The Banat as described in Historic Encyclopedias



Brockhaus 1834-1838, Herder 1854-1858, Pierer 1857-1865, Nordisk Familje-Bok 1876-1899, Meyer 1885-1892, Meyer 1902-1909, Nordisk Familje-Bok 1904-1926





Brockhaus Damen-Conversations-Lexikon 1834-1838, Article : Banat
Banat, a land on Hungary's border, toward Turkey and Transylvania. It forms part of the so-called military frontier, has an area of 180 square miles and 180,000 inhabitants, Germans, Serbs, Vlachs. The land is irrigated by the Danube and Tissa and several tributaries. It is rich in sheep, grain, flax, maize etc. In several rivers gold is found.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Herders Conversations-Lexikon 1854-1857, Article : Banat
Banat, in general a border region administrated by a Ban, in specific a certain region in Hungary, consisting of the "Gespannschaften" (districts) of Bacs-Bodrogh, Torontal, Temes and Krasso; since November 18th 1849 it forms "the Serbian Voivodina and the Temesvar Banat". Area 546 1/2 square miles, population (1850) 1,454,635, of whom 396,043 are Romanians, 391,486 Germans, 299,000 Serbians, 230,600 Hungarians. A small part of the Banat is mountainous and produces gold, silver, copper, iron, a lot of coal. The plain is extraordinarily fertile, produces all kinds of agricultural products, livestock keeping flourishes; sericulture is taking root, the Danube, Tissa and Temes produce a wealth in fish. The industry is of no importance, trade vivid. Francis' Canal connects Danube and Tissa, Bega Canal, beginning near Lugos, takes up the waters of the Temes and leads them through the white swamp into the Tissa.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Temescher Banat
Temescher Banat, part of lower Hungary, located on the rivers Danube, Tissa, Temes, Maros, Körös etc., about 443 square miles with 600,000 inhabitants, in Roman times it was part of Dacia, since 1552 Ottoman possession, came to Ausria in 1718 in the Treaty of Passarowitz, in 1779 annexed into the Kingdom of Hungary, later divided in the "Gespannschaften" (districts) Temesch, Torontal, Krasso and the Banat Frontier; in 1849 united with the Voievodate Serbia, and elevated to a separate Austrian crown land, which in 1860 was reunited with Hungary.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Nordisk Familje-Bok 1876-1899, Article : Banat (1876)
Banat, in Hungarian Bansag, Hungarian word describing a frontier province ruled by a Ban. The Temesvar Banat is a region in southeastern Hungary, bordered by Tissa, Maros and Danube, area 28,040 square km (570 square miles), 1,028,263 inhabitants (1869). After the old Hungarian Banat fell in Turkish hands, after the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718 the new Banat was formed, but only by name without being given a ban as governor. The borders changed in various times. In 1849 the country was separated from Hungary as a separate Austrian crownland; in 1860 it was reunited with the former. In 1869 the population made up over one million, of various nationalities (Vlachs, Germans, Hungarians and Slavs) and of various religions (united Greeks, Catholics, Lutherans and Calvinists).
source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1885-1892, Article : Banat
Banat, in Hungarian Bansag, historic name of a border province in Hungary which was ruled by a Ban. After the urkish wars only one banat, the Temesvar Banat continued to exist, which was given this name, without ever having had a ban of its own, in the Treaty of Passarowitz 1718. It contained the comitats Torontal, Temes and Krasso and the Banat Military Frontier consisting of three districts (the German-Banatian, Serbian-Banatian and Romanian-Banatian). It formed an irregular quadrangle which was bordered in the north by the Maros, in the west by the Tissa, in the east by extensions of the Carpathians and the Transylvanian Alps, and in the south by the Danube. It had an area of 28,040 square km (509 square miles). The Banat used to form a part of Dacia and shared its fate in the era of the Barbaric People's Migration and beyond. At the time of the establishment of the Hungarian kingdom the core of the Banat appeas to have formed the Principality of Chanad under Prince Achtum, who lost his principality to the House of Arpad. In the Middle Ages trhere was no Banat by that name, but instead 4 comitats : Temes, Torontal, Krasso and Chanad. The incursions of the Mongols and Tatars the Banat suffered severe devastation, in consequence the cities of Mehadia, Orsova and others were fortified. An even sadder epoch began with the appearance of the Turks, at the end of the 14th century, who threatened Hungary for almost 300 years. he Banat as a frontier region has to suffer the most. To thus has to be added the peasant revolt under Georg Dosa in 1514, which alone within a period of 4 months cost 40,000 to 60,000 lives. In 1521 Mehmed Hyde with a force of 40,000 devastated the Banat. With the conquest of Temesvar on July 20th 1552 the Turks became master of the Banat, which was elevated to the status of a Sanjak under a Pasha with two horses' tails (Beglerbeg). The pressure of Turkish taxation caused many residents to emigrate to Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania. Christian churches were replaced by mosques, Christians prevented from practising their After 164 years, Prince Eugene liberated the Banat in October 1716; the fall of Belgrade 1717 meant the end of Turkish rule. Count Mercy is to be much credited for the revitalization of the Banat. Temesvar was fortified, trade and industry were elevated by new canals, roads German settlers, craftsmen, manufacturists, most swamps on the Danube, Bega and Tissa drained. Maria Theresia promoted mining, founded new villages, attracted new settlers into the country and made the Bega Canal consructed under Coun Mercy navigable. Only in 1779 was he Banat reintegrated into Hungary; three border districts, despite of the protest of Hungary's diet, were merged to form the Banat Military Frontier. Under Francis I. Baron Wenkheim is to be credited for progress in Comitat Krasso, the least secure of the Banat comitats. Wenkstein had isolated farms and villages merged, and built excellent roads. In 1848 here a civil war was fought among the nationalities, in which the Germans and Magyars fought hand in hand, while the Romanians remained neutral The Serbs stirred up trouble, werre keen on looting. For several months the Germans defended Weisskirchen against the Serbs, and so prevented the plans of the former. Near Temesvar the last battle was fought, after which Görgei laid down his arms on August 13th 1849 near Vilagos. Austria was newly organized, the Banat together with the Serbian Voievodate was separated from Hungary.
See : Böhm, Geschichte des Temeser Banats, Leipzig 1861, 2 vols., Schwicker, Geschichte des Temeser Banats, Pest 1872 source in German, posted by Retro-Bibliothek

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1902-1909, Article : Banat
Banat, in Hungarian Bansag, historic name of a border province in Hungary which was ruled by a Ban. After the urkish wars only one banat, the Temesvar Banat continued to exist, which was given this name, without ever having had a ban of its own, in the Treaty of Passarowitz 1718. It contained the comitats Torontal, Temes and Krasso and the Banat Military Frontier, had 28,040 square km (509 square miles), bordered in he north on the Maros, in the west on the Tissa, in the east on the outlayers of the Transylvanian Carpathians, and in the south of the Danube.
The Banat used to be part of Dacia. At the time of the establishment of the Hungarian monarchy the core of the later Banat, appeared as the Principality of Csanad, under Prince Ajtony, who lost his possession to King Stephen around 1028. The incursions of the Mongols and Tatars devastated the Banat. An even sadder period began for the Banat at the end of the 14th century, with the Turkish storm against Hungary, lasting almost 300 years, the Banat, as border country, was always hit hardest. To this came the peasant rebellion of 1514 under Georg Dosza. The conquest of Temesvar on July 20th 1552 made the Turks masters of the Banat, which was elevated to the status of a Sanjak under a Pasha with two horses' tails (Beglerbeg). The pressure of Turkish taxation caused many residents to emigrate to Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania. Finally Prince Eugene liberated the Banat in October 1716; the fall of Belgrade 1717 meant the end of Turkish rule. Count Mercy is to be much credited for the revitalization of the Banat. Temesvar was fortified, trade and industry were elevated by new canals, roads German settlers, craftsmen, manufacturists, most swamps on the Danube, Bega and Tissa drained. Maria Theresia promoted mining, founded new villages, attracted new settlers into the country and made the Bega Canal consructed under Coun Mercy navigable. Only in 1779 was he Banat reintegrated into Hungary; three border districts, despite of the protest of Hungary's diet, were merged to form the Banat Military Frontier. Under Francis I. Baron Wenkheim is to be credited for progress in Comitat Krasso. In 1848 here a civil war was fought among the nationalities, in which the Germans and Magyars fought hand in hand, while the Romanians remained neutral and the Serbs sided with the Emperor. For several months the Germans defended Weisskirchen against the Serbs. Near Temesvar the last battle was fought, after which Görgei laid down his arms on August 13th 1849 near Vilagos. Austria was newly organized, the Banat together with the Serbian Voievodate was separated from Hungary, with which it was reunited in 1860 "because of a constitutional claim of that kingdom".
See Griselini, Versuch einer nat&uum;rlichen und politischen Geschichte des Temeser Banats (Vienna 1779-1780, 2 vols.), Böhm, Geschichte des Temeser Banats, Leipzig 1861, 2 vols., Schwicker, Geschichte des Temeser Banats, Pest 1872

source in German, posted by Zeno

Nordisk Familje-Bok 1904-1926, Article : Banat (1904)
Banat, in general any Hungarian border province ruled by a Ban. After the end of the Turkish wars there was only one Banat, that of Temesvar, although it never was administrated by a Ban. It comprised of the comitats Torontal, Temes and Krasso as well as the Banat Military Frontier. Area 28,040 square km. It bordered in the north on the Maros, in the west on the issa, in the south on the Danube and in the east on extensions of the Transylvanian Alps. In ancient times it formed part of Dacia and shared its fate in and after the Barbaric People's Migration, until it was annexed into Hungary. During the Mongol and Tatar incursion the country was badly devastated, which resulted in the fortification of cities like Mehadia, Orsova and others. But things became worse with the appearance of the Turks at the end of the 14th century; they threatened Hungary and Austria for a period of 300 years, and the Banat as frontier territory suffered the worst. With the conquest of Temesvar in 1552 the Turks became masters of the land, which became a Sanjak under a Beglerbeg. In consequence of Turkish tax pressure, a large part of the population fled to Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania. Christian churches were turned into mosques, and the Christians suppressed in manifold ways. Finally, after 164 years, did Prince Eugene, by the conquest of Temesvar (1716) and Belgrade (1717) ended the Turkish threat. It was according to the Treaty of Pesarovac (Passarowitz) 1718 that the country received the name Banat of Temesvar, without being organized as a Banat. Especially Count Mercy is to be credited for the Banat's development, as the governor of the country. Temesvar was fortified, industry and trade promoted by the construction of canals and roads, and by calling in German settlers and craftsmen. Also Maria Theresia, who in 1751 introduced civil administration, took care of the Banat, promoted the mning industry, and called more Germans into the country, also made the Bega Canal, built by Mercy, navigable. In 1779 the Banat was integrated into Hungary, but in 1849 again separated from it as a separate Austrian crownland with the title "Serbian Voievodate and Temesvar Banat", to which next to the aforementioned comitats belonged the Comitat Bacs. Because of Hungary's constitutional claim, it was reunited with the remainder of Hungary in 1860.
source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg





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First posted on March 28th 2009

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