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Literature on the History of East Asia
Gobi Region Core China
First posted on January 13th 2014

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Introduction . Prehistory . 206 BCE-552 CE . 552-907 . 907-1206 . 1206-1368 . 1368-1691 . 1691-1800 . 1800-1911 . 1911-1949 . since 1949

The Northeast Asia is a geographic region, here understood as comprising of Northeast China (the provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaodong), the territory on the Amur and Ussuri Russia annexed in 1858 and 1868 (Outer Manchuria) and the Korean Peninsula.

Northeast Asia is a region where ideological conflict (North versus South Korea), differing views over recent common history (China, the Koreas versus Japan over the perception of Japanese rule over Korea and parts of China 1905-1945) and territorial disputes affect the way history is viewed in these countries.
Chinese historiography has long differentiated between the Han Chinese and other ethnic groups, has viewed Han Chinese history as Chinese history, regarded Yuan and Qing as foreign Barbarians who suppressed China. The PRC has adopted a different definition of the Chinese nation, being composed of the Han Chinese and all the minorities living on Chinese territory.
The geographical terms used in Western texts on Northeast Asia were shaped in the 13th century, China deriving from the Jin Dynasty which ruled Northern China 1115-1234, Korea from Goryeo (which ruled most of Korea from 936 to 1392). Manchuria long was known to the West as being part of Eastern Tartary; the term Manchuria became commonly used in the 19th century.
China in the 20th century developed a historical terminology in defiance of foreign intrusions of Qing territory; for example, the PRC rejects usage of the term Manchuria, prefering the term Northeast China instead.
In English language texts, Korean historians apply the term Korean as including precedessor states such Silla, Baekje, Goguryeo and Balhae; they also apply the term China/Chinese as refering to Han Chinese, not to the PRC definition of the Chinese nation.

By the onset of the 4th millennium BCE, millet was cultivated in suitable parts of Manchuria and Korea; rice was cultivated in southern parts of Korea from the late 3rd millennium BCE. During the Upper Xiajiadian culture (S. Manchuria) 1200-600 BCE, bronze was used in sufficient quantity and quality to justify the statement the application of the term 'Bronze Age'.

600-108 BCE
Korean and Chinese sources mention Gojoseon as the oldest kingdom in the region. A Korean source gives 2333 BCE as the year of its establishment; a Chinese source associates its foundation with a Chinese prince of the 12th century BCE; both sources were compiled much later and are to be regarded as part of mythology requiring the interpretation of experts. First contemporary (Chinese) sources refer to Gojoseon in the 7th century BCE.
In the 4th century BCE, the Byunhan Confederation is recorded, covering the southern parts of Korea; it is the predecessor of Baekje, Silla and the Gaya Confederacy. In the 2nd century BCE, the state of Buyeo was established in central Manchuria; Goguryeo and Baekje later claimed to be its successors.

108 BCE-668 CE
In 108 BCE, Han conquered Wiman Joseon and established commanderies on the Korean peninsula, the most importang being Lelang. Following the fall of Han in 220 CE, control over the remaining commanderies in Southern Manchuria and Korea was exercised by Cao Wei (until 265), then by Jin, until the last commandery, Lelang, was conquered by Goguryeo in 313.
Western Manchuria was controlled by the proto-Mongol Donghu or Xianbei, Shamanist pastoral nomads. The Tungusic Yemaek inhabited S. and the N. Korean peninsula. The Tungusic Jurchen inhabited E. Manchuria.. Sources mention other groups sharing the environment; the formation of early states like Buyeo, Goguryeo and Baekje is associated with the Yemaek.
At the beginning of this era there were numerous polities on the Korean peninsula and in Manchuria. Out of them emerged the Kingdoms of Buyeo (C. Manchuria, 2nd century BCE-494 CE), Goguryeo (S. Manchuria extending into N. Korea, 37 BCE-668 CE), Baekje (SW Korea, 18 BCE-660 CE) and Silla (SE Korea, 57 BCE-892 CE), the Gaya Confederacy (42-562 CE) and states (polities which did not evolve into kingdoms) such as Okjeo (2nd century BCE-5th century CE).
The period is characterized by the elimination of Chinese sovereignty from the area, by a process in which smaller states were absorbed by stronger ones, and by Sinification (a.o. by introducing Buddhism in its Chinese adaptation, introduced in Goguryeo from 372, in Baekje from 384, in Silla from the late 4th century onward; by the 6th century it had established firm roots). Written Chinese became a lingua franca in Eastern Asia; on the Korean peninsula, Idu, a Korean interpretation of Chinese script, emerged.

Silla, allied with Tang, in 660 conquered Baekje, in 668 Southern Goguryeo; Korean historians refer to the period from 668 to 892 as Unified Silla.
In the Manchurian parts of Goguryeo and the Northeast of Korea, in 668 a successor state named Great Jin was established, which in 698 was renamed Balhae (in Chinese called Bohai); Balhae controlled Southern and Eastern Manchuria. King Mun of (737-793) Balhae established diplomatic relations with Tang; i.e. he formally recognized the Tang Emperor as his sovereign. Balhae and Silla were traditional enemies.
Liaoning was directly controlled by Tang, until it got lost to the Khitan in the 8th century; thus Balhae was severed from direct contact with Tang. In the late 9th and the early 10th century, first Unified Silla (892) and then Tang (907) disintegrated.

The Khitan polity in Manchuria in 907 proclaimed itself to be the Liao Dynasty. In in a series of campaigns, Liao conquered Balhae (Bohai; by 926) In the early 11th century, Liao established de facto control of Northern China (then under the Song Dynasty). In 1127 the Liao Dynasty was overthrown and replaced by the Jin Dynasty (the Jurchen), originating from Northeastern Manchuria.
In 918 Goryeo (until 1392) succeeded Hugoguryeo (Taebong); by 936 it hat conquered Hubaekje and Husilla, and unified most of the Korean peninsula (stretches of Northeastern Korea were controlled by the Jurchen). In 1105, Goryeo annexed Tamna (Jejudo). Gukjagam, a national institution where the Confucian classics were taught, was established in 992. The dynasty promoted Seon Buddhism.
During the Goryeo Dynasty, Gugyeol was used, a Chinese based script which included Korean language words to which Chinese characters had been allocated.

The Mongol Empire was established by Genghis Khan in 1206 and rapidly conquered its neighbours, in genocidal warfare. The Mongols established direct control over Manchuria. Following a series of Mongol invasions, Goryeo in 1259 accepted the status of being a Mongol vassall (since 1271 Yuan vassall). Both Yuan and Goryeo favored Buddhism.

In 1368 the Yuan were ousted from China by the Ming. The Ming established control of southern and eastern Manchuria.
In 1392 a military expedition sent by Goryeo (Korea) against Ming turned around, ousted the King of Goryeo and established the new Joseon Dynasty; with a change in dynasties came a change in allegiances; while Goryeo had recognized Yuan, Joseon was to recognize Ming. The capital was moved from Kaesong to Seoul. The Joseon dynasty introduced Neo-Confucianism as official philosophy, confiscated the land of Buddhist monasteries.
From 1592 to 1598, Japanese forces invaded Joseon; with the aid of Ming, the invaders were defeated.

In 1636, Nurhaci proclaimed the Qing Dynasty; in 1644 the Qing occupied Beijing; by the 1660es they were in control of mainland Han China. Russian explorers had reached the Pacific in 1636; Russia and Qing China signed the treaties of Nerchinsk 1689 and Kiakhta 1727 in which borders between either powers' spheres of interest were fixed. Manchuria was treated as an area off-limits to Han Chinese.
Following the Second Manchu Invasion of Korea 1636, Joseon switched its allegiance from Ming to Qing.
In tribute trade with China, Koreans acquired western books (translated into Chinese by Jesuits in China). These books caused the emergence of the movement of Silhak (= western learning) scholars (late 17th into the 19th century). In the late 18th century a community of Koreans who had accepted Christianity based on the reading of Chinese language Christian books emerged; in the early 19th century, Christians suffered persecution.
In 1858, China opened the port of Newchwang (Manchuria, present-day Yingkou) to foreign trade.

In 1860 the Qing administration, just having been defeated by an Anglo-French alliance in the Second Opium War (1856-1860), having been coerced into ceding Outer Manchuria to Russia in 1858/1860 and facing the Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864), began a policy of controlled modernization. Part of that policy was to open up Manchuria (hitherto a no-go area for Han Chinese) to the settlement of Han Chinese (mostly from Shandong Province).
Joseon (Korea) under the Daewongun (1864-1874) had pursued a strict policy of isolation. Following his retirement, Joseon entered into treaties with foreign nations (Japan 1876, U.S. 1880, Germany and Britain 1883).
Japan, which had been coerced to give up its policy of isolation in 1854, pursued a policy of rapid modernization and aimed for territorial expansion, viewing Korea as a potential object of acquisition. In the First Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895, Japan defeated China; China had to recognize Korean independence, to cede Taiwan and to accept the establishment of a Japanese sphere of influence in Southern Manchuria. In 1897 the King of Joseon declared the country to be the Empire of Taehan (i.e. to be an equal of China, thus independent). In 1897/1898, Germany, France and Russia (East Asiatic Triple Alliance) exerted pressure on Japan, to give up its claim over Southern Manchuria or to face the three powers in war. The Japanese attempt to abduct the king of Korea and his son also failed; they managed to escape to the Russian Embassy.
Britain since 1860 had regarded Qing China as its ally, had hoped that Qing China could prevent further Russian territorial expansion. China's defeat by Japan in 1895, its lease of Port Arthur (modern Dalian) to Russia in 1898 and the Boxer Rebellion 1898-1900 had destroyed that illusion. Britain, with its superior navy could check any individual polical rival overseas, but the East Asiatic Triple Alliance had outmanoeuvred British diplomacy. So in 1902 Britain signed a treaty of alliance with Japan. In 1904 Japan went to war with Russia.

In 1905 Japan had defeated Russia (Russo-Japanese War). Japan established a (coerced) protectorate over Korea; Port Arthur became a Japanese leased territory named Kwangtung; the southern half of Manchuria became a Japanese sphere of interest; Northern Manchuria remained Russian sphere of interest.
In 1911 the Chinese Revolution ended the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). While several new governments claimed sovereignty over the territory of Qing China, in effect many regions were under the control of regional strongmen (warlords); the warlord in control of Manchuria 1916-1928 was Zhang Zuolin (Chang Tso Lin, who was supported by the Japanese).
Following the October Revolution 1917, the Russian Empire became the stage of the Russian Civil War. The Russian Far East was a stronghold of the Whites; when hopes for a white victory were no longer realistic, the (white) Far Eastern Republic was established (1920-1922, with Japanese support). By 1922 the Bolzheviks had gained control of the region.
In 1910 Japan converted Korea from protectorate into colony; in 1919 popular resistance in Korea was suppressed by force. The Nationalist Chinese Government in 1928 had ousted Zhang Zuolin and established control over Manchuria. In 1932 Japan occupied Manchuria and established the Empire of Manchukuo, with the last Qing Emperor Pu Yi becoming the first (and only) Emperor of Manchukuo. In fact the Japanese ran the administration of Manchukuo. Manchukuo was regarded "a frontier in Asia", a land which could accept large numbers of immigrants, a land the economy of which could be developed.
In 1934 within the Russian SFSR, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Birobidjan) was established. In 1937 a full-scale war between Japanand China broke out which was to last until 1945 (fought outside of Northeast Asia); a war between Japan and the U.S.S.R. 1939 was treated as a low-key event by both countries and quickly terminated.

since 1945
In 1945 Japan surrendered; the territory held by Japan on the Asian mainland, according to the agreement agreed upon at the Postdam Conference (Aug. 1945) was divided into a Soviet zone (Manchuria and North Korea) and a U.S. Zone (South Korea) for the purpose of disarming Japanese troops and repatriating the Japanese military and civilian population. Both occupants introduced their respective political systems; the Cold War began, the wartime natural alliance of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. turned into ideological conflict. In 1948 both Koreas were released into independence, themselves engaged in the same ideological conflict and both claiming to represent the entire Korean nation; from 1950 to 1953 they fought the Korean War, which ended in the status quo ante.
In 1945 Sovietr troops occupied Manchuria and terminated the Empire of Manchukuo. In 1945 the U.S.S.R. withdrew her troops from Manchuria. In 1949 the Chinese Civil War ended, the People's Republic of China was declared. Late in 1950 the PR China entered the Korean War; Northeast China (Manchuria) became a base of operations; the territory long remained under military administration. In 1968, on the border of Northeast China and the USSR, Chinese and Soviet troops shot at each other.
Northeast China was affected by the stages of political-economic history the PR China went through. The region saw a further influx of Han Chinese immigrants; in the area with a concentration of an ethnic Korean population (Yanbian), now the ethnic Koreans are a minority. The PR China granted its ethnic minorities cultural autonomy. Economic modernization reached Northeast China late, because of the region's history of military administration.
As the U.S.S.R. only declared war on Japan on September 1st 1945, the Russian Far East had been little affected by World War II. The end of Stalinism in 1956, the disintegration of the U.S.S.R. in 1991 and the subsequent liberalization of the economy did affect the region.

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Historiography . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Archaeology . Others
Country Profiles Modern W.T. Hong, Tripolar Interaction: Mongolian Steppe, Manchuria and Mainland China. The Tripolar Framework of Analysis, East Asian History: A Korean Perspective, vol.1 no.4 2005 pp.1-3
Historical C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), IA (includes data of 1913)
Links Virtual Library : Internet Guide for Chinese Studies (IGCS)
Virtual Library : South Korea, North Korea
Focus on Northeast Asia
International The International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History (ICEAACH)
Society for East Asian Archaeology
International Society for the History of East Asian Science, Technology and Medicine
Association for East Asian Environmental History
Center for the Study of Eurasian Nomads
Baikal-Hokkaido Archaeology Project
Russo-Japanese War Research Society
Institute for Corean-American Studies
Regional Northeast Asian History Foundation, Seoul
National Focus
Northeast China Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute for Archaeology, IA CASS
Research Center for Frontier Archaeology and Center for Foreign Archaeology
Russian Far East Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern Branch, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of Far-East
Korea Korean Archaeological Society, Wikipedia
Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea
Korean Historical Association, (no English version of the website)
Association for Korean Historical Studies, (no English version of the website)
Society for Korean Ancient History, (no English version of the website)
Royal Asiatic Society, Korea Branch
Harvard University, Early Korea Project
The Academy of Korean Studies
Historical Dictionary U. Theobald, China Knowledge
Thesaurus of Korean Historical Terms, from NIKH
B. Koto, A catalogue of the Romanized geographical names of Korea 1903, IA
F.P. Smith, A vocabulary of proper names, in Chinese and English, of places, persons, tribes, and sects, in China, Japan, Corea, Annam, Siam, Burmah, the Straits and adjacent countries 1870, IA
K-Developedia, Overview of Korea's development experience
Accounts of History General W.T. Hong, East Asian History, A Tripolar Approach, (2006) rev. ed. 2012; the three poles being Mainland [i.e. Han] China, the Mongolian Steppe and a Manchuria that includes the lands beyond Amur and Ussuri, as well as the Korean peninsula
Specific Periods
Until 600 BCE
Paleolithic P.J. Brantingham, Astride the Movius Line: Late Pleistocene lithic technological variability in Northeast Asia, thesis Univ. of Arizona 1999
Neolithic J.V. Kuzmin, Long-Distance Obsidian Transport in Prehistoric Northeast Asia, Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 32 (2012): pp.1-5
N.N. Dikov, Early Cultures of Northeastern Asia, (1979) 2004 Northeastern Asia here defined as Kamchatka, Okhotsk and adjacent regions
J. Whitman, Northeast Asian Linguistic Ecology and the Advent of Rice Agriculture in Korea and Japan, Rice vol.1 no.1 2008, unpaginated
600 BCE-600 CE W.T. Hong, The Ancient Yan and the Ye-maek Chosun. The Xianbei-Donghu and the Ye-Maek Tungus , East Asian History: A Korean Perspective vol.1. no.11. 2005
H.G. Kim, Defenders and Conquerors: The Rhetoric of Royal Power in Korean Inscriptions from the Fifth to Seventh Centuries, Cross Currents 2 2012
since 1914
N.E. Asian Historiography J.B. Duncan, Patterns of Regional Integration in Pre-modern East Asia , n.d.
Goguryeo Controversy K.C. Park, History of Koguryo and China's Northeast Asian Project, International Journal of Korean History vol.6 2004 pp.1-28
Article : Goguryeo Controversies, Wikipedia
A. Logie, Was Goguryeo (Gaogouli) Korean or Chinese? - draft thoughts, Koreanology 2013
L.A. Petrov, Restoring the Glorious Past: North Korean Juche Historiography and Goguryeo, The Review of Korean Studies journal, vol.7, No.3 (September 2004), pp.231-252
P.H. Gries, The Koguryo Controversy, National Identity, and Sino-Korean Relations Today, East Asia Winter 2005 vol.22 no.4 pp.3-17
P.J. Chua, The Making of China's Koguryo: Political Motivations and Cultural Strategies in The Borderlands, thesis NUS 2011
Parhae Controversy Y.L. Ju, Book Reviews : Recent Chinese Publications on Parhae (Bohai in Chinese), Cahiers d'Extreme-Asie 1991 vol.6 no.6 pp.311-313, Persee reviewed are Wang 1984, Li 1987, Yang 1988
Balhae Korea a politically biased website launched in 2007 claiming Balhae (Parhae, Bohai) to be not part of Chinese, and [exclusively ?] to be part of Korean history. Frequent reference to statements of Korean scholars; critical of Chinese publications. No information about those responsible for "Balhae Korea" is given; neither are Korean and Chinese language versions of the website available.
Y.J. Jung (Yanbian Univ., NE China), China's Perspective on Balhae History, Journal of Northeast Asian History vol.4, no.2 (Dec 2007) pp.157-171; on Jan. 16 2014 article not available through index of Journal of Northeast Asian History (practically all other articles are); found it when googling (http://contents.nahf.or.kr/directory/downloadItemFile.do%3FfileName%3Djn_006_0070.pdf%26levelld%3jn_006_0070); if this does not work, try Internet Archive Wayback Machine
North Korean Historiography L.A. Petrov, Restoring the Glorious Past: Juch'e in Korean Historiography, 2003
L.A. Petrov, North Korean Historiography in Crisis, 2001
L.A. Petrov, North Korean Historians at the Helm of Power, 2002
L.A. Petrov, Turning Historians into Party Scholar-bureaucrats: North Korean Historiography in 1955-1958, East Asian History, No.31 (June 2006) pp.101-124
L.A. Petrov, Foreign and Traditional Influences in the Historiography of Paek Nam-un, Proceedings of the 12th New Zealand International Conference on Asian Studies, 1997, pp.203-217
North Korean Studies (Russia), North Korean Historiography and Japan
Other P. Rethmann, The Social Uses of History in the Russian Far East, Arctic Anthropology vol.39 no.1/2 2002 pp.122-133
A. Jones, Nationalizing the Past: Korea in Chinese History, Journal of Northeast Asian History 6/2 2009 pp.103-139
A. Lankov, Interpreting North Korean history, Asia Times Aug. 18 2005
Y.S. Bae, Analyzing the Two Different Nationalisms in the Two Koreas, thesis Brandeis 2013
C.F. Kim, 5.000 Years of History. Archaeology, Nationalism, and Politics in Korea, thesis Brown 2013
R. Breuker, Toppling the Tiger, Devouring the Dragon: Alternative Readings of Korean History through the Muhyop Genre, Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies vol.9 no.2 2009 pp.243-266
M.R. Roellinghoff, Insular Thinking: Ideology and Memory in the Japan-China/Japan-Korea Maritime Territorial Disputes, thesis Toronto 2013
A. Zerger Lindsay, L'identite mandchoue et son role dans la construction identitaire chinoise : etude historiographique, thesis Montreal 2010
Harvard University Press, Book Introduction : H.I. Pai, Constructing "Korean" Origins : A Critical Review of Archaeology, Historiography, and Racial Myth in Korean State-Formation Theories 2000
Administration / Politics Article : Korean Ethnic Nationalism, Wikipedia
Military Y.K. Kim-Renaud et al. (ed.), The Military and South Korean Society 2006
The Manchurian Border Disputes 1938-1939, from World War II Multimedia Database
F. Palmer, With Kuroki in Manchuria (1904), IA
M. Baring, With the Russians in Manchuria (1905), IA
L.L. Seaman, From Tokyo through Manchuria with the Japanese (1905), IA
L.G.F. Brooke, An Eye-Witness in Manchuria (1905), IA
J. Fox, Following the Sun-Flag : A Vain Pursuit through Manchuria (1905), IA
Article : War Crimes in Manchukuo, from Wikipedia
F. Marx, The Pacific and the Amoor : naval, military, and diplomatic operations from 1855 to 1861, 1861
Economy & Finances
Economic History, General EH Net Encyclopedia : M.S. Cha, The Economic History of Korea, 2008
Economic History of Chosen, Compiled in commemoration of the decennial of the Bank of Chosen. 1921, RASKB
Specific Periods Tim Wright, The Impact of the 1930s Depression in Manchuria, IEHC 2006
Silvio Miyazaki, The Historical Evolution of the Japanese Investment Flows to East Asia pre World War II, IEHC 2006
Chosen Ginko, Economic Outlines of Chosen and Manchuria (1918), IA
ch.2 : Economic Growth in South Korea since World War II, pp.6-24 in C.R. Franck et al., Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development: South Korea, 1975
J.M. Yang et al., Understanding the Economic Development of Korea from a Co-Evolutionary Perspective 2006
V. Tikhonov, Market economy and exchange in ancient Korea , Frog in a Well 2005
Lee, Chung H., Economic Stagnation in the Late Yi Dynasty. An Institutional Account (2007)
Trade J.W. Hyun, Gift Exchange among States in East Asia during the Eleventh Century, thesis Univ. of Washington 2013
Mining S. Li, Japan Looted Gold Resources in Northeast China during World War II, Global Journal of Human Social Science vol.10 no.4 2010 pp.77-79
N. Murakushi, The transfer of coal-mining technology from Japan to Manchuria and manpower problems : focusing on the development of the Fushun Coal Mines, Japanese Experience of the UNU Human and Social Development Programme series 47 1981
Agriculture J.R. Stewart, The New Stress on Agriculture in Manchuria, pp.135-140 in Far Eastern Review vol.8 no.12 Jun. 7 1939, jstor
K. McDowell, Japan in Manchuria: Agricultural Emigration in the Japanese Empire, 1932-1945, Eras Journal 2008
Memorandum on wild silkworm culture in South-eastern Manchuria 1908, IA
M. Yukawa, Rice Cultivation in Manchuria between 1913 and 1945; Agricultural Corporation of South Manchuria Railways Company, text in Chinese/Japanese/Korean, English abstract, n.d.
Textile Industry M.Y. Suh, Traditional Textile Materials of Baekje Kingdom, Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings 2008
Social History Y.K. Kim-Renaud et al. (ed.), Korean Education, 2005
N.G. Gee, The educational directory for China; an account of the various schools and colleges connected with Protestant missions (1905), IA pp.79-80, 122
K.C. Choi, Isotopic Evidence for Diet in the Middle Chulmun Period. A Case Study from the Tongsamdong Shell Midden, Korea, academia.edu
H. Dong, Kinship matters : long-term mortality consequences of childhood migration, historical evidence from Northeast China, 1792-1909, thesis Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology 2012
H.W. Kang, The development of the Korean ruling class from late Silla to early Koryo, thesis Univ. of Washington 1964
K. McDowell, Japan in Manchuria: Agricultural Emigration in the Japanese Empire, 1932-1945, Eras Journal 2008
Education in the Joseon Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Ethnography J. Janhunen, The Languages of Manchuria in Today's China, Northern Minority Languages: Problems of Survival. SENRI Etymological Studies 44 1997, pp.123-146
O. Alexeeva, Chinese Migration in the Russian Far East. A Historical and Sociodemographic Analysis, China Perspectives 2008 3 pp.20-32
S. Cipko, Ukrainians in Manchuria, China: A Concise Historical Survey, Past Impeifect, vol.1 1992 pp.155-173
N. Igaoue, Encounter with Russians under Japanese Agricultural Colonization Policy in "Manchukuo" n.d.
H. Chase, The status of the Manchu language in the early Ch'ing, thesis Univ. of Washington 1979
G. Jacques, The Khitan Language and Script, academia.edu
A. Vovin, Khitan-Langjun inscription, academia.edu
Article : Nivkh People, Wikipedia
Article : Ulch People, Wikipedia
Article : Manchu People, Wikipedia
Articles Daur, Ewenki, Hezhe, Mongols, Xibe, from Ethnic China
Language of the Mantchew Tartars, pp.142-165 in J.B. Grosier, A general description of China, 1788, GB
C.D. Garcia, Horsemen from the Edge of Empire: The Rise of the Jurchen Coalition, thesis Univ. of Washington 2012
G.J. Cha, The Lives of the Liao (907-1125) Aristocratic Women, thesis Univ. of Arizona 2005
J. Lu, Liao Ceramics between 907 AD and 1125 AD in Northern China, thesis Tübingen 2008
S.C. Lai, Xiong Tingbi's (1569-1625) strategy in defending Liaodong against the Jurchen invasion, thesis Hong Kong 1991
J.C. Fang, The influence on Manchu women of changes in social institutions and the sinification of Manchu Society, thesis Oregon State 1996
Religion General
Shamanist Article : Korean Shamanism, Wikipedia
Buddhism R.J. Dziwenka, 'The Last Light of Indian Buddhism' - The Monk Zhikong in 14th Century China and Korea, thesis Univ. of Arizona 2010
S.W. Koo, Introduction of Buddhism to Korea, an Overview, n.d.
F. Starr, Korean Buddhism, The Journal of Race Development vol.9 no.1 1918 pp.71-84, jstor
S. Keel, Buddhism and Political Power in Korean History, pp.9-25 in The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies vol.1 1978
S.T. Cho, Nationalism and Identity of the 'Jogye Oder of Korean Buddhism': Reconsidering the Historiography of Modern Korean Buddhism, draft 2008
V. Tikhonov, Violent Buddhism - Korean Buddhists and the Pacific War, 1937-1945 2008
Won Buddhism.org, The History of Wonbulgyo (Won Buddhism
S.K. Son, A Brief History of the Esoteric Buddhism in Korea, Bulletin of Tibetology pp.25-26
Taoism Article : Taoism in Korea, Wikipedia
R. Catabia, Daoism in the Korean Mountains
S.F. Wang, The influence of Taoism on Korean culture
Dao Info : Daoist Studies in Korea
Dao Info : Temples and Sacred Places, Northeastern China
Confucianism Article : Korean Confucianism, Wikipedia
K.P. Yang et al., An Outline History of Korean Confucianism: Part I: The Early Period and Yi Factionalism , The Journal of Asian Studies vol.18 no.1 Nov. 1958, jstor
Islam Article : Islam in Korea, Wikipedia
Judaism I. Clurman et al., A Brief History of the Jews of Harbin. How a Manchurian Fishing Village Became a Railroad Town and a Haven for Jews, JewishGen Kehilalinks 2007
J. Goldstein et al., Detailed History of Harbin, Sino-Judaic Institute
Article : History of the Jews in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast , Wikipedia
YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, Birobidzhan
R.E. Knott, Birobidjan - The Story Of The Jewish Autonomous Province Of South East Siberia, thesis Univ. of Washington 1953
Jewish Autonomous Region, History
China, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project (Dalian, Harbin)
Orthodox Chr. Orthodox Wiki, Diocese of Harbin
Korean Orthodox Church, Historical Background
International Organizarion for Migration, Resettlement of Russian Old Believers (from Hong Kong 1958; Manchuria had been one on the stations of their previous migration)
Catholic Chr. Dallet, Histoire de l'Eglise de Coree, vol.1 1874, IA, vol.2 1874, IA
Apostolic Prefecture of Baoqing (Heil.), Diocese of Fushun (Liaon.), Apostolic Administration of Harbin (Heil.), Apostolic Prefecture of Jiamusi (Heil.), Diocese of Jilin (Jil.), Diocese of Qiqihar (Heil.), Metropolitan Archdiocese of Shenyang (Liaon.), Diocese of Sipingjie, Diocese of Yanji (Jil.), Diocese of Yingkou, from GCatholic
Protestant Chr. M. Broomhall, The Chinese empire: a general & missionary survey (1907), IA
Th.J. Cochrane, Survey of the missionary occupation of China (1913), IA
M.N. Trollope, The Church in Corea (1915), IA
Malcolm C. Fenwick, The Church of Christ in Corea (1911), IA
C.F. Bernheisel, The Apostolic Church as reproduced in Korea 1912, IA
History of Regions
Administrative Division Provinces of China, from www.statoids.com; Prefectures of China, from www.statoids.com
Article : History of the Administrative Divisions of China before 1912, Wikipedia
Historic Regions
Chinese Frontier C.Y. Yuen, Eunuchs and the consolidation of the North-eastern frontier during the period of Yongle (1403-1424), thesis Hong Kong 2007
Historic State
Gojoseon (to 108 BC) Article : Gojoseon, Wikipedia
H.J. Song, The Formation of Gojoseon and Its Social Characteristics, The Review of Korean Studies vol.7 no.1 2004 pp.95-114
Northeast Asian History Foundation, Ancient History of Korea
Goguryeo (37 BC-668 AD) K.C. Park, History of Koguryo and China's Northeast Asian Project, International Journal of Korean History (Vol.6, Dec.2004) pp.1-28
Article : Goguryeo, Wikipedia
Northeast Asian History Foundation, History of Goguryeo
S.N. Kim, Koguryo: Kingdom or Empire?, Journal of Northeast Asian History vol 10-1 (Summer, 2013)
A. de Benedittis, A New Perspective on the Analysis of Koguryo Wall Paintings Iconography, The Journal of Northeast Asian History vol.8 no.1 (Summer 2011) pp.123-145
Journal of Northeast Asian History, Special Issue on Koguryo's Foreign Relations, vol.4 no.1 Summer 2007
Article : Goguryeo Controversies, Wikipedia
A. Logie, Was Goguryeo (Gaogouli) Korean or Chinese? - draft thoughts, Koreanology 2013
F. Chen, Review on the Studies on the History of Gaogouli, Journal of Harbin University 2012-02
L.Y. Li, Research on the Religion of Gaogouli, poorly translated English abstract & ToC of thesis Northeast Normal Univ. 2008
H.B. Sutherland, Adaptation and Transmission in Early East Asian Funerary Arts: The Three Goguryeo Four Spirits Tombs in Ji'an, China, thesis UPenn 2009
Gaya Confederacy (42-532) Article : Gaya Confederacy, Wikipedia
Article : Mimana, Wikipedia
Northeast Asian History Foundation, The Theory of Imna Nihon-fu
D. Lay, Origins of the Samurai, n.d. Catawba College, Theatre Arts; uncritical view of "Japanese" Mimana
H.S. Kwon, A regional analysis of the Kaya polities in Korea: Chronology, economy, and sociopolitical interactions in systemic perspective, thesis Univ. of Illinois 1991
Silla B.W. Kang, The Role of Warfare in the Formation of the State in Korea: Historical and Archaeological Approaches, thesis UOregon 1995
Balhae (698-926) Article : Balhae, Wikipedia
Northeast Asian History Foundation, History of Balhae
Journal of Northeast Asian History, Special Issue on Balhae Kingdom, vol.4 no.2 Winter 2007
A. Logie, Review (Koreanology 2013) of B.J. Seo, History of the Balhae Empire: 34 pieces of evidence that Balhae was the successor state to Goguryeo (in Korean), 2010
Book Introduction : Northeast Asian History Foundation, The History and Culture of Balhae 2007 (book in Korean; abstract and ToC here given in English, 2009); Engl. trsl. by J. Duncan published by Brill under the title "A New History of Parhae", 2012
A.A. Kim, Ritual and Diplomacy: The 200-Years Crisis in Relation between Parhae and Silla, CCSE Asian Culture and History vol.1 no.1 2010 pp.34-40; It seems, also published under the title "Relations between Bohai and Silla" in Acta Orientalia 64 3 2011 pp.345-356
C.S. Kim, Parhae's Maritime Routes to Japan in the Eighth Century, Seoul Journal of Korean Studies vol.23 no.1 (June 2010) pp.1-22
N. Ogata, A Study of the City Planning System of the Ancient Bohai State Using Satellite Photos, English Summary of a Japanese text, Jinbun Chiri, vol.52 no.2 2000 pp.129-148
N. Ogata, Shangjing Longquanfu, the Capital of the Bohai (Parhae) State, 2007
W.E. Henthorn, Some notes on Parhae, Transactions of the Korea Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society vol.37 no.2 pp.65-80
China Knowledge (U. Theobald) : Bohai
A. Kim, Bohai (Parhae) Studies in the Soviet Union from the 1920s to the 1970s, Bibliographical Survey
A.A. Kim, Archeological Studies of Bohai in Russia, Oriens Extremus vol.47 2008 pp.302-312
M. Weiers, Zentralasienforschung : Bohai 1998, in German; 1 page critical review of Reckel's Bohai, Aetas Manjurica 5
Modern Region
Amur-Ussuri Article : Outer Manchuria, Wikipedia
Article : Provisional Priamurye Government, Wikipedia
Article : Amur Oblast : History, Wikipedia
Article : Primorsky Krai : History, Wikipedia
Khabarovsk Krai, Historical Information
E.E. Oulashin, Nicholas N. Muraviev, conqueror of the black dragon, thesis Portland State 1971
Korea History of Korea, co-published by Radio Korea International of KBS and the National Institute for International Education Development under the Ministry of Education & Human Resources Development of Korea; posted by VANK
Korea in the Eye of the Tiger
J. Ross, History of Corea, Ancient and Modern (1891), IA
H.B. Hulbert, The History of Korea, vol.1, vol.2 (1905), IA
H.N. Allen , A Chronological Index : Some of the Chief Events in the Foreign Intercourse of Korea .. (1901), IA
Northeast China
T. Hara, Chinese policy in Manchuria, 1905-1911, with special reference to Japan, thesis Hong Kong 1971
P. Ho, Russian Expansion in the Far East: The Manchurian Crisis, 1900-1902, thesis Univ. of Arizona 1984
G. Telep, A passive aggressive power: the U.S. confronts Russia over Manchuria, 1898-1905 , thesis California State 2013
K. Shepherdson-Scott, Utopia/Dystopia: Japan's Image of the Manchurian Ideal, thesis Duke 2012
N. Lee, Commercialization, migration, and social mobility in China : the case of Manchuria in the 1930s, thesis Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology 2008
G.D. Byrd, General Ishii Shiro: His Legacy is that of Genius and Madman , thesis East Tennessee State 2005
J.K. Treiber, Mapping Manchuria : the Japanese production of knowledge in Manchukuo to 1945 , thesis Univ. of Hawaii 2004
Y. Jiang, State building, capitalism, and development: state-run industrial enterprises in Fengtian, 1920-1931, thesis Univ. of Minnesota 2010
A. Scherer, Japanese emigration to Manchuria : local activists and the making of the Village-Division Campaign, thesis Bochum 2006
L. Li, Manchuria, 1931-1936: a study of policies andpractices of the Japanese occupation, thesis Hong Kong 1965
C.W. Poon, The South Manchurian Railway and the Economic Developmentof Northeast China, thesis Hong Kong 2005
R.W. Myers, The Japanese economic development of Manchuria, 1932 to 1945, thesis Univ. of Washington 2009
Y.Q. Li, "Bandit Suppression" in Manchukuo (1932-1945), thesis Princeton 2012
W.S. Sewell, Japanese imperialism and civic construction in Manchuria, Changchun, 1905-1945, thesis UBC 2000
J.E. Weland, The Japanese Army in Manchuria: Covert Operations and the Roots of Kwantung Army Insubordination, thesis Univ. of Arizona 1977
A.R. Hall, Constructing a 'Manchurian' Identity: Japanese Education in Manchukuo, 1931-1945, thesis Pittsburgh 2004
X.Y. Liu, A State without Nationals:The Nationality Issue in Japan's Making of Manchukuo, thesis Washington Univ. of St. Louis 2011
S. Chen, Where Urban Migrants Met Rural Settlers: State Categories, Social Boundaries, and Wealth Stratification in Northeast China, 1815-1913, thesis Univ. of Michigan 2009
Q. Zhang, Civil justice in early twentieth-century Northeast China : Fengtian Province, 1900-1928, thesis McGill 2005
J. Carter, Buddhism, Resistance, and Collaboration in Manchuria, Journal of Global Buddhism 10 (2009): pp.193-216
R.B. Hall, The Geography of Manchuria , Annals of the American Academy of Social Science pp.278-292, jstor
A. Hosie, Manchuria, its People, Resources and Recent History (1901), IA
H.J. Whigham, Manchuria and Korea (1904), IA
South Manchuria Railway Company, Manchuria, Land of Opportunities (1922), IA
O. Lattimore, Manchuria, Cradle of Conflict (1932), IA
P.T. Etherton, Manchuria, the Cockpit of Asia (1932), IA
Japan's Economic Expansion into Manchuria and China in World War II, Part 1, Part 2, Bibliography, by James Graham
China's Loss of Sovereignty in Manchuria 1895-1914, Part 1, Part 2, Bibliography, by James Graham
W.T. Hong, What Part of Manchuria were the Han Chinese able to Rule, even intermittently ? The Willow Palisade (2005)
History of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, from Wikipedia
The Autonomous Korean Prefecture of Yanbian, from EABC
P.S. Dull, The Assassination of Chang Tso-Lin, The Far Eastern Quarterly vol.11 no.4 Aug. 1952 pp.453-463, jstor
A.G. Ulhicun et al., Manchuria from the Fall of the Yuan to the Rise of the Manchu State (1368-1636)
M.C. Elliott, The Limits of Tartary: Manchuria in Imperial and National Geographies, The Journal of Asian Studies, vol.59 no.3 2000 pp.603-646
Local History General A. Lisenko, Harbin - A Russian Enclave in Manchuria, 2006
Institutions Structurae : Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning
Lighthouse Depot
Culture General
Religious Art KDSSC : History of Korean Dance : Shaman Traditional Dance
Huntingdom Archive : History of Art : Pre-Buddhist and Buddhist Art of Korea
Buddhist Studies : Korean Buddhist Art
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Korean Buddhist Sculpture (5th-9th century) 2002
KDSSC : History of Korean Dance : Buddhist Dance
Textile Art Article : Cheongsam, Wikipedia
Pottery S.U. Han, The Development, Production, and Distribution of Goryeo Celadon (Abstract), from Ambient Green Flow. The Emergence and Rise of East Asian Celadon, Exhibition, Taiwan 2011-2012
Court Art KDSSC : History of Korean Dance : Court Dances
Folk Art KDSSC : History of Korean Dance : Folk Dances
KDSSC : History of Korean Dance : Masque-Dance-Drama
Biographies U. Theobald, China Knowledge : Index of Persons
Lives of Eminent Monks (written in 1215 in Korea; text versions offered are in Chinese and in Korean)
Academy of Korean Studies, Korean Historic Figures Database (in Korean)

Environmental History General, Links Univ. of Oregon, Environment China, contains a number of texts on environmental topics in history
Climate Zones Köppen Climate Classification : BSk Cold semi-arid climates, Cwa, Cfa Humid subtropical climate, Dwa Humid continental climate, Wikipedia
Ecoregions WWF Ecoregions : Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests : Central Korean Peninsula, Southern Tip of the Korean Peninsula, China and North Korea, Temperate Grasslands, Savannas and Shrublands, Eastern Asia: China, northeastern Mongolia, and Russia, Mongolian-Manchurian Grasslands, from World Wildlife Fund
WWF Ecoregions : Russian Far East Temperate Forests, from WWF Panda
ChinaMaps, China Land Cover Map (Vegetation Zones)
J.Y. Fang et al., Vegetation-Climate Relationship and its Application in the Division of Vegetation Zone in China, Acta Botanica Sinica 2002 (9) pp.1105-1122
Wikipedia article : Mongolian-Manchurian Grassland, Wikipedia
Encyclopedia of Earth, Mongolian-Manchurian Grassland, Amur River
Amur-Heilong River Basin Information Net : Maps on Land Cover, Ecosystems and Ecoregions
Land Use, Deforestation H.C. Wang, Deforestation and Desiccation in China A Preliminary Study, n.d.
A.R. Weisskopf, Vegetation, agriculture and social change in late Neolithic China: a phytolith study , thesis UCL 2010
Y.Q. Zhang, Deforestation and Forest Transition: Theory and Evidence in China, pp.41-65 in M. Palo et al. (eds), World Forests from Deforestation to Transition ? 2000
J.S. Kim, The history of deforestation and forest rehabilitation in Korea, n.d.
K.J. Lee, Successful Reforestation in South Korea: The Roles of the Government, Village Forestry Cooperatives, and Saemaul Movement, 2013
E.G. Kim et al., Management and utilization of forest resources in Korea, n.d.
D.H. Kim et al., Study on a Policy for Forest Fire during Joseon Dynasty (during 1392-1910), Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation 2012, pp.217-221, in Korean
W.Y. Lee, Deforestation in Korea from the Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries: the Cause and Effect, 2011
Specific Periods Y.F. Wang, Climate change and its ecological and socioeconomic impact evidence from China's historical document for Qing dynasty, thesis Rutgers 2010
S.H. Yi, Holocene Vegetation Responses to East Asian Monsoonal Changes in South Korea, pp.157-178 in J. Blanco (ed.), Climate Change - Geophysical Foundations and Ecological Effects, 2011, InTech
J.H. Lim, Fire Situation in Republic of Korea, IFFN No. 26 - January 2002, pp.61-65 (on forest fires 1995-1999)
L.F. Shu et al., Fire Situation in China, (IFFN No. 26 - January 2002, pp.9-14)
O.A. Zyryanova et al., Problems in the Maintenance and Sustainable Use of Forest Resources in Priamurye in the Russian Far East, Eurasian Journal of Forest Resources 8 1 2005 pp.53-64
Environmental Policy P.G. Harris, Environmental Perspectives and Behavior in China. Synopsis and Bibliography, Environment and Behavior, vol.38 no.1, January 2006 pp.5-21
K. Morton, China and the Global Environment, 2009
Others Y. Zhao et al., Vegetation response to Holocene climate change in East Asian monsoon-margin region, Earth-Science Reviews 113 (2012) pp.1-10
C.M. Aikens et al., Environment, Ecology, and Interaction in Japan, Korea, and the Russian Far East: the Millennial History of a Japan Sea Oikumene, Asian Perspectives vol.48 no.2 (Fall 2009) pp.207-248
Z.Y. Wu et al., Reconstructing and analyzing China's fifty-nine year (1951-2009) drought history using hydrological model simulation, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, Volume 8, Issue 1, 2011, pp.1861-1893
General The Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR)
by Region
Amur-Ussuri A.T. Duggan et al., Investigating the Prehistory of Tungusic Peoples of Siberia and the Amur-Ussuri Region with Complete mtDNA Genome Sequences and Y-chromosomal Markers, Science Open
Y.V. Kuzmin, Geoarchaeology of Prehistoric Cultural Complexes in the Russian Far East: Recent Progress and Problems International Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 28, 2008, pp.3-10
Y.V. Kuzmin, The beginnings of prehistoric agriculture in the Russian Far East : current evidence and concepts, Documenta Praehistorica XL (2013) pp.1-12
A. Grebennikov, Obsidian provenance for prehistoric complexes in the Amur River basin (Russian Far East), Journal of Archaeological Science 38 2011 pp.1832-1841, academia.edu; also from here
Y.V. Kuzmin et al., Radiocarbon Dating of the Stone and Bronze Age Sites in Primorye (Russian Far East), Radiocarbon vol.36 no.3 1994 pp.359-366
Y.V. Kuzmin et al., 14C Chronology of Stone Age Cultures in the Russian Far East, Radiocarbon vol.40 no.2 1998 pp.675-686
A.P. Derevianko et al., The Novopetrovka Blade Culture on the Middle Amur, Arctic Anthropology vol.6 no.1 1969 pp.119-127
A. Tabarev, Neolithic Cultures of the Russian Far East, pdf, academia.edu
J. Cassidy, Investigation into Migrations and Parallel Adaptations along the Pacific Rim, Proceedings Society for California Archaeology 10 1997 pp.93-102
H. Kato, Neolithic Culture in Amurland : The Formation Process of a Prehistoric Complex Hunter-Gatherers Society, Hokkaido Univ., Journal of the Graduate School of Letters 2006 1 pp.3-15
Y.V. Kuzmin et al., Environment and prehistoric humans in the Russian Far East and neighbouring East Asia: Main patterns of interaction, abstract, Quaternary International 2011 vol.237 no.1-2 pp.103-108
I. Zhushchikhovskaya et al., Spiral Patterns on the Neolithic Pottery of East Asia and the Far East, Documenta Praehistorica XXXV 2008 pp.215-226; examines Huanghe valley, Amur valley, Japan
I. Zhushchikhovskaya, On Early Pottery-Making in the Russian Far East Asian Perspectives vol.36 no.2 1997 pp.159-174
I. Zhushchikhovskaya, Old Korean Settlements in Russian Primorye Examined from an Archaeological Perspective, The Journal of Northeast Asian History vol.10 no.2 (Winter 2013), pp.165-187
H. Kajiwara et al., The Origin of Early Pottery in Northeast Asia in the Context of Environmental Change, Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 12 1999 pp.64-79
Korea Articles : Prehistoric Korea, Mumun Pottery Period, Wikipedia
H.I. Pai, The Cultural Comparative Perspective in Torii Ryuzo's "Far East": The Search for Japan's Antiquity in Prehistoric Korea, n.d.
S.N. Rhee et al., Emergence of Complex Society in Prehistoric Korea, Journal of World Prehistory Vol. 6, No. 1, March 1992 pp.51-95, jstor
R. Pearson, Prehistoric Subsistence and Economy in Korea: An Initial Sketch, Asian Perspectives, xvii (2), 1974 pp.93-101, 10 pp.
W.T. Hong, The Yemaek Tungus of Central Manchuria and Korean Peninsula: Interactions between the Xianbei and the Yemaek Tungus 2012
H.J. Song, Who is the Ancestor of the Koreans ?, Korean Social Science Journal, XXVIII No. 2 (2001) pp.115-130
Korean History.info : Paleolithic and Neolithic Korea
C.S. Chard, Neolithic Archaeology in North Korea, Asian Perspectives 4 1960 pp.151-155
H.J. Ro, Prehistoric and protohistoric sociocultural development in the North Han River region of Korea, thesis UOregon 1997
M.T. Bale, Storage Practices, Intensive Agriculture, and Social Change in Mumun Pottery Period Korea, 2903-2450 Calibrated Years B.P., thesis Toronto 2012
W. Choi, Emergence of Agricultural Society: A Chronological Review of the Early and Middle Bronze Age on the Korean Peninsula, thesis UC Davis 2011
G.T. Kim, A study of the Boseong River Valley culture, thesis UOregon 2002
H.S. Kwon, A regional analysis of the Kaya polities in Korea: Chronology, economy, and sociopolitical interactions in systemic perspective, thesis Univ. of Illinois 1991
C.J. Norton, Storage and its implications for the advent of rice agriculture in Korea: Konam-ri, thesis Univ. of Arizona 1996
C.F. Kim, 5.000 Years of History. Archaeology, Nationalism, and Politics in Korea, thesis Brown 2013
Harvard University Press, Book Introduction : H.I. Pai, Constructing "Korean" Origins : A Critical Review of Archaeology, Historiography, and Racial Myth in Korean State-Formation Theories 2000
M.T. Bale, The Archaeology of Early Agriculture in the Korean Peninsula: An Update on Recent Developments Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 21 (2001) pp.77-84
M.T. Bale et al., Craft Production and Social Change in Mumun Pottery Period Korea , Asian Perspectives vol.45 no.2 (2006) pp.159-187
Manchuria S.M. Nelson, The Development of Complexity in Prehistoric Northern China , Sino-Platonic Papers, 63 (December 1994)
Y.Q. Cui et al., Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China, BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013, 13:216
K.C. Chang, Neolithic Cultures of the Sungari Valley, Manchuria, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology vol.17 no.1 1961 pp.56-74
W.M. Jia, Transition from foraging to farming in northeast China, thesis Sydney 2006
G.L. Barnes, The Archaeology of Northeast China: Beyond the Great Wall, Antiquity March 1, 1996; a review of S.M. Nelson's The Archaeology of Northeast China: Beyond the Great Wall, posted by the Free Library
Article : Hongshan Culture, Wikipedia
Article : Lower Xiajiadian Culture, Wikipedia
Upper Xiajiadian Culture, Wikipedia
Article : Xinglongwa Culture, Wikipedia
Article : Zhaobaogou Culture, Wikipedia
X.W. Li, The Nantaizi Site and GIS Based Archaeological Research on Craft Specialization, n.d.
Regional Lifeways and Cultural Remains in the Northern Corridor: Chifeng International Collaborative Archaeological Research Project
Univ. of Pittsburgh, Comparative Archaeology Database : Chifeng Settlement Dataset, Fushanzhuang Community Dataset
C.E. Peterson, "Crafting" Hongshan Communities ? Household Archaeology in the Chifeng Region of Eastern Inner Mongolia, PRC, thesis Pittsburgh 2006
S.M. Nelson, Western Views of Northeast China in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, CHR 51, 2007

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data
Lists of Statesmen
Premodern Era Regnal Chronologies : Korea (Byeonhan, Ancient Chosun, Gaya Confederation, Geumgwan Gaya, Gija Joseon, Hubaekche, Jin, Jinhan, Karak (Pom Gaya), Mahan, Majin (T'aebong), Parhae, Puyo, Tae Gaya, Tamna, Usan-Guk, the Three Kingdoms (Koguryo, Paekche, and Silla); and the rulers of Korea (Koryo - Chosun - Joseon)), China, look for Manchuria (Fuyu/Buyeo, Bo-hai, Liao, Juchen), Manchukuo
Wikipedia, List of monarchs of Korea, includes Gojoseon, Buyeo, Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla, Gaya Confederacy, Balhae, Later Baekje, Later Goguryeo, Goryeo, Joseon, Korean Empire; List of Emperors of the Liao Dynasty
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Non-Chinese People and Neighbouring States : Bohai (scroll down); index has entry for Gaogouli (Koguryo), link leads to a page still under construction
Modern Archontology World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), Provinces and administrative divisions of China, scroll down for Heilongjiang (Heilungkiang), Jilin (Kirin), Liaoning (Fengtien); Manchuria/Manchukuo, Korea, South includes pre-1945 unified Korea; begins in 1659, Korea, North; Russian S.F.S.R. administrative divisions to 1991 : Far Eastern (-1938), Amur, Khabarovsk, Nizhne Amur, Primorsky, Yevreyskaya, Korean National Rayon (within Primorsky, 1925-1937), Russian administrative divisions since 1991 : Amur, Khabarovsk, Primorsky, Yevreyskaya
Rulers (B. Schemmel), China Administrative Divisions, scroll down for Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning; Korea begins in 1674; has both North and South K. at the end of the Korea list, Russia; scroll down for Far Eastern Republic
Statistical Data
Responsible Institutions National Bureau of Statistics of China
Statistics Korea (ROK)
Federal State Statistics Service, Russia
Population Figures Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer), Korea; earliest data of 1881; North Korea, South Korea
China, historical population statistics by province, look for Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning; data reach back until 1787; Russia, historical demographical data of the administrative division, look for Amurskaya Oblast, Evreyskaya Avtonomnyy Oblast, Khabarovskiy Kray, Primorskiy Kray
City Populations : China - Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, South Korea, Cities, South Korea, Urban Areas
Johnston's Archive, Historical Abortion Statistics, South Korea PRC, Abortions and Live Births by Region, Russia, by region, 1992-2008
Database of the Basic Conditions of Family Planning Programme at CIPRC (Text on Demography, 1999), Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning
UNESCAP Chinadata, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang
Historical Newspapers
Links to Hemerotheques ICON, International Coalition on Newspapers, Newspaper Digitization Projects, scroll down for China, Korea
Hemerotheques National Institute of Korean History, Newspapers; various newspapers 1905-1953, in Korean
Individual Articles On Russian concerns of a Chinese military buildup in Manchuria, from New York Times Jan. 31st 1890
Time : Sept. 12 1932, Sept. 26 1932, Nov. 28 1932, Dec. 19 1932, Feb. 20 1933, Feb. 27 1933 Jul. 17 1933, Nov. 6 1933, Feb. 12 1934, Nov. 5 1934, Apr. 13 1936
The Spectator 21 Apr 1922 : The real masters of China, Chang Tso-lin of Manchuria and Wu Rei-fu of the Central Provinces ...
Image Databanks
General Collections Wikimedia Commons
Photos or Similar Historical Chinese Postcard Project, 1896-1920
IMCOM Korea, Korean War Historical Images
H. Savenije (ed.), Old Pictures and Drawings of Korea unfortunately, often undated
Old Korea Photography, Terry Bennett Collection 1866-c.1910 list of photographs with detailed description, information on date and location (if recorded); some photos online
Bank of Chosen, Pictorial Chosen and Manchuria 1919, Library UOregon
Horace Bristol, Korea, 1948, 1951, RASKB
Pictorial Korea 1953-1954, 1955, RASKB
Other Airline Timetable Images : Korea, Manchuria
1930s Russia Manchukuo Badge, from Imperial Japan Military Memorabilia
Archival Deposits
L.o.N./U.N. Provenience United Nations Office at Geneva, League of Nations Archive
U.S. Provenience National Archives and Records Administration, U.S.
George Washington University, National Security Archives; see Electronic Briefing Books, click "China and East Asia"
Stanford University, East Asia Library, Acquisition: Private Archive on Steel Industry in Colonial Manchuria
Wilson Center Digital Archive, Manchuria 1946-1950, Modern Korean History Portal
University of Southern California, Korean Digital Archive
Japanese Provenience National Archives of Japan
Russian Provenience Central State Military History Archive, Moscow : Priamurye military district (1881-1918), 8,579 documents; Vladivostok fortress (1878-1918), 11,831 documents (FEEFHS)
British Provenience National Archives, UK
Univ. of Edinburgh, Centre for the Study of World Christianity, Church of Scotland China (Manchuria) Collection
Other Provenience Library and Archives Canada
P.M. Mitchell et al., Guide to Archival Resources on Canadian Missionaries in East Asia 1890-1960, Univ. of Toronto - York Univ. 1988
China deposits (Jewish community Harbin), at Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Nationaal Archief (NL)
National Archives of Australia
Constitutions, Laws Mandschuko Constitutions, from Verfassungen.eu, texts in English, (brief) comment in German
Korean LII : Traditional Law
Inscriptions UNESCO Tentative Lists, Petroglyphs of Sikachi-Alyan
Article : Gwanggaeto Stele, Wikipedia
List of Khitan Inscriptions, Wikipedia
Corpus Scriptorum Chitanorum, Khitan (Liao) Inscriptions 907-1127, Project Description
Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism, Anthology of Stele Inscriptions of Eminent Korean Monks, ed. by J. Jorgensen; trsl. by P.R. Uhlmann 2012
Oral History
Consular Reports Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, China, Manchuria Mukden, June 2 1915, IA; Harbin, Aug. 24 1915, IA; Dec. 3 1915, IA; Antung, Dec. 4 1917, IA; Dairen, May 26 1919, IA
Commerce Reports, 19th year vol.3, July, August and September 1916, IA; p.118 : Ginseng Market Conditions in Manchuria, June 1; p.877 : New British Trade Organization in Manchuria, July 27; pp.1175-1176 : Markets for American Fountain Pens : Manchuria, July 11; vol.4, October, November and December 1916, IA, p.83 : Production of Edible Beans in Manchuria, Aug. 22; P.220 : Electrical Development in China, Mukden Aug. 21; p.502 : Edible Beans in North Manchuria, Oct. 2; p.705 : Manchurian Bean Crop, Oct. 19; pp.868-869 : Proposed Railways in Manchuria, Sept. 23; p.903 : Investigation of Japanese Trade in Manchuria, Oct. 28; 21st year vol.3, July, August and September 1918, IA, p.462 : Afforestation Enterprises in Southeastern Manchuria, June 8; p.651 : Japanese Commercial Exhibit at Harbin, n.d.; p.717 : New Trading Places in Manchuria and Mongolia, n.d.; p.719 : Japanese Loan for Kirin-Heilyong Railway, July 11; p.1065 : Wild Cocoon Crop in Southeastern Manchuria, July 23; pp.1158-1159 : Electric Light and Power Plants at Antung, Aug. 6
Chinese Trade Reports China Hai guan zong shui wu si shu Reports on Trade at the Treaty Ports : Newchwang 1865 1866, pp.13-25, (1868) 1869, pp.5-13, 1869 1870 pp.5-7, 1870 1871 pp.5-11, 1871 1872 pp.5-10, 1879 pt.I 1880 pp.71-72, 1879 pt.II 1880 pp.3-18, IA
Historiography Society for the Dissemination of Historical Fact, Publications; SDH, modern Japanese revisionist historiography, much of its publications concerning NE Asia
Document Surveys WHKMLA : Online Catalogues of Oriental Manuscripts, Codices, Early Printed Books; numerous relevant entries
Document Collections Internet East Asian History Sourcebook
D.B. Lurie, The Origins of Writing in Early Japan: From the 1st to the 8th century, thesis Columbia 2001, Appendix
Carnegie Endowment : Manchuria, Treaties and Agreements (1921), IA
Treaty between the State of Japan and the State of Manchukuo Concerning Abolition of Extraterritoriality in Manchuria, and Transmission of Administrative Authority to Districts Belonging to the Southern-Manchurian Railroad - Termination of the Treaty as a Consequence of Lack of Existence of One of the Parties, Kobe 2000
National Archives of Japan, Digital Archives, has numerous documents on Manchuria, Korea etc.
Historical Documents, posted by ICAS
Individual Documents Emperor Kuang Hsu : Attempted Reforms, 1898, from East Asian History Sourcebook
Japan's Twenty-One Demands, January 18, 1915
DBQs Asia for Educators; site providing numerous DBQs on Chinese history
Historical Maps Hindsight, Asia Map of the Chinese Neolithic, Wikipedia
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 550 B.C., 527 BC, 500 BC, 400 BC, 335 BC, 323 BC, 300 BC, 200 BC, 100 BC, 050 BC, 050 AD, 200 AD, 300 AD, 400 AD, 450 AD, 565 AD, 600 AD, 610 AD, 900 AD, 1000 AD, 1025 AD, 1100 AD, 1200 AD, 1300 AD, 1400 AD, 1500 AD, Asia 700 AD, 800 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Hindsight, China Minneapolis Institute of Arts, The Arts of Asia, Chinese Dynasty Guide : History & Maps
China Knowledge (U. Theobald), Map of China in/during Han and Xin, Three Kingdoms, Jin, Northern Dynasties, Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, Liao, Jin, Yuan, Ming, Qing
Cultural China, History of China, provides numerous, mostly Chinese language maps featuring China at specific historic eras; gives reference : "All the historical maps about China published here come from the internet"
P. Buckley Ebrey et al., A Visual Sourcebook on Chinese Civilization, has numerous maps on specific historical periods
Wikipedia, Map of the Three Kingdoms, by Yu Ninjie
China : Eastern Jin (Chinese text), from Wikimedia
Map : Eastern Jin 376, from Wikimedia
Map : Dispersion of the Orkhon Uighurs from Mongolia to Dzungaria, Central Asia, Mid-9th Century, Northern Central Asia, Approximately 850 A.D., from Berzin Archives
Map : Tang Dynasty 742, from Wikipedia
Category : Maps of the Göktürks, from Wikimedia
Contemporary, China Map : Paleoasiatic Languages of Northeast Asia, from Titus
Map : Languages of China, from Titus
Muturzikin, Asian Linguistic Maps : China
Hindsight, Detail
Contemporary, Detail J.B.B. d'Anville, La Chine, la Tartarie Chinoise et le Thibet, 1737, upper right part (Mongolia, Manchuria, Korea, N. China), Wikipedia
Hindsight, NE Asia
Contemporary, NE Asia Map : Manchuria 1906, Manchuria 1922, Manchuria 1932, from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
U.S. Army Map Service, Manchuria 1:250,000 1950-
National Geographic, Map of Manchuria, 2006
David Rumsey Map Collection : Coal Reserves of the World (1912), Map 12 : Manchuria
Historical Secular
Encyclopedia Entries on Provinces/Regions Article : Tartary, chapter : Eastern Tartary, pp.314-316 in vol.18 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1797, GB
Article : Tartars, chapter : Tartary, Eastern Chinese, p.153 in vol.22 of the 2nd ed. of Encyclopaedia Perthensis, 1816, GB
Articles Mandschurei, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Article Manchuria, from EB 1911
on Cities Articles Aigun, Mukden, Niutschuang, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Articles Aigun, Harbin, Liao-Yang, Mukden, from EB 1911
Religious Chinese Tartary, p.125 in J. Bellamy, The history of all religions, 1820, GB
Article Manchuria from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914
Northeast Asia pp.34-41 in vol.1 of T. Salmon, Modern History or the Present State of All Nations, 1744, GB (Korea, Tartars in China)
pp.36-45, in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1827, GB (Mantchooria and Corea)
pp.115-128, 334-355 in vol.7 of E. Reclus, The Universal Geography : Earth and its Inhabitants, [1876-1894] IA
Indiv. Provinces Entry : Eastern Tartary pp.25-31, Government of Shin-Yang pp.25-26, Government of Kirin-ula-Hotun pp.26-30, Government of Tsitsikar pp.30-31, in : T.G. Smollett, The Present State of the World, vol.7 1769, GB
Eastern Chinese Tartary, pp.123-142 in J.B. Grosier, A general description of China, 1788, GB
Eastern Tartary, pp.129-141 in vol.1 of G. Philips, A general view of the manners, customs and curiosities of nations, 1813, GB
G.Th. Landmann, A universal gazetteer; or, Geographical dictionary of the world (1835), IA; search for Eastern Tartary
Mantchuria, pp.71-77 in R. Brown, The Countries of the World 1892, IA
C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), IA (includes data of 1913); Manchuria pp.153-164
Ethnological The Chinese Empire : Manchooria, pp.571-572 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Manchuria, pp.3429-3448 in vol.5A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Historical Eastern Chinese Tartary, pp.121-132 in W. Winterbotham, An historical, geographical, and philosophical view of the Chinese empire, 1795, GB
Tour Guides Claudius Madrolle, Northern China, the valley of the Blue River, Korea (1912), posted on Internet Archive, Manchuria pp.217-260
Bank of Chosen, Pictorial Chosen and Manchuria (1919), IA
Travelogues E.R. Huc, Travels in Tartary, Thibet and China [1844-1846], vol.1 n.d., vol.2 n.d., GB
G. Fleming, Travels on Horseback in Manchu Tartary 1863, GB
A. Williamson, Journeys in north China, Manchuria, and eastern Mongolia 1870, IA
H. Hamel, Verhaal van het Vergaan van het Yacht de Sperwer (17th C.) in Dutch, IA
B. Hall, Account of a Voyage of Discovery to the West Coast of Corea (1818), IA
J. M'Leod, Voyage of his Majesty's Ship Alceste, along the Coast of Corea (1818), IA
E.J. Oppert, A Forbidden Land : Voyages to the Corea (1880), IA; here the original German edition from the same site
P. Lowell, Chosön, the Land of the Morning Calm : A Sketch of Korea (1886), IA
H.D. Northrop, The Flowery Kingdom and the Land of the Mikado, or China, Japan and Corea (1894), IA
I.L. Bird, Korea and her Neighbours (1898), IA
T. White, Glimpses of the Orient (1898), posted on IA
S. Genthe, Korea (1905) in German, IA
W. Sieroszewski, Korea (1905) in Polish, IA
G.T. Ladd, In Korea with Marquis Ito (1908), IA
J.D. Coulson, Peeps at Many Lands : Korea (1910), IA
E.G. Kemp, The Face of Manchuria, Korea and Russian Turkestan (1911), IA
M. Eissler, My Voyage in Korea (1918), IA
B. Holmes, Seoul, Capital of Korea ... (1919), IA
P. McDonough Collins, A voyage down the Amoor: with a land journey through Siberia, and incidental notices of Manchooria, Kamschatka, and Japan 1860, IA
T.W. Atkinson, Travels in the regions of the upper and lower Amoor, and the Russian acquisitions on the confines of India and China 1860, IA
Resident Memoirs A.R. Crawford, Sketches of Missionary Life in Manchuria (1899), IA
L.A. Sharov, Life in Siberia and Manchuria 1898-1922 (1960), IA
D. Christie, Thirty Years in Moukden 1883-1913 (1914), IA
Archives China Archives Information on the Web
First Historical Archives of China, Beijing, from East Asian Libraries and Archives
Second Historical Archive of China
A. Park, Navigating Northeast Asia in Vladivostok: A Review of the Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East, Dissertation Reviews 2013
National Archives of Korea
Academy of Korean Studies, Jangseonggak Archives
Musea China Museums
Museum of the Imperial Palace of the Manchu State, Changchun
Russian Museums : Khabarovsk Territorial Museum after N.I. Grodekov; Arseniev State Museum of Primorsky Region
National Museum of Korea (Seoul), Gyeongju National Museum, Buyeo National Museum
China Culture, Museum of Yanbian Autonomous Prefecture of Korean Ethnic Minority
Monuments Showcaves : China, South Korea
UNESCO World Heritage List : Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang, Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom (NE China), Complex of Koguryo Tombs, Historical Monuments and Sites in Kaesong (N. Korea), Haeinsa Temple, Janggyeong Panjeon, the Depositories for the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks, Jongmyo Shrine, Seokguram Grotto and Bulguksa Temple, Changdeokgung Palace Complex, Hwaseong Fortress, Gyeongju Historical Areas, Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty, Haeinsa Temple, Janggyeong Panjeon, the Depositories for the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks, Gochang, Hwasun and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites (S. Korea)
Wikipedia : National Treasures of South Korea, North Korea (do not only include monuments)
World Guides, Landmarks and Monuments : Dalian
Official Symbols
Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes L. Roberts, Chinese Coins
Oriental Coins Database
The Coins and History of Asia, by T.K. Mallon McCorgray
Numista, Korean Coins, China : Japanese Puppet State Coins, search for Manchoukuo
Colnect, Coins : Korea, China : Japanese Puppet States : Manchoukuo
Article : History of the Korean Currencies, Wikipedia
C. Gardner, The Coinage of Corea, Journal of the China branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 27 (1892-1893) p.71-130, posted by Digital Library Numis

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
on North East Asia Baikal-Hokkaido Archaeology Project, Publications
Papers of the British Association for Korean Studies, Archaeology, Pre-Modern History, and Modern History Indexes
Harvard University, Early Korea Project, Publications
Courant, Bibliographie coreenne: tableau litteraire de la Coree vol.1 1894, vol.2 1895, IA
Bibliographie Coreenne. Liste des ouvrages traitant de la Coree en langue française [Korean Bibliography. List of works treating Korea in the French language], posted by the Books Bureau of the French Embassy, Seoul, 2004
Korean Bibliography, from Library of Congress (U.S.)
K.R. Robinson, Korean History : A Bibliography; click History Index; regularly updated
Chung/Ganse, Bibliography of Western Language Publications on Korea 1588-1950, Seoul : Myongji UP 2008 [G]
Academia.edu, Documents in Korean History
M. Honda, E.B. Ceadel, A Survey of Japanese Contributions to Manchurian Studies
James Graham, China's Loss of Sovereignty in Manchuria 1895-1914, a Bibliography (2004)
on China/East Asia University of Maine at Farmington, China Bibliography
Bibliography of Western Language Publications : Three Kingdoms, from Early Medieval China Group
Association of East Asian Environmental History, Publications
Royal Asiatic Society, China Branch, Shanghai, Library
R.K. Beardsley, Bibliographic materials in the Japanese language on Far Eastern archeology and ethnology, n.d.
Memory & Reconciliation in the Asia-Pacific : Comfort Women : Bibliography
Ch.16 : Scriptores de rebus Tibetanis et Coreanis, pp.101-106 in vol.2.2 of Struve/Meusel, Bibliotheca Historica 1786, GB
on Religions A. C. Muller et al., Bibliography for Korean Buddhism
serial publications Publications, Royal Asiatic Society - Korea Branch
New Asia Books : Korea
Publications, from Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, St. Petersburg (most in Russian)
Korean Bibliography, from Monumenta Altaica, in Russian
Harassowitz, Aetas Manjurica (series of monographies)
Online Libraries
International Internet Archive, Google Books, Gutenberg Library Online
Persee (French search engine)
Regional/National Focus Russian State Library, Digital Library
National Digital Library of China
Japan, National Diet Library, Digital Services
Republic of Korea, National Digital Library
American Center for Mongolian Studies, Digital Collections
CARRIE Eurasia Collection, donated ebooks online
Special Collections e-coreana (catalogue of the Myongji-Lucky Goldstar Collection of Foreign Books on Korea until 1950); website in Korean
Royal Asiatic Society, Korea Branch : A collection of books belonging to former UK Ambassador to Korea Martin Uden
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories, Republic of Korea, P.R. China, Russia
Hong Kong University Theses Online, titles in English, most theses in Chinese
Online Journals
General Listings Directory of Open Access Journals
History Journal Listings Korean Graduate Studies Prep : Korean History Journals
on Northeast Asia Journal of Northeast Asian History (since 2004)
British Association for Korean Studies Papers
Journal of Korean Archaeological Studies Hankuk Go-go-Hakbo 1976-, English language abstracts
IA CASS, Beifangwenwu : Cultural Relics of Northern China 2005-
Royal Asiatic Society Korea Branch, Transactions, 1900-2011
Acta Koreana 1998-2013
Korean Studies Newsletter
Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 1988-
on China/East Asia IA CASS, Kaogu 2005-2012; English language abstracts
IA CASS, Chinese Archaeology 2001-, English Version, Tables of Contents
Cross Currents. East Asian History and Culture Review 2011-
Academia Sinica, Chinese Environmental History Newsletters vol.1.1 1994, vol.1.2 1994, vol.2.1 1995, vol.2.2 1995, vol.3.1 1996, vol.3.2 1996
Early Medieval China, index accessible, requires registration
Sung-Yuan Studies, 1970-
Ming Studies 1975-2013
The Chinese Historical Review (1987) 2004-
Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 2001-
Bulletin of the Asia Institute, Peking Univ.; a few articles in English
on other area Arctic Anthropology 2003-
on Religions Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 1978-
Chung Hwa Buddhist Journal (1968-) 1987-; since 2008 exclusively in English
International Journal of History of Buddhist Thought, International Association for Buddhist Thought and Culture, click on "publications" (since 2002)
General Accounts P. Buckley Ebrey et al., Pre-Modern East Asia : to 1800, A Cultural, Social and Political History, 2006 [G]
Specific Topics Guinea Pigs of Manchukuo, pp.142-153 in : John Gunther, Inside Asia, 1942 War Edition, NY : Harper & Brothers (1938) 1942
Historiography Article : Korean Historiography, by F. Kawashima, pp.511-514, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
Historical Dictionaries M. Dillon, China, a Cultural and Historical Dictionary, Richmond (Surrey) : Curzon 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 951.003 D579c
J.S. Olson, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China, Westport CT : Greenwood 1998 [G]
M. Dillon, Dictionary of Chinese History, Bournemouth : Frank Cass 1979 [G]
A.J.K. Sanders, Historical Dictionary of Mongolia, London : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
A.C. Nahm, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Korea, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1993 [G]
A.C. Nahm, J.E. Hoare, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Korea, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 2nd ed. 2004 [G]
Historical Atlasses

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