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Literature on the History of East Africa
First posted on September 25th 2007, last revised on October 12th 2013

History of Zanzibar : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

until 1699 . 1699-1856 . 1856-1890 . 1890-1964 . Since 1964
See also History of the Swahili Coast, History of Tanzania

Visited by Arab traders since the 8th century, Islam had been introduced by the early 12th century. There was regular trade between the cities of the Swahili Coast, among which Zanzibar, and Arabia (Oman), Persia and India. The Shirazi Persians, according to legend descendants of Ali ben Sultan Hasan (975), migrated to Zanzibar and the Comores which they subjugated; over time, numerous Shirazi sultanates emerged on these islands.
Major trade commodities were ivory, rubber, Katanga copper and African slaves. Early in the 16th century Portugal came to dominate trade on the Indian Ocean. In 1503 they established a trading station. They were ousted by a coalition of Kilwa and the Sultanate of Oman in 1698.

The city of Zanzibar soon outshadowed the old city of Kilwa as the trade hub of the East African coast. From 1741, Zanzibar was a remote outpost of the Sultanate of Oman, an island of some economic importance, with an ethnically mixed population due to intermarriage of African, Arabian, Persian and Indian immigrants. The predominant religion was Islam. When there was a power struggle over succession in Oman in 1741, the Governor of Mombasa used the opportunity to virtually declare his independence; Mombasa was ruled by the Mazru'i Dynasty. In 1841, Sultan Sayyid Said of Oman (1804-1856) moved his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar. In 1856, his Sultanate was partitioned, son Majid inheriting the Sultanate of Zanzibar.

The Sultanate extended beyond the island of Zanzibar, including the islandof Pemba further north. The Sultan's suzerainty was recognized along the coast of nearby East Africa, up north to the Witu Region (modern Kenya).
Zanzibar was a trade center, slaves and ivory being the dominant commodities. The cultivation of Cloves had been introduced in 1818, and it became the major plantation crop on the island. Cornevin describes mid 19th century Zanzibar as the world's largest market for cloves, ivory and slaves. Zanzibar became the prime outlet of a growing network of caravans which opened up Africa's interior. Imported wares, mainly rifles and ammunition, provided the owners of caravans with the means to establish and expand theur business and base of power.
In 1873 the British Navy compelled Sultan Bargash to abolish slave trade).
The British have long played a role as advisers to the Sultan of Zanzibar. In 1877, Sultan Bargash, in communication with the Germans, refused a British protectorate; in 1880, Germany's chancellor Bismarck rejected a request by the Sultan of Zanzibar for a German protectorate. In 1886, Britain and Germany, both interested in the acquisition of colonies, agreed on partitioning the mainland territories of the Sultanate, ostensibly to suppress the slave trade the Sultan had nominally abolished and was unable to suppress, technically while respecting the Sultan's sovereignty. Britain would receive British East Africa (Kenya), while Germany would go on to establish German East Africa (Tanzania).
Zanzibar, i.e. the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, remained independent until 1890.

In 1886, Britain and Germany signed a treaty according to which the territory of the Sultanate of Zanzibar on the African continent was split up between the Germans and the British; the island of Zanzibar itself, with the island of Pemba was to remain independent.
In 1890, Germany and Britain signed another treaty. Germany recognized Zanzibar and Pemba as located within the British sphere of interest, and ceded German claims over Wituland, Benadir (Italian Somaliland) and Uganda in exchange for the much smaller and less populated island of Heligoland, located in the North Sea, as well as the Caprivi Strip linking German South West Africa with the Zambezi river.
The conception that Germany would have ceded Zanzibar to Britain in the treaty of 1890 is a widespread misconception. Germany never exercised a protectorate over Zanzibar and in 1890 only accepted the establishment of a British protectorate over that hitherto independent island sultanate.
The British treated Zanzibar as a protectorate. The dynasty of the Sultans continued (now limited to Zanzibar and Pemba), advised by the British consul general (until 1913), from then by the British resident.
In 1914 World War I broke out; British/South African troops stationed in Kenya and on Zanzibar and German troops stationed in German East Africa facing each other. The island of Mafia, part of German East Africa, was occupied by the British navy in 1914. Until 1916 the situation on the Kenyan/Tanganyikan border was a stalemate; then British troops penetrated into German East Africa; German commander von Lettow-Vorbeck switched to guerilla warfare, holding out until the war in Europe was over.
After World War I, German East Africa, now named Tanganyika, as a B mandate of the League of Nations, was granted to Britain. Little changed on Zanzibar, which continuously was treated as a British protectorate.
There was no British attempt to settle the island. The island, having lost it's economic hinterland in 1886 - the mainland ports of Mombasa (Kenya) and Daressalaam (Tanganyika) had taken over the port functions for these areas - now depended on it's main export product, cloves. In 1926, a Legislative Assembly was introduced which took over the function of the advisory council. The laws of Zanzibar (based on Islamic law, new decrees influenced by British law) were first codified in 1922.
British residents : 1930-1937 Sir R.S. Rankine, 1937-1940 Sir J.H. Hall. According to a census undertaken in 1931, the population of Zanzibar and Pemba combined was 250,000, of them 199,750 Africans, 34,000 Arabs, 16,000 Indians, 250 Europeans.
Until 1936 the Indian rupee, the Omani pice and Zanzibar currency board coins were simultaneously used. In 1936 Zanzibar joined the East African Currency Board, the standard coin being the East African Shilling. Zanzibar and Pemba continued to dominate world clove production.
After World War II, universal adult suffrage was introduced and political parties emerged, the ZNP and ZPPP representing the Arab population element and ASP the Africans. In 1963, first self-government was introduced, then independence declared. In 1963, Zanzibar was admitted to the United Nations.

Since 1964
A revolt in January 1964 overthrew the elected government. The republic was declared; Sultan Jamshid Ibn Abdallah went into exile. ZNP and ZPPP were dissolved. Many Arabs and Indians left the country; Zanzibar merged with Tanganyika, forming the new state of Tanzania. In 1967, the island of Zanzibar had 204,000 inhabitants, Pemba another 150,000. In 1984 Zanzibar adopted a constitution.

Historical atlas, Zanzibar Page .. Tanzania Page .. British East Africa Page

Students' Paper : Sung Ji Yun, History of Nutrition in East Africa (2012)

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
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Article : Zanzibar, from Wikipedia
Sansibar, from Deutsche Schutzgebiete, in German
Almanach de Saxe-Gotha, Sultanate of Zanzibar
Historical Col. Sykes, Notes on the Possessions of the Imaun of Muskat, on the Climate and Productions of Zanzibar, and on the Prospects of African Discovery from Mombas Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 23 1853, IA
R. Burton, Zanzibar, vol.1 1872, vol.2 1872, Burtoniana
Great Britain, Central Office of Information, Zanzibar, Island of Cloves 1963, IA
Links General Category : Zanzibar, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Zanzibar, from Wikipedia
Organizations Zanzibar Department of Archives, Museums and Antiquities
Historical Dictionaries East Africa Living Encyclopedia
Timelines Search Google News Archive for Zanzibar, click Timeline
Antor, Zanzibar Historical Events, timeline 1900-2000
Accounts of History Current Article : History of Zanzibar, from Wikipedia
History of Zanzibar, from Zanzinet
Specific Periods Islam and the Catholic Crusade Movement in Zanzibar, by Khatib M. Rajab al Zinjibari
Omani Arab Rule in Zanzibar
M. Walsh, Killing the King: The Demonization and Extermination of the Zanzibar Leopard 2007, Scribd
R.N. Lyne, Zanzibar in Contemporary Times: A Short History of the Southern East in the Nineteenth Century 1905, IA
Politics Political Institutions
Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar, from Wikipedia
United Republic of Tanzania, Ministry of Home Affairs, Background History of the Ministry of Home Affairs, scroll down to Zanzibar (history of the police in Z.)
A.S. Nassor et al., Power Sharing in Zanzibar: Democracy in Transition to Where?
J. Oloka-Onyango et al., Constitutionalism and Political Stability in Zanzibar : In Search of a New Vision 2003
Factors Influencing Politics
A. Sheriff, Race and Class in the Politics of Zanzibar, Africa Spectrum, Vol.36, No.3 (2001), pp.301-318
The Union
Government of Tanzania, Background history of the The Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Foreign Relations
William Loney RN - Background : The Frere Mission to Zanzibar
T. Vernet, La premiere traite française a Zanzibar : le journal de bord du vaisseau l'Esperance, 1774-1775 2011
R.J. Baillie, The Place of Zanzibar in British Policy in East Africa, 1870-1890 thesis McGill 1966
Global Nonviolent Action Database : Zanzibar workers general strike in Zanzibar City, Tanzania, 1948 is this scholarly ? Tanzania did not exist in 1948
Military Orders, Decorations and Medals : Zanzibar, from Jean Paul le Blanc
Article : Abushiri Revolt, Anglo-Zanzibar War, Zanzibar Revolution, from Wikipedia
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Zanzibar Massacre 1964
History and the Sock Merchant, The shortest War in History : Anglo-Zanzibar War of 1896
Economy & Finances Entry Zanzibar - see Tanzania, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor
Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Tanzania (on Zanzibar)
L. Simonin, Underground Life: or, Mines and miners, 1869, GB; p.256 lists Zanzibar as a coaling station
South Africa, Department of Mines and Industries, Report on trade conditions in British East Africa, Uganda and Zanzibar (1919), IA
Zanzibar's Commercial Empire, from East Africa, the Western Indian Ocean Basin, and the World Economy, 1760 to 1880 from College Board AP World History
E. Krain et al., The Natural and Economic History of the Coconut in Zanzibar, The Palm Enthusiast (Journal of the South African Palm Society) vol.19 no.2 pp.7-20 (2002)
Social History Slavery, Slave Trade
H.A. Fraser, The East African slave trade, and the measures proposed for its extinction : as viewed by residents in Zanzibar (1871), IA
A. Chappel, Zanzibar: A question of history, a question of Slavery 2010
Elate Africa, Abolition of the Slave Trade, entries 1822 to 1907 mostly on Zanzibar
H.S. Newman, Banani: the transition from slavery to freedom in Zanzibar and Pemba 1898, IA
E.F. Berlioux, The slave trade in Africa in 1872, principally carried on for the supply of Turkey, Egypt, Persia and Zanzibar 1872, IA
Fighting Malaria, Keeping Malaria out of Zanzibar 2008
A. Issa, Anti-Malaria campaigns in urban Zanzibar, 1913-1945 2009
Labor Organisation
S. Maghimbi, Cooperatives in Zanzibar: Decline and Renaissance, 2010
Global Nonviolent Action Database, Zanzibar workers general strike in Zanzibar City, Tanzania, 1948
Crime and Punishment
Private Islands Online : Life Sentence at Prison Island, 1893, Archipelago of Zanzibar
Ministry of Education, Zanzibar : The Zanzibar Case Study 1999 history of education on Z.
A. Ghazal, "The Other 'Andalus': The Omani Elite in Zanzibar and the Making of an Identity, 1880s-1930s. MIT-Electronic Journal of Middle East Studies 5 (Fall 2005): 43-58
H. Bhagat, Colonialism and Class Formation in Zanzibar, Utafiti 3/1 1978
J. Dyer, 'Unnatural and Ever Prejudicial': Constructions of Race and Colonial Hierarchies by British Observers in 19th Century Zanzibar, thesis Georgetown 2008
A. Sheriff, Race and Class in the Politics of Zanzibar, Africa Spectrum, Vol.36, No.3 (2001), pp.301-318
Ethnography G. Dale, The peoples of Zanzibar, their customs and religious beliefs (1920), IA
Religion Catholic Diocese of Zanzibar
Julius Nyerere, Father of the Nation, Nyerere against Islam in Zanzibar and Tanganyika
Agha Mehdi, Short history of Shias in Zanzibar
L. Declich, The Mundiris of Zanzibar: Three Generations of Ibadi Ulama' at the Sultan's Court (1800-1900) 2004
Frank Weston, Anglican Bishop of Zanzibar : Our Present Duty 1923, Project Canterbury
by Region J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : British Protectorate of Zanzibar Sultanate 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar 1968-07-08, Revolutionary Council of Zanzibar 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08,
Local History History, from Stone Town.org
B.A. Levy, The Maritime History Project : Seaports of the World, Zanzibar
E. Steere, Some Account of the Town of Zanzibar 1869, Wikisource
A. Juma, Unguja Ukuu on Zanzibar : An archaeological study of early urbanism, thesis Uppsala 2004
Institutions Structurae : Zanzibar City; search Lighthouse Explorer for Zanzibar
Zanzibar Revolutionary Government : Zanzibar Port Corporation, from Seaport Homestead
Cultural History A. Steere, A Handbook of the Swahili Language, as Spoken at Zanzibar (1890), IA
Biographies African Women Bibliographic Database
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
Project Canterbury, H.M. Smith : Frank (Weston), Bishop of Zanzibar 1926
Environmental History
Others Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel); scroll down for Zanzibar
Regnal Chronologies : Eastern Africa, scroll down for Zanzibar
Lists of Consuls W. Gilbert, Our Man in Zanzibar: Richard Waters, American Consul (1837-1845), thesis Wesleyan Univ. 2011
Statistical Data Population Figures from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer), scroll down for Pemba N, S, Zanzibar N, W, S
Election Results from African Elections Database, since 1957
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Online Newspapers
Individual Articles
Online Yearbooks - Zanzibar Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Zanzibar 1886, pp.757-758, IA, 1887, pp.783-786, IA, 1888, pp.787-790, IA, 1889, pp.797-800, IA, 1890, (Zanzibar omitted), IA, 1891, pp.192-195, IA, 1892, pp.198-202, IA, 1894, pp.199-202, IA, 1895, pp.199-202, IA, 1896, pp.199-202, IA, 1898, (Zanzibar omitted), IA, East Africa : Zanzibar 1899, pp.197-200, IA, 1903, pp.210-214, IA, 1913, pp.180-184, IA, 1919, pp.184-190, IA, 1921, pp.186-192, IA
Staatskalender British Online Archives, Zanzibar Blue Books 1913-1947
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
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Items on Zanzibar
License Plates, from License Plates around the World
Maritime Timetable Images, British India Steam Navigation Co.; P&O Line, Zanzibar listed as port of call
Archival Deposits British Provenience
Search National Archives (UK) for Zanzinar
Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Archive Records
Durham University, Special Collections Catalogue, Wylde Family, Papers of W.H. Wylde relating to general consular business, particularly with regard to the west and east coasts of Africa, various expeditions and slavery
Archives Hub UK, Papers of Robert Lambert Playfair and other members of the Playfair family Sir Robert Lambert Playfair (1828-1899). He moved to Zanzibar as Political Agent in 1862 where he remained until his retirement from the army as Lieutenant-Colonel and his appointment as Consul-General of Algeria in 1867.
National Archives (UK) India Office Records, Aitchison, C U (comp), A collection of treaties, engagements and sanads relating to India and neighbouring countries [revised and continued up to 1 June 1906]: Vol 13 Turkish Arabia, Aden and South coast of Arabia, Somaliland, R Shoa, and Zanzibar. Calcutta, 1909 IOR/V/27/271/46 1909
U.S. Provenience
National Archives (U.S.), Guide to Federal Records, Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State 84.3 Records of Consular Posts 1790-1963 : Tanzania (Zanzibar), 1834-1956
University of Chicago, Slave Trade, material relating to the slave trade presented to the British House of Commons in the nineteenth century
Duke University Libraries Rubenstein Collection, Guide to the Cataloged Collections in the Manuscript Department of the William R. Perkins Library, Duke University, Charles Harris Allen Papers 1893-1902; One letter from Lord Curzon, 1897, criticizes statements by Allen and Joseph A. Pease concerning the government's policy about slavery on Zanzibar.
Other Provenience
M. Walsh, The Lost Library, Books and Typescripts of Zanzibar , East African Notes and Records 2013
Ibadism: Thoughts and Practices of Ibadiyya, Zanzibar History, list of documents
Laws Search World Intellectual Property Organization website for Zanzibar
A. Imbert, Le droit abadhite chez les Musulmans de Zanzibar & de l'Afrique orientale (1903) in French, IA
United Republic of Tanzania, Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar Act, 1964, Apr. 25 1964, World Intellectual Property Organization
The Constitution of Zanzibar, 1984, World Intellectual Property Organization
Treaties UK Treaties Online, search for Zanzibar
Zanzibar, pp.1289- in vol.12 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1974, GB
Treaty Great Britain - Zanzibar, Sept. 20 1875, posted by P. Davis
Wikipedia Article : Moresby Treaty 1822, between Captain Moresby (UK) and the Sultan of Zanzibar; explanation, not the treaty text
Consular Reports Despatches from United States consuls in Zanzibar, Zanzibar, British Africa, 1836-1908 vol.2 1969, IA
Despatches from Dr. Seward, H. M. Acting Political Resident at Zanzibar, to Lord Stanley, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1866, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London 11, IA
J.F. Gjersø, Vice-Consul Haggard's Report of Aug. 25 1884, The Civilising Mission
Muscat : Island of Zanzibar, pp.367-368 in vol.3 of E. Flagg, Report on the Commercial Relations of the United States with All Foreign Nations, 1857, GB
Document Surveys Government Publications relating to Zanzibar, 1860-1963 1979
Document Collections B. Moritz, Sammlung arabischer Schriftstücke aus Zanzibar und Oman (1892) in German, IA
C.U. Aitchison, A Collection of treaties, engagements, and sunnuds, relating to India and neighbouring countries, vol.13 (1909), IA; Vol 13 Turkish Arabia, Aden and South coast of Arabia, Somaliland, R Shoa, and Zanzibar
Individual Documents UN Security Council, Resolutions, Resolution 184 : Admission of new Members to the UN: Zanzibar, 16 Dec 1963
UN General Assembly, Resolutions, 18th Session, Resolution 1975 : Admission of Zanzibar to Membership of the United Nations, 16 Dec. 1963
Church Missionary Society, The Slave Trade of East Africa, Christian Observer 1869, Wikisource
Historical Maps collections
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Distribution of African Languages, map from Muturzikin
Africa, Contemporary Map of 1821 by William C. Woodbridge, from Yale Univ. Library, has COAST OF ZANGUEBAR extend from Zambezi estuary to Juba River
Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Zanzibar, Modern
Zanzibar, Contemporary Dalrymple, Plan of the island of Zanzibar on the east coast of Africa from a french ms. 1784, Gallica
A. Bertrand, Plan de Zanzibar, 1846, Gallica
R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l echelle de 1:2 000 000 42. Zanzibar 1885, 42. Zanzibar 1892, Gallica
Zanzibar 1905, GeoGreif
Zanzibar 1906, 1907, 1932, Probert Encyclopedia
Deutsch-Ostafrika 1912, Deutsch-Ostafrika 1919, from Deutsche Schutzgebiete
Völkerkarte Deutsch-Ostafrika n.d., GeoGreif
Verwaltungs- und Verkehrskarte Deutsch-Ostafrika n.d., GeoGreif
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Zanzibar (city), Zanzibar (Sultanate), Pemba, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article Sansibar, in Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th ed. 1885-1892, in German, Retrobibliothek
Article Zanzibar, Suaheli Kysten, Pemba, Mombas, Quilon, from S. Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish
Article Zanzibar, from The New Student's Reference Work 1914, Wikisource
Religious Article : Zanzibar, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907
Economic Zanzibar Protectorate p.324 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Geographical Das Sultanat Sansibar, from Jaduland, text : Ritter, Länder- und Völkerkunde, 1904 (in German)
Ethnographical E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, The Earth and its Inhabitants Africa vol.4 : South and East Africa, 1890, IA : Zanzibar pp.301-336
E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, Africa and its Inhabitants vol.4 1899, IA; Zanzibar pp.326-336
Parliamentary Debates Search Hansard for Zanzibar
Travelogues R.F. Burton, Zanzibar: City, Island, and Coast (1872), IA
F.B. Pearce, Zanzibar : the island metropolis of eastern Africa (1920), IA
E. Younghusband, Glimpses of East Africa and Zanzibar (1910), IA
R.D. Payne, In Zanzibar, 1925, IA
Memoirs Memoirs of an Arabian Princess from Zanzibar. Emily Ruete born Sayyida, Princess of Zanzibar and Oman, Princeton (1888) : Markus Wiener 2000 [G]; 1888 English edition online at IA
G.L. Sulivan, Dhow chasing in Zanzibar waters and on the eastern coast of Africa. Narrative of five years' experiences in the suppression of the slave trade (1873), IA
Zanzibar and East Africa 1893, pp.279-350 in vol.1 of R. Rodd, Social and Diplomatic Memories 1922, IA
Institutions Archives Zanzibar National Archives
Musea The Palace Museum, from Zanzibar Web
Libraries The Zanzibar Museum, from Zanzibar Web
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; pre-1890 flag, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Zanzibar, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Coin Catalogue of Zanzibar, from Numismaticon
Coins of Zanzibar, from Coins of the World; Search Coin Archives for Zanzibar
Stamps Rare Zanzibar Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Zanzibar Stamps 1895-1926, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography, search for Zanzibar; Search UK National Archive Online Library for Zanzibar
on Zanzibar survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies
specialist bibliographies
serial publications
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica; Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek
International Boundary Studies
on Zanzibar Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Universitätsbibliothek, Sammlungen, click : Kolonialbibliothek
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories : Tanzania
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
General Accounts Memoirs of an Arabian Princess from Zanzibar. Emily Ruete born Sayyida, Princess of Zanzibar and Oman, Princeton (1888) : Markus Wiener 2000 [G]; 1888 English edition online at IA
Robert Nunez Lyne, Zanzibar in Contemporary Times (1905), NY : Negro Universities Press 1969 [G]
Specific Topics Les debuts de l'esclavagisme arabe de Zanzibar (1810-1850), from Robert Cornevin, Histoire du Congo, Paris 1970 pp.53-54; La Grande Offensive des Negriers de Zanzibar et de Khartoum (apres 1860); from ditto pp.73-77 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Laura S. Kurtz, Historical Dictionary of Tanzania, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1978 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Zanzibar, 1913 p.645 [G]
British East Africa, 1944 p.127, 1945 pp.124-125, 1946 pp.146-147, 1947 pp.149-150, 1948 pp.139-140, 1949 pp.118-120, 1950 pp.127-128, 1951 pp.124-125, 1952 pp.122-123, 1953 pp.123-124, 1954 pp.121-124, 1955 pp.181-183, 1956 pp.120-122, 1957 pp.180-182 [G]
Zanzibar, 1958 p.759, 1959 p.758, 1960 p.758, 1961 p.758, 1962 p.748, 1963 pp.861-862, 1964 pp.870-871 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Zanzibar, 1895 pp.199-202, 1898 pp.182-185, 1901 pp.198-201, 1905 pp.214-218, 1910 pp.175-179 [G]
British East Africa : Zanzibar , 1919 pp.184-190, 1924 pp.193-198, 1925 pp.197-202, 1926 pp.201-206, 1928 pp.199-204, 1929 pp.200-205, 1932 pp.203-208, 1937 pp.223-227 [G]
Zanzibar, 1943 pp.214-219, 1970-1971 pp.450-452, 1975-1976 pp.496-498 [G]
Americana Annual Zanzibar, 1927 p.904, 1928 p.836, 1930 p.830, 1931 p.814, 1932 p.780, 1933 pp.817-818, 1934 pp.650-651, 1935 pp.785-786, 1936 pp.799-800, 1937 p.765, 1938 p.764, 1939 p.837, 1940 pp.846-847 [G]
British East Africa, 1930 pp.129-131, 1931 pp.125-126 [G]
Zanzibar, 1943 pp.859-860, 1944 pp.808 [G]
British East Africa, 1945 p.115; Zanzibar Protectorate p.816 (on events of 1944) [G]
British East Africa, 1946 pp.120-123, 1947 pp.98-100, 1957 pp.102-104, 1961 pp.93-96, 1962 pp.91-94 [G]
Zanzibar, 1963 p.753, 1964 pp.732-733 [G]
Other Zanzibar, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.926-927 [G]
East Africa - Zanzibar, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1894 p.246 [G]
South and East African Year Book and Guide, 49th edition 1949 pp.764, 852-856 [G]
History of Zanzibar, pp.12-13; Zanzibar pp.106-113, in : Year Book and Guide to East Africa 1963 [G]

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