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Literature on the History of East Africa
Kenya Uganda
First posted on July 2nd 2002, last revised on November 12th 2013

For the country's earlier history, see Tanganyika before 1815 , Tanganyika 1815-1886 , History of the Swahili Coast, History of German East Africa,
History of Tanganyika, History of Zanzibar
Tanzania since 1964

Tanzania since 1964
In 1961, Tanganyika was proclaimed independent. Jilius Nyerere became the country's first president. Soon after the British Protectorate of Zanzibar was proclaimed independent, its democratically elected government was ousted by an armed coup, the Sultan forced into exile, many of the island's Arab inhabitants jailed (many others left the country) and the island merged with Tanganyika, to form the state of Tanzania.
The new Republic of Tanzania was dominated by Tanganyika, the capital Daressalaam. Tanganyika/Tanzania became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and joined the East Arican Common Services (KUT, Kenya-Uganda-Tanzania) in 1961, upgraded into the East African Community in 1967. It began to fail in 1972 and disintegrated in 1977. In 1966, the East African Currency Union was dissolved; Tanzania introduced a national currency, the Tanzanian Shilling.
Nyerere pursued a philosophy of African socialism called Ujamaa, defined in the Arusha Declaration of 1967. In countryside Tanzania, the village rather than the individual was to own land and to make decisions according to its use. Tanzania declared the Serengeti a national park; Tourism became a major source of income.
In 1967 the East African Currency Union was established, the currency being the East African Shilling. It functioned until 1977.
Zanzibar, with it's economic history as a trading country, pursued an economic policy of its own, often in confrontation with national policy. In 1972, the governor of Zanzibar, Abeid Amani Karume, was assassinated.
In 1975, plans to move the capital to Dodoma were announced. Actually, capital functions today are shared by Daressalaam and Dodoma.
In 1978, Ugandan forces under notorious dictator Idi Amin occupied Tanzanian territory in the northeast, Uganda annexing 700 square miles of Tanzanian territory. In 1979, Tanzanian troops invaded Uganda and toppled Idi Amin, installing a new government. The Tanzanian troops quickly withdrew. The East African Community collapsed over these tensions in 1977.

Since independence, the population of Tanzania has more than doubled. The economic development was seriously affected by the oil crisis of the 1970es, as well as by a drop in world market prices for plantation crops. Tanzania economically lags behind its northern, non-socialist neighbours Kenya and Uganda.
There is a separatist organization seeking the independence of Zanzibar & Pemba.

for earlier history, see Tanganyika, Zanzibar

Historical atlas, Tanzania Page .. Zanzibar Page .. British East Africa Page

Students' Paper : Sung Ji Yun, History of Nutrition in East Africa (2012)

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
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Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Article : Tanzania, from Wikipedia
Country Profile : Tanzania, from ISS; from IRIN
Links General from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford; from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Tanzania, from Wikipedia
on History Virtual Library History : Tanzania
Category : History of Tanzania, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionaries Living Encyclopedia for Tanzania
East Africa Living Encyclopedia
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Accounts of History Current from Wikipedia
Specific Periods Rhonda M. Gonzales, Societies, Religion, and History: Central East Tanzanians and the World They Created, c. 200 BCE to 1800 CE, diss. Columbia UP
DADM : Tanzania (1961-present)
EISA : Tanzania's venerable past 2010
EISA : Tanzania: Emergence of Swahili Culture (c.1250-1500 CE) 2010
EISA : Tanzania: Portuguese dominance (1500-1698 CE) 2010
EISA : Tanzania: Omani Conquest (1698-1884) 2005
EISA : Tanzania: Colonial partition (1884-1916) 2005
EISA : Tanzania: British rule between the Wars (1916-1945) 2005
EISA : Tanzania: Rise of Nationalism (1945-1961) 2010
EISA : Tanzania: Union and Ujamaa (1961-1976) 2010
EISA : Tanzania: Failure of Ujamaa (1976-1986) 2010
EISA : Tanzania: Economic and political reform (1985-1996) 2010
EISA : Tanzania: The Presidency of Mkapa (1996-2005) 2011
EISA : Tanzania: The Presidency of Kikwete (2006-2010) 2011
Politics Politics of Tanzania, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Tanzania; For the Record : Tanzania, from UN Human Rights System
Governments on the WWW : Tanzania
History of Tanzania, from EISA Web Encyclopedia
EAC in Brief, from EACHQ
History of the East African Community, from EAC
Global Nonviolent Action Database : Maasai women protest land seizure in Tanzania, 2009
Military Wars of Tanzania, 1800-1999, from ACED
N. Luanda, A Changing Conception of Defence - A Historical Perspective of the Military in Tanzania , ch. 11, in M. Rupiya (ed.), Evolutions and Revolutions, A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa, ISS 2005
Orders, Decorations and Medals from Tanzania, posted by Jean Paul le Blanc
Category : Military History of Tanzania, from Wikipedia
W. Brent, African Military Aviation, Tanzania
Medal of KAR, King's African Rifles, Tanganyika/Tanzania
African Mutinies, Tanganyika 1964, from Britain's Small Wars
Economy & Finances Entry Tanzania, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor
Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Tanzania
Article Economy of Tanzania, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Tanzania, from Wikipedia
EAC in Brief, from EACHQ
Global Integrity : Tanzania 2006, Tanzania 2007
Pages from World Bank History : East African Mediation (1977)
History of the Bank of Tanzania
NTZ, Sisal
CoffeeWiki, Coffee Industry of Tanzania
J. Baffes, Tanzania's Coffee Sector: Constraints and Challenges in a Global Environment 2003
Tanzania Chamber of Mining and Energy, History of the Mining Sector
SAB Miller, Tanzania (brewery)
Tanzania : Development of Exports (S.M. Wangwe, Exporting Africa, 1995), posted by UNU
Potato Atlas, Tanzania
J.D. Due, The challenges faced by four African economies : Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania, and the Sudan 1983, IA
R.W. Johnson, Tobacco production and trade in southern Africa, 1975, IA on Rhodesia, Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, The Malagasy Republic, Zaire, The Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, Angola
A.B. Davis, Tobacco production and trade : selected African countries 1971, IA Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Zambia, Republic of South Africa
Social History S. Harlfinger, Die Geschichte der Lepraarbeit in Ostafrika, ein Vergleich der Entwicklung in Tanzania, Uganda und Kenya, thesis Bonn 2012
E.A. Ricketts, Women's Access to Secondary Education in Colonial and Postcolonial Tanzania and Rwanda, thesis Chicago 2013
National Education Council of Tanzania, History of NECTA
A.M. Lutambi, (The Impact Missionaries had on Education in Tanzania, Past and Present)
Tanzania, from Crime and Society, A Comparative Crimonology Tour of the World (R. Winslow)
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Tanzania
Ethnography Languages of Tanzania (143), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Tanzania, from Wikipedia
Country Reports : Tanzania, from U.S. Committee for Refugees
Tanzania : Zanzibaris, from Minorities at Risk
Art and Life in Africa : Tanzania
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : United Republic of Tanzania
Article : Maasai People, from Wikipedia
Peachtree Publishers, Brief History of the Maasai
Article : Nyamwezi People, from Wikipedia
Distribution of African Languages, map from Muturzikin
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Tanzania, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in Tanzania, from Wikipedia
A Short History of Islam in Tanzania, from Islam Tanzania
Christian Council of Tanzania, History (est. 1934)
Article : Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania, from Wikipedia
by Region Category : Regions of Tanzania, from Wikipedia
Article Regions of Tanzania, from Wikipedia
Regions of Tanzania, from www.statoids.com
Districts of Tanzania, from www.statoids.com
Zanzibar Page at UNPO (Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : State of Tanganyika 1962-07-08, United Republic of Tanzania 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Local History List of Cities in Tanzania, from Wikipedia
History of Bagamoyo, of Dar es Salam, Tanga, Ujiji, Dodoma, from Wikipedia
Institutions Tanzania, from Airline History
Article Rail Transport in Tanzania, from Wikipedia
List of Universities in Tanzania, University of Dar es Salaam, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Tanzania, search Lighthouse Explorer for Tanzania
Cultural History Article Tanzania at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Tanzanians, from Wikipedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
Environmental History Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Disaster History by Country : the United Republic of Tanzania, from Relief Web
J. Voss, Deutsch-Ostafrika - Tanganyika - Tanzania : Agents and Interactions in the Management of Forest Resources, 1891-2000 n.d.

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors U.S. Ambassadors to Tanzania, from NNDB: List of Indian High Commissioners to Tanzania, from Wikipedia; Chinese Ambassadors to Tanzania, from PRC MOFA
Statistical Data Responsible Institution National Bureau of Statistics, Tanzania
Population Figures from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
World Life Expectancy, Health Profile : Tanzania
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1965
Inflation Rates Trading Economics : Tanzania Inflation Rate, 1999-
Index Mundi, Tanzania Inflation Rate, 1999-2011
Election Results from Psephos, since 1995; from IFES Election Guide, since 2000; from African Elections Database, since 1958
Search IPU Parline for "Tanzania"
EISA : Tanzania Election Archive
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Online Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Tanzania, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Individual Articles History of Tanzania, from World History Archives
Online Yearbooks - Tanzania Entries
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Der Bildbestand der Deutschen Kolonialgesellschaft in der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt am Main
Bundesarchiv, The Digital Picture Archives, Berlin
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Tanzania
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Passport, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Tanzania
Archival Deposits
Laws South African Legal Information Institute, Databases (scroll down for Tanzania etc.)
Search World Intellectual Property Organization website for Tanzania
United Republic of Tanzania, Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar Act, 1964, Apr. 25 1964, World Intellectual Property Organization
Constitution of 1977, from Tanzania National Website
Treaties Environmental Treaties : Tanzania, from Pop Planet
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Tanzania, from ILO, 35 docs. since 1962
Document Surveys British Library, Tanzania Official Publications
Document Collections Information by Country : Tanzania, from U.S. Committee for Refugees, 13 reports 1997-2003
TEXTES sur l'Afrique : Decolonisation : Tanzanie, from cliotexte, scroll down
Individual Documents Arusha Declaration 1967, from Modern History Sourcebook
Historical Maps responsible institutions Cartographic Association of Tanzania, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
Surveys and Mapping Division, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Tanzania Tanzania Maps, from Maps of the World
Tanzania Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old maps of Tanzania, Maps of the history of Tanzania, Wikimedia Commons
David Rumsey Map Collection : Tanzania
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Distribution of African Languages, map from Muturzikin
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Tanzania, Modern
Tanzania, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique ?l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 41. Tabora 1885, 41. Tabora 1892, 42. Zanzibar 1885, 42. Zanzibar 1892, 45. Livingstonia 1885, 45. Livingstonia 1888, 45. Livingstonia 1893, 46. Kiloua 1885, 46. Kiloua 1889 46. Kiloua 1893, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheet sheet 24 Nairobi (1968), 28 Dar es Salaam (1969), PCL, UTexas
Deutsch-Ostafrika 1912, 1919, Deutsche Schutzgebiete
Völkerkarte Deutsch-Ostafrika, n.d., Deutsch-Ostafrika, Regenverteilung n.d. (precipitation), GeoGreif
Deutsch-Ostafrika : Eisenbahnen, Bildarchiv der Deutschen Kolonialgesellschaft, Univ. Frankfurt
Tanganyika 1922, 1932, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary Bundesarchiv : Station Kilossa, Deutsch-Ostafrika
Parliamentary Debates Search Hansard for Tanganyika
Institutions Archives
Musea Museums in Tanzania, from International Council of African Museums
Libraries Libraries in Tanzania, from LibDex
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from Kbears
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Tanzania, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Tanzanian coins from Collections of Coins, bilingual Russian and English page; from World Coin Gallery

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Tanzania survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
general bibliographies pp.255-331 in L.S. Kurtz, Historical Dictionary of Tanzania, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1978 [G]
Tanzanian Studies Association : Works on Tanzania
Tanzania-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Simon's Zanzibar, Zanzibar Bibliography
serial publications British Library, Tanzania Official Publications
general bibliographies
Tanzania entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on Sub-Saharan Africa
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Tanzania Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories : Tanzania
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.17, pp.803-810 Article Eastern Africa : Tanzania. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.17
Specific Topics W.T.S. Gould, Regional Labour Migration Systems in East Africa : Continuity and Change, in : in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Historical Dictionaries Laura S. Kurtz, Historical Dictionary of Tanzania, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1978 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Tanganyika, 1963 pp.776-777, 1964 p.798 [G]
Tanzania, 1965 pp.791-792, 1966 pp.724-725, 1967 pp.716-717, 1968 pp.724-725, 1969 pp.712-713, 1970 pp.718-719, 1971 pp.698-699, 1972 p.656, 1973 pp.648-649, 1974 pp.647-648, 1975 pp.654-655, 1976 p.644, 1977 pp.645-646, 1978 pp.658-659, 1979 pp.651-652, 1980 pp.651-652, 1981 pp.646-647, 1982 pp.652-653, 1983 pp.647-648, 1984 pp.649-650, 1985 pp.477-478, 791, 1986 pp.473, 790, 1988 pp.400-401, 710, 1989 pp.401, 710, 1990 pp.418, 726, 1993 pp.373-374, 727, 1994 pp.371-372, 727, 1995 pp.481-482, 727 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Tanzania, 1970-1971 pp.446-452, 1975-1976 pp.492-497, 1978-1979 pp.1159-1163, 1980-1981 pp.1164-1168, 1983-1984 pp.1168-1172, 1984-1985 pp.1164-1168, 1985-1986 pp.1165-1169, 1987-1988 pp.1168-1172, 1988-1989 pp.1172-1176, 1989-1990 pp.1179-1183, 1990-1991 pp.1179-1183, 1991-1992 pp.1183-1187, 1992-1993 pp.1265-1269, 1993-1994 pp.1269-1273, 1994-1995 pp.1268-1272, 1995-1996 pp.1255-1259, 1996-1997 pp.1236-1240, 1997-1998 pp.1234-1238, 1998-1999 pp.1347-1352, 2000 pp.1513-1518, 2001 pp.1481-1486, 2002 pp.1536-1541, 2003 pp.1536-1541, 2004 pp.1555-1560, 2005 pp.1565-1570 [G]
Americana Annual Tanganyika, 1962 pp.749-750, 1963 pp.666-667, 1964 pp.648-649 [G]
Tanzania, 1965 pp.674-675, 1967 pp.667-668, 1968 pp.656-657, 1969 p.667, 1970 p.667, 1971 p.658, 1972 p.657, 1973 p.656, 1974 pp.575-576, 1976 pp.71-72, 531, 1989 p.518, 1990 pp.507-515, 1992 p.512, 1993 pp.522-523, 1994 p.523 [G]
Other History of Tanganyika, pp.9-11; Tanganyika pp.81-105, in : Year Book and Guide to East Africa 1963 [G]

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