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Literature on the History of East Africa
First posted on September 25th 2007, last revised on November 12th 2013

For the country's earlier history, see Tanganyika before 1815 , Tanganyika 1815-1886 , History of the Swahili Coast, History of German East Africa
Tanganyika 1916-1961
For the country's later history, see Tanzania, since 1964

Tanganyika 1916-1961
In 1916, British and Belgian troops occupied German East Africa; in the Treaty of Versailles 1919 Germany had to cede all its colonies. In 1920 the League of Nations granted the mandate over the Tanganyika territory to Britain, over Ruanda-Urundi to Belgium.
The German plantation owners and businessmen were replaced by Britons (and others). Asian immigration (from British India) intensified.
With Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika and Zanzibar under British rule, common institutions emerged, such as Makarere Technical College in Uganda (established 1922, elevated to University of East Africa in 1963). The East African Shilling was introduced as joined currency of Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika, Zanzibar (and others) in 1921. In 1927 Tanganyika joined the customs union which Kenya and Uganda had formed in 1917. From 1935 to 1963 the East African Posts and Telecommunications Administration issued joined stamps for Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika. In 1948 the East African High Commission was established (to 1961).
In 1938 the British government contemplated the return to Germany of its former colonies, to the consternation of many Tanganyikans.
Tanganyika became independent in 1961. When the British withdrew from Zanzibar in 1964, the island was merged with Tanganyika to form Tanzania.

Historical atlas, Tanzania Page .. British East Africa Page

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern Article : Tanganyika, from Wikipedia
Historical F.S. Joelson, The Tanganyika territory (formerly German East Africa), characteristics and potentialities 1920, IA
Links General from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford; from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Tanzania, from Wikipedia
on History Virtual Library History : Tanzania
Category : History of Tanzania, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionaries East Africa Living Encyclopedia
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Accounts of History Current EISA : Tanzania : British Rule between the Wars, 1916-1945
Specific Periods
Politics Article : East African Community : History, from Wikipedia
Global Nonviolent Action Database : Pare people in Tanzania defeat new tax system, 1945-46 is this scholarly ? Tanzania did not exist in 1948
Military M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Zanzibar Massacre 1964, Tanzania-Uganda War 1978-1979
Medal of KAR, King's African Rifles, Tanganyika/Tanzania
Economy & Finances NTZ, Sisal
CoffeeWiki, Coffee Industry of Tanzania
Tanzania Chamber of Mining and Energy, History of the Mining Sector
SAB Miller, Tanzania (brewery)
Thaddeus Sunseri, Working in the Forests : Land, Labor and Nationalism in Late Colonial Tanzania, IEHC 2006
History of the Bank of Tanzania
Article : East African Shilling, from Wikipedia
History Today : Britain Abandons the Groundnuts Scheme 2001; on groundnut (=peanut) cultivation in Tanganyika 1947-1951
C.J. Martin, The Development and Diversity of National Income Series in East Africa since 1947, African Studies in Income and Wealth, 1962
Social History E.A. Ricketts, Women's Access to Secondary Education in Colonial and Postcolonial Tanzania and Rwanda, thesis Chicago 2013
Tanganyika Territory, Minimum Dietary Standards for East African Natives, Analyst 66 1941 pp.118-121
National Education Council of Tanzania, History of NECTA
A.M. Lutambi, (The Impact Missionaries had on Education in Tanzania, Past and Present)
Article : African trypanosomiasis : History (sleeping sickness), from Wikipedia
Ethnography Languages of Tanzania (143), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Tanzania, from Wikipedia
Art and Life in Africa : Tanzania
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : United Republic of Tanzania
Article : Maasai People, from Wikipedia
Peachtree Publishers, Brief History of the Maasai
Article : Nyamwezi People, from Wikipedia
Distribution of African Languages, map from Muturzikin
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Tanzania, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in Tanzania, from Wikipedia
A Short History of Islam in Tanzania, from Islam Tanzania
Christian Council of Tanzania, History (est. 1934)
Article : Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania, from Wikipedia
by Region Category : Regions of Tanzania, from Wikipedia
Article Districts of Tanzania, from Wikipedia
Regions of Tanzania, from www.statoids.com
Districts of Tanzania, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : League of Nations Mandate of Tanganyika Territory 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, State of Tanganyika 1962-07-08
History of Cities List of Cities in Tanzania, from Wikipedia
History of Bagamoyo, of Dar es Salam, Tanga, Ujiji, Dodoma, from Wikipedia
Biographies see under Tanzania
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
African Women Bibliographic Database
Biography of John Thoburn Williamson, posted by Hamstat Integrated Systems
Environmental History
Others J. Voss, Deutsch-Ostafrika - Tanganyika - Tanzania : Agents and Interactions in the Management of Forest Resources, 1891-2000 n.d.

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon; does list Tanganyika 1918-1961, without separate title, under Tanzania), from Rulers (B. Schemmel, does list Tanganyika 1918-1961, without separate title, under Tanzania), Regnal Chronologies : Eastern Africa, scroll down for Kilwa
List of Governors of Tanganyika, Wikipedia
Population Figures from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer), data on Tanzania
W.F. Willcox, International Migrations, I : Statistics 1929 Chapter Title: Statistics of Migrations, National Tables, South Africa, Southern Rhodesia, Swaziland, Tanganyika, Madagascar, French Somali Coast, Angola, Azores, Cape Verde Islands, Madeira, Cameroon, Togo
World Life Expectancy, Health Profile : Tanzania
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Individual Articles Spectator 30 June 1938, letter from a 17 year resident of Tanganyika in regard to plans to return Germany's colonies
JTA 29 Jan 1963, Golda Meir Signs Agreement in Tanganyika for Technical Cooperation
Online Yearbooks - Tanganyika Entries Statesman's Year-Book, British East Africa, Tanganyika Territory 1921, pp.182-184, IA
UN Yearbook Collection, 1946-2007
Conditions of Trust Territories in East Africa, UN Yearbook 1950, 1951, 1952, 1954, 1955, Conditions in Indivudual Trust Territories : Tanganyika, UN Yearbook 1956, Conditions in Trust Territories : Tanganyika, UN Yearbook 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961
Staatskalender British Online Archives, Tanganyika Blue Books 1921-1948
Image Databanks
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections The Crawfurd Homepage, Photos from Africa 1937 (also some on the next page)
Universal Collections
Items on Tanganyika
Maritime Timetable Images, British India Steam Navigation Co.; P&O Line, Dar es Salaam listed as port of call
License Plates, from License Plates around the World
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK) for Tanganyika
Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Archive Records
Burke Library Archives (Columbia), Finding Aid for Christian Educational Policy in Tanganyika Territory, 1932 2011
African Studies Centre, Leiden : Development Plans - Tanganyika
Endangered Archives Programme, EAP099: records of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Tanzania in Moshi, Tanzania
Adam Matthews Publications, Church Missionary Society Archive, Section IV : Africa, Part 19: Tanganyika, 1900-1934, Nyanza, 1880-1886, and Rwanda, 1933-1934, Part 23: Uganda, Tanganyika and Rwanda, 1935-1949
School of Oriental and African Studies Library, International Missionary Council and Conference of British Missionary Societies: Africa, Mundus
League of Nations Documents and Serial Publications, 1919-1946 Reel Listing, see : Administration of Tanganyika
Laws Search World Intellectual Property Organization website for Tanganyika
United Republic of Tanzania, Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar Act, 1964, Apr. 25 1964, World Intellectual Property Organization
Tanganyika Territory, Ordinance no.17 of 1930, An Ordinance to amend the Land Ordinance
Customary Law of the Haya Tribe, Tanganyika Territory, n.d.
Legislation UK : Tanganyika Independence, 1961
Treaties Category : Treaties extended to Tanganyika Territory, Wikipedia
Document Surveys Government Publications relating to Tanganyika, 1919-1961 1979
Document Collections Foreign Relations 1937/2 : Reservations of the United States of its Rights as affected by Changes of the Frontier between the Mandated Territory of Tanganyika and Ruanda-Urundi 1937
Foreign Relations 1938/2 : Assent of the United States to Alterations between the Mandated Territories of Tanganyika and the Portuguese Colony of Moçambique 1938
FAO, Exchange of notes accepting the protocol signed at Kigoma, on 5 august 1924, relative to the Tanganyika-Ruanda-Urundi frontier. Brussels, 17 May 1926
Individual Documents Venona Files, Political Activity in East Africa 1943, IA
US Trade Mission .., Report of the 1963 Trade Mission to Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda, 1964, IA
Historical Maps collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Tanzania Tanzania Maps, from Maps of the World
Tanzania Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old maps of Tanzania, Maps of the history of Tanzania, Wikimedia Commons
David Rumsey Map Collection : Tanzania
Africa, Modern Africa 1938, 1959, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Distribution of African Languages, map from Muturzikin
Africa, Contemporary
Tanganyika, Modern
Tanganyika, Contemporary Eusoils, Soil Maps of Africa, Geological Map of Tanganyika, Land Resource Zones, Tanzania, Provisional Soils Map of Tanzania 1977, Agro-Ecological Zones, Tanzania 1983
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
Parliamentary Debates Search Hansard for Tanganyika
Institutions Archives The United Republic of Tanzania, Records and Archives Management Division
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag 1919-1961, from FOTW, Flag 1961-1964, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from Civic Heraldry
Coins, Banknotes see under Tanzania

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Tanganyika survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database U. Holtz, Ehemalige deutsche Kolonien. Vom Kolonialstatus zum wirtschaftlichen Partnerland Deutschlands ?, Bibliographie/Webliographie 2003
Tanganyika, from The Online Books Page
RHS Bibliography, search for Tanganyika; Search UK National Archive Online Library for Tanganyika
general bibliographies Tanzania-Network : Literaturhinweise
specialist bibliographies
serial publications British Library, Tanzania Official Publications
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica; Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek
International Boundary Studies
on Tanganyika Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Universitätsbibliothek, Sammlungen, click : Kolonialbibliothek
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories : Tanzania
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
General Accounts John Iliffe, A Modern History of Tanganyika, Cambridge UP (1979) 1987 [G]
Edna Mason Kaula, The Land and People of Tanganyika, Philadelphia : J.B. Lippincott 1963 [G]
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.17, pp.803-810 Article Eastern Africa : Tanzania. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.17
Specific Topics Chapter 22 : The Wonderful World of Tanganyika, pp.396-420, in : John Gunther, Inside Africa, NY : Harper & Bros. (1953) 1955 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Laura S. Kurtz, Historical Dictionary of Tanzania, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1978 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year British East Africa, 1944 p.127, 1945 pp.124-125, 1946 pp.146-147, 1947 pp.149-150, 1948 pp.139-140, 1949 pp.118-120, 1950 pp.127-128, 1951 pp.124-125, 1952 pp.122-123, 1953 pp.123-124, 1954 pp.121-124, 1955 pp.181-183, 1956 pp.120-122, 1957 pp.180-182 [G]
Tanganyika, 1958 p.668, 1959 p.667, 1960 p.667, 1961 p.667, 1962 pp.661-662 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook East Africa, 1919 pp.916-917 [G]
Tanganyika Territory, 1924 pp.258-261, 1925 pp.264-266, 1926 pp.265-268, 1928 pp.265-268, 1929 pp.268-271, 1932 pp.270-273, 1937 pp.293-296, 1943 pp.260-263 [G]
Americana Annual Tanganyika Territory, 1927 pp.820-821, 1928 p.748, 1930 p.739, 1931 pp.733-734, 1932 pp.682-683, 1933 p.735, 1934 p.566, 1935 pp.686-687, 1936 p.696, 1937 p.670, 1938 p.727, 1939 p.664, 1940 pp.744-745, 1943 p.694, 1944 p.670, 1945 p.685 [G]
British East Africa, 1930 pp.129-131, 1931 pp.125-126, 1945 p.115; 1946 pp.120-123, 1947 pp.98-100 [G]
British East Africa - Tanganyika, 1957 pp.102-104, 1961 pp.93-95 [G]
Other South and East African Year Book and Guide, 49th edition 1949, pp.761-763, 824-851 [G]

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