, 1989 pp.397, 698, 1990 pp.414, 714, 1993 pp.369, 715, 1994 pp.367-368, 715, 1995 pp.471, 715 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Italy, Foreign Dependencies, 1895 pp.714-715, 1898 pp.712-713, 1901 pp.801-802, 1905 pp.863-864, 1910 pp.970-971 [G]
Italian Somaliland, 1919 pp.1009-1011, 1924 pp.1043-1045, 1925 pp.1051-1052, 1926 pp.1018-1020, 1928 pp.1045-1047, 1929 pp.1031-1033, 1932 pp.1044-1046, 1937 pp.1081-1082, 1943 pp.1042-1043 [G]
Somalia, 1970-1971 pp.1278-1280, 1975-1976 pp.1286-1288, 1978-1979 pp.1060-1063, 1980-1981 pp.1063-1066, 1983-1984 pp.1066-1069, 1984-1985 pp.1063-1066, 1985-1986 pp.1064-1067, 1987-1988 pp.1070-1072, 1988-1989 pp.1074-1076, 1989-1990 pp.1085-1088, 1990-1991 pp.1085-1087, 1991-1992 pp.1088-1090, 1992-1993 pp.1178-1181, 1993-1994 pp.1181-1183, 1994-1995 pp.1186-1190, 1995-1996 pp.1176-1179, 1996-1997 pp.1152-1155, 1997-1998 pp.1154-1156, 1998-1999 pp.1259-1262, 2000 pp.1412-1415, 2001 pp.1377-1380, 2002 pp.1432-1436, 2003 pp.1431-1435, 2004 pp.1452-1456, 2005 pp.1461-1466 [G]
Americana Annual Italian Somaliland, 1927 p.459, 1928 p.416, 1930 p.411, 1931 p.411, 1932 p.375, 1933 pp.402-403, 1934 p.315, 1935 p.373, 1936 p.377, 1937 p.363 [G]
Italian East Africa, 1938 p.349, 1939 pp.386-388, 1940 p.399, 1943 pp.392-394, 1944 p.363 (on events of 1943) [G]
Italian East Africa - Italian Somaliland, 1945 p.381, 1946 pp.384-385 (on events of 1945) [G]
Italian East Africa, 1947 p.364; Italian Somaliland 1947 p.365 [G]
Somaliland (sic !), 1957 p.718 [G]
Somalia, 1961 pp.681-683, 1962 pp.688-689, 1963 pp.608-609, 1964 pp.596-597, 1965 pp.631-632, 1967 pp.610-611, 1968 pp.603-604, 1969 p.606, 1970 p.615, 1971 p.605, 1972 p.600, 1973 p.602, 1976 p.74, 1992 p.465, 1993 p.468, 1994 pp.476-477 [G]
Other Article : Somaliland, in : International Year Book 1898 p.716 [G]
Somali Republic pp.154-156, in : Year Book and Guide to East Africa 1963 [G]

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