Posen Galicia






Congress Poland - Historic Encyclopedia Entries



Anskjaer 1858-1863, Meyer 1885-1892, Nordisk Familjebok 1915



Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article : Polen
Poland, a province of the Russian Empire, with the title of kingdom. The land is located between 50 degrees and 55 degrees 6 minutes northern latitude and surrounded toward the North and West by Prussia, toward the East by the Russian governments Kovno, Grodno and Volhynia and toward the South by Austria. It consists of 5 governments : Warschau 668.3 square miles, 1,716,880 inhabitants, Ljublin 548.6 sq.m., 975,028 inh., Radom 454.5 sq.m., 922,762 inh., Augustovo 341.7 sq.m., 624,071 inh., Plock 318.2 sq.m., 550,648 inh.
The larger part of the country belongs to the Vistula river system, and the country's well-being depends on this river. In its course through Poland it takes up from the right the Wiprz, which comes from the southern part of govt. Lublin, and Bug, which first forms the border with Russia and then separates government Plock from Lublin and Warschau. The Bug takes in from the right the Narew and Wkra. Among the Vistula's tributaries from the left are the important Pilitza, which forms the border between Radom and Warschau, and the Bzura. The wesern part of the govt. Warschau belongs with the Warthe and her tributary Prosna to the Oder river system. The northern part of govt. Augustowo is bordered to the North and East by the Njemen or Memel, which takes up many smaller rivers. The southernmost part of the counry has mountainous character, but does not raise to any important elevation. Above Sandomir is the "Vistula Mirror" located, at about 600 feet altitude, and from there the land rises to 1,000 feet above he river, which is the average height of the land between Vistula and Pilitza, while the land between Vistula and Wiprz does not quite reach this altitude. The entire highland is interrupted by many wide fertile valleys, which are excellently suited for wheat cultivation. The land to the north of the highland toward the valleys of the Vistula and Bug is relatively flat, as its highest elevations hardly reach 200 to 300 feet above the rivers, toward which they incline in long and winded slopes. Thehighest parts of this stretch are rather sandy and sometimes without vegetation, otherwise covered by heather, while the land gains in fertility further down toward the rivers, along the beds of which stretches are found which produce rich harvests of grain. The land on the Warthe, at several locations, is often inundated, and only at the end of summer and in early fall can it be used for grasing. The northern part of Poland is located on the southern slope of a ridge which forms the souhern end of the Baltic Sea Plate. The soil is here generally sandy, but because of the high humidity rather fertile, so that it produces good harvests of rye, barley, buckwheat and oats. In this part of the country also large forests are found, mainly of coniferous trees. Characteristic for this area, namely its northeastern part, is the large number of small lakes, a phenomenon also appearing in the northwestern part of govt. Warschau.
The climate is distinctly continental, with hot summers and very cold winters rich in snow. While Poland as a whole can not be counted to the most fertile countries, its agriculture produces not small surplusses for export. Horse breeding lately has declined far below its earlier high level, but in recent years has suffered no further decline; he number is given as 574,000 (1852). The same can be said for cattle breeding, but peasants have only few cows (1,648,000 in 1852). Sheepbreeding has made great progress. The census of 1843 counted 807,000 sheep of the improved kind, 1,655,000 of the half-improved kind and 1,222,000 country sheep, total 3,688,000; in 1848 the numbers were 1,852,000 improved, 1,455,000 half-improved, 1,293,000 country sheep, in total 4,600,000. The number of goats was 10,400 (1850), of hogs 864,000 the same year. Bekeeping is not without importance; in the forest districts honey is collected in quantity. The forests are in part coniferous, which provide the mass of exports, in part foliferous, namely oak. They are home to a number of wild animals, of which wolves are especially numerous. The country is rich in all kinds of hunted animals. Until the rebellion of 1830 Poland's industry was at a relatively high degree of development, but it was hard-hit during this event, which it recovered from only slowly. The most important industries are mining (namely iron and zinc), metal processing, wool- and flax processing, tanneries, raw sugar and paper production, glass factories, distilleries (mostly on potato base) and breweries. Warschau is reknown for its musical instruments, pots and wagons. Here are also found large machine and agricultural tool factories. Regarding the trade with Russia proper we have no data, as the customs have been lifted. The trade with Prussia in 1856 : imports for 15,808,000 Rigsdaler, exports 8,967,000 Rdlr; with Austria imports 6,552,000 Rdlt, exports 2,889,000 Rdlr. The most important export articles are grain, wool, oil, oilseeds, timber and zinc. The population which above was listed as 4,789,379 (for 1857) for 1858 is given as 4,733,760 and shall have numbered 4,851,639 in 1851. Thus there seems to be a remarkable decrease. In 1855, when it numbered 4,797,845, 3,714,016 of them were Roman Catholics, 4,564 Greek Catholics, 229,761 United Christians, 270,412 Protestants, 6,601 other Christians, 572,052 Jews, 409 Muslims and 70 gypsies. At the top of the country's administration is a stadholder which is appointed by the Czar, with an administrative council of 8 members, among them the directors of the most important administraive fields. A state secretary for Polish affairs is part of the cabinet in St. Petersburg. At the head of each of he 5 governments is a civilian governor. The cities are administrated by elected mayors, the land communities of baillifs. There are three instances of jurisdiction, a supreme court in Warschau, 2 high courts in Ljublin and Petrikau, country courts as lower courts. All civilian cases first have to be presented to an ombudsman, before they can be presented at court. The Catholic community is headed by an archbishop and 7 bishops. Protestant affairs are administrated by a consistory, those of the Greeks by a bishop.
... At the Vienna Congress the present condition was established, with he exception of Cracow forming an independent republic. When the latter in 1846 was the center of an unsuccessful attempt to initiate a general revolt in Poland, it was annexed into Austria. The Kingdom of Poland, which in 1815 fell to Russia, was given a constitution by Alexander I, which granted it a separate administration with responsible ministers, freedom of the press etc., but after the unlucky rebellion of 1830-1831 Czar Nicholas abolished the constitution and, in an "organic statute" of 1832 incorporated Poland into the Russian Empire.

source in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Polen (excerpts)
Poland, former European Kingdom, the size of which has greatly varied over time. ... In the three partitions of Poland an area of 483,700 square km with almost 6 million inhabitants fell to Russia, 121,500 square km with 3.6 million inhabitants to Austria and 145,700 square km with 2.7 million inhabitants to Prussia. In Poland three large provinces were distinguished : Great Poland, Little Poland, Lithuania. ...
The present so-called Kingdom of Poland, in union with he crown of Russia, until 1866 separately administraed part of the Russian Empire, since completely integrated into the latter, borders in the North on the provnces East and West Prussia and the Russian government Kovno, in the east on the governments Vilna, Grodno and Volhynia, in the South on the Austrian crown land Galicia, in the west on the Prussian provinces Silesia and Posen, and (since 1867) is'divided in 10 (before 5) governments : Kalisch, Kjelzy (Kielce), Lomsha, Lublin, Petrokow, Plozk, Radom, Sjedlez (Siedlce), Suwalki and Warschau combined with an area of 127,311 square km (2312 square miles); further details under the individual governments.
In 1885 the population of Poland numbered 7,960,304 souls. By nationality in 1870 there were 3,450,000 Poles (65 %), 600,000 Russians (11 %), 693,000 Jews (13 %), 289,000 Germans 5,5 %), 284,000 Lithuanians (5 %), further 3000 Frenchmen, Englishmen etc., 300 Tatars and 290 Gypsies. By confession 71.31 % were Catholics, 5.67 % Protestants, 4.61 % Orthodox Greeks, 13.1 % Jews etc. The proper Poles belong o he large Letto-Slavic family and are of average heigth, with skinny but sturdy bodies. The protruding jaws and the somewhat impressed nose indicate Slavic ancestry. The Poles have been regarded agile, quick learners, appreciation for the beauty of shapes, but also lacking in self-discipline, carelessness, jealousy and unreliability. This may have been correct for earlier centuries; but the thorough observer notices considerable differences in the results of the education of the Polish people in the three neighbouring states. The best education, without doubt, have received the Poles of Posen; without giving up the good Polish characteristics, they have learned from the Germans patience and thriftyness, and gone through German schools, which distinguishes them advantageously from their brethren living under Russian rule. The Austrian Poles have succeeded in maintaining their national characteristics to a greater extent, also their flaws. They waste their best energies in useless party struggle and miserable clergy administration.
See : Andree, P. in geographischer geschichtlicher etc. Hinsicht (Leipz. 1831); Possart, Lukaszewicz und Mulkowski, Das Königreich P. und der Freistaat Krakau (Stuttg. 1840); Hervet, Ethnographie Polens (Wien 1871); Leublfing, Wanderungen im westlichen Russland (Leipz. 1875); Janke, Skizzen aus dem europäischen Russland (Berl. 1877); Siwonenko, Vergleichende Statistik Polens (russ., Warsch. 1879); Kolberg, Das polnische Volk (poln., Krak. 1871 ff.); Szuiski, Die Polen und Ruthenen in Galizien (Teschen 1882).

source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

Nordisk Familjebok 1915, Article : Polen
Poland (Polish Polska, Russian Poljsja), formerly an independent kingdom, the size of which has varied greatly over time. ...
At the Vienna Congress in 1815 it was decided that Prussia should cede he larger part of its gains the the partitions, and that hese areas should constitute the Kingdom of Poland [so-called Congress Poland]. Since Poland is regarded as just this Russian Poland, and it is its physical and economic conditions which are described below. It borders in the North on West- and East Prussia and the Russian government Kovno, in the East n he governments Vilna, Grodno and Volhynia, in the south on Austrian Galicia and in the west on the Prussian provinces Silesia and Posen. It first was divided in 8 Voivodates, 1846 in five governments with separate administration until 1864, when after the unsuccessful rebellion of 1863 it was fully integrated into the Russian Empire and even deprived of the title 'Kingdom of Poland', and instead was called Vistula Circle (Privisljanskij Kraj) and presently is divided in 10 Vistula governments : Kalisz, Kielce, Lomza, Lublin, Piotrkow, Plock, Radom, Cholm, Suvalki and Warschau, which in combination contain 127,320 square km. The larger part of the country consists of an undulating plain, 90-140 m above sea level, which connects Brandenburg's lowland in the west with the large plains of central Russia. A low hill chain separates it from the Baltic Sea, and in the south it gradually rises to a number of plateaus, which merge with the extended slopes of the Carpathians. These plateaus, with an average height of 240-300 m, fill the entire south of Poland and are in general covered with forests of oak, beech and lime trees, and interrupted by deep river and creek valleys. Small ravines cross them in all directions, and at several locations, especially in the east, are wild, inaccessible forest moors. The Vistula valley (230-240 m.) divides this highland in two parts : the eastern is a plateau which rises until 343 m and which belongs to the younger Crestacean; the western, called the Polish mountain country, forms the eastern extension of the middle German mountain ranges and consists of Paleozoic sleets, limestone and quartzes, which rise to 610 m at Lisa-hora, and which is surrounded by Trias and Jura formations. West of the Nida the Olkusz Mountains, as extensions of the Beskides, fill the southwest of Poland, reaching 494 m south of Wolbrom, and contains the countries richest mineral deposits, while another chain of 300-400 m altitude extendes to the northwest past Czestochowa, separating Oder and Warthe. In the north the Polish plain is bordered by a level and wide hill chain (180-210 m height), which, with its many lakes, belongs to the Lower German Lake Plate. Its southern slopes belong to the northern part of Poland, while the govt. Suwalki extends beyond this hill chain. The northern part of Poland is characterized by large sand fields, fens, turf moors, dams and small lakes, where rivers flow from one marsh to the other, and the entire area is covered with meager pine forests, with open spots here and there. The plains of central Poland extend in a wide belt from the Oder to the upper Njemen and the forest around Pinsk, slightly rising toward Volhynia and the forests of Grodno. Only a few, unimportant elevations are found. The rivers flow in wide, even valleys, split up in many branches, which create islands, and which in case of inundations cover large areas. Their valleys, especially in the west, are integrated into another into complicated sets, so that the entire shows unmistakable traces that it once in not too distant geoloical, and even in historical times, have been he bottom of widely extended lakes the alluvial deposits of which now provide rich harvests. The fertility of the soil and easy communication both on land and on water have made this plain the cradle of he Polish nation.
Of Poland's rivers the Vistula (Polish : Wisla) is the largest. Forming in a large stretch the boder to Galicia, it enters Poland near Zawichost just after taking up the waters of the San, then flows in northern and northwestern direction and along the way takes in numerous tributaries, among them bigger ones : Wieprz and Bug from the east, Nida and Pilica from the west. The Vistula is navigable from the vicinity of Cracow, with smaller boats and rafts, proper navigability begins where the Vistula takes in the Wieprz, and the central and lower Vistula forms the aorta of Polish trade. Steamboats go up to Sandomierz (Sandomir). Other rivers in Poland include the Warthe with the border river Prosna, the border river Njemen with Hancza Czarna and Szeszapa. The rivers' great importance for communication is increased by several canals. The Njemen and Dnjepr are connected by the Oginski Canal, Dnjepr and Vistula by the Dnjepr-Bug Canal, Vistula and Oder by the Bromberg Canal. All of them are located outside of Poland. Within Poland are found the Augustov Canal, which connects Njemen and Vistula via Hancza, Netta, Biebrz and Narev, and the Leczyza Canal, which connects the Bzura, a tributary of the Vistula, with Ner and Warthe.
The mineral wealth is great, especially in the southern part of the country (govts. Radom and Kielce). There are found iron ores, zinc and tin ores, as well as sulphur. Copper mines have been operated since the 15th century, but now are exploited. Coal deposits extend over an area of 500 square km in the districts of Bendzin and Olkusz and it has been calculated that they contain 560 million cubic meters of coal. Chalk is exported from Lublin; marble and other quarried stones are to be mentioned.
Climate. With the exception of the southern mountainois tracts (Kielce and southern Radom), which lie between the Isotherms 5 and 5.5 degrees, Poland is located between the isotherms of 5.5 and 8 degrees Celsius. Warschau has average temperatures of -4.4 degrees Celsius in January, 18.6 degrees in July and overall 7.2 degrees. Winds from the West dominate. The days with precipitation per year are round 155, annual rainfall 550-600 mm. Snow does not fall in large quantity, but the rivers are in general frozen for 2.5-3 months per year.
The population, according to the census of 1897, was 9,402,253 inhabitants, and was estimated for 1912 as 12,776,100, which indicates an increase in these years of over 35 %, despite the fact that emigration, especially to America, is considerable. With 98 inhabitants per square km, Poland is the most densely populated region of the Russian Empire. In 1897 there were 986 women for every 1000 men. Of the entire population, 6,755,503 were Poles, 631,844 Russians, 310,631 Lithuanians, 407,780 Germans, and 1,267,194 Jews, to which a small number of Finns, Tatars etc. has to be added. In prehistoric time the Vistula Basin was inhabited by a Dolikocefal race, unlike the present Brakycefal Poles; but from the beginn ing of history, Poles, somewhat blended with Lithuanians, have settled on the plains around the Vistula and Warthe. The Poles are a Western Slavic people. The purest Polish type is found in the central Vistula region and in Posen. In the north the Poles are intermingled with the Lithuanians, in the southeast wth Ukrainians. In eastern Poland dwell smaller groups of Belorussians and Russians. Poles dwell even beyond Poland's borders. In East Prussia they inhabit the southern slope of the Baltic hill chain (the Masurians); on the western bank of the lower Vistula they are spread down to the delta (the Kassubians). Further they inhabit a stretch about 80 km wide in Brandenburg, Posen and Silesia, stretching down he Warthe until Birnbaum, and in the south along the banks of the upper Vistula in Galicia until the San. In all their number in Prussia is about 3 million, in Austria-Hungary 5 million. In Russia, in several governments west of the Dvina and Dniepr, together with Jews, Lithuanians, Belorussians and Ukrainians they form the urban population. The entire number of Poles inside and outside of Poland for 1900 is estimated at 17,029,000. Poles are generally of average height, mostly slim, bur with a strong body, light-skinned and blond or brunette. Since old times they have showbn themselves to be agile, quick-learning, rich in imagination and very artistic, but inconsistent, jealous, warlike and strong patriots. - The German element grows from year to year, both in number and influence. The Lodz industrial region is more German than Polish, and in the governments west of the Vistula, especially in Plock, Piotrkow, Kalisz and Warschau, German immigration is steadily increasing, and everywhere, by purchase, soil comes into German hands. The Jews, who are found everywhere in Poland, are not involved in agriculture anywhere. In the larger cities many of them are craftsmen, in the smaller towns they almost monopolize any kind of trade, own warehouses or are engaged in moneylending. In the country both trade and agriculture depend on them, for which they are generally hated by both Poles and Ukrainians. The Polish language dominates, but also French, German and Russian are spoken. The latter is presently the only lawful language of education, jurisdiction and administration.
Church affairs. As of 1897, 74.2 % of the population were Roman Catholics, 7.1 % Greek Catholics, 4.5 % Protestants (mostly Lutherans) and 14 % of Mosaic faith. - After the insurrection of 1863 the Catholic priesthood was greatly reduced. Many monasteries were closed. Several bishops were expelled, their positions remained vacant until 1883, when the pope recognised the new organization of dioceses, which had been introduced by the Russian government. The Catholics now have an archbishop in Warschau, and six bishops (Kielce, Kalisz, Lublin, Plock, Sandomierz and Seyna). The Greek Orthodox Church is lead by an archbishop in Warschau, the Greek United Church by the bishop of Cholm, the Evangelical-Lutheran and the Reformed were under a superintendent general, which are the presidents in the respective consistorium. An interesting episode in Poland's religious life in the last decades is the apprearance of the Mariavitas. In 1893 a clarisse abbess, Maria Kozlowska (born 1862) founded a congregation for the spread of the adoration of the holy communion, and the members were so enthused for monastic life that they gave away all their properties and obliged themselves to live by St. Francis' first rule. They should work in silence according to he model given by Mary (Mariae Vitae, named thereafter). They soon gained great respect of the population, and distrust on the side of the clergy. Their request for recognition was rejected by Rome, and they were dissolved in 1904. First they accepted the ruling, but when several Mariavitish priests were deposed by the archbishop of Warschau, the congregation restored itself in 1906 and elected Dr. Kowalski as their head. they appealed to Rome, but were banned by Pius X. in 1906. They then succeeded in organizing themselves as a community free of Rome and was recognized as such by the state, in the parishes which followed Mariavitish priests, they had to hand over their churches. From Roman Catholic side, a period of suppression followed, and there were several instances of bloody conflicts. The Mariavites built their own churches and assembled a general synod in 1907, which gave the movement a church constitution which foresaw the participation of laymen in the election of priests etc., with an own bishop with seat in Plock (Dr. Kowalski), and with service in the mother tongue. 63 organised parishes joined. The Russian government used the Mariavites in their campaign against Roman Catholic propaganda; in 1911 the Duma gave the Mariavite Church full state recognition, and in 1912 it was recognized by the Czar. In order o strengthen their Catholic position, in 1909 the Mariavites sought to join the Old Catholics and Convention of Utrecht. They were recognized by the convention held at Vienna in the same year, and owalski was consecrated as bishop. Since hardly any bishops have been consecrated among them. Also in dogmatic perspective they side with the Old Catholics, as they oblige their priests to the poor life of St. Franciscus, to abstinence and to follow clothing regulations. They have proven most energetic in the social and economic field in industrial centers. Among the people they advocated abstinence of alcoholic spirits and tobacco. In 1911 their membership was showing significant growth; they had 96 parishes with about half a million members (in Lodz about 50,000, in Warsaw about 30,000), and operated many churches, schools, childcare centers and workhouses of various kinds. The pope in recent years has undertaken several unsuccessful attempts to reunite them with the Catholic Church. In Lodz the magazine "Mariavita" is issued. see A. Rhode, Bei den Mariaviten, 1911.
Education. Poland is one of the 5 educational districts of Russia. It has the University of warsaw (1913 2.415 students), a Polytechnic School there, gymnasia, progymnasia, real schools and other educational institutions, in all 6,776 (1911). For vocational education there are several technical schools, agricultural schools and the Forestry Institute near Novo-Alexandrija as well as several teacher seminaries. The number of schoolchildren (under 15 years of age) who attended school in 1911 per 1000 inhabitants were 60 boys and 31 girls. More than half the population is illiterate, but in this respect is still far ahead of Russia; the number of literates in 1897 in Poland was 30.5 %, that in Russia 19.8 %.
Sources of Income, Transportation. The country's main source of income is agriculture, which is generally on a higher level than in Russia. The cultivation of white beets, potatos and grass has resulted in the introduction of a crop rotation over several years, and farming machines begin to find general use, especially on the large estates in the West. In 1912 45 % were farmland, 7.2 % meadows, 21.2 % forest, of which half belonged to the crown, less than 8 % to peasants, That year the grain harvest was 314.8 million Pud (5.15 million ton), of which rye made up 46.8 %, oats 22.7 %, wheat 13 % and other grain 12.3 %. Further potatios were harvested (11,200 tons), peas, hop, tobacco etc., sugarbeets, the cultivation of which now form an important role in Polish agriculture. The potatos are mainly used for distillery; tobacco is mainly cultivated in the governments Warschau, Plock and Lublin. Livestock keeping is also of great importance. In 1912 the number of head of cattle was 1.9 million, of sheep and goats 860,000, of hogs 501,000 and of horses 1,11 million. Horse breeding is supported by the state stud farm in Janow and various other stud farms. In the border districts to Germany a large number of geese is raised, which form an important export article. Beekeeping is highly developed, especially in the south east. The industry has made great progress, since the customs border with Russia was abolished in 1851, but this is to a large extent the result of foreign, especially German, capital and enterprise. Of greatest importance are the textile industry, of which the linen industry has its center in Zirardov, and the cotton and clothing industry in Lodz and environs, and in the district of Lask in Piotrkov. Even Warschau is an important industrial city with large factories of all kinds. Sugar facories (over 50), distilleries and breweries are of special economic importance.
Trade, to the larger part in the hands of Jews, is very lively, especially with Danzig, and conducted on the navigable borders, on a number of good roads and railroads, which have a combined length of 1,430 km. An important line which connects Vienna wih Petersburg traverses the country from southvest to northeast, passes the mining district and Warschau and sends out a branch line to Lodz and Kalisz. Another important line which connects Danzig with Odessa traverses Poland from northwest to southeast. A line running parallel to the latter connects Skierniwice with Thorn and Bromberg, and a military line connects the fortresses Warsaw and Ivangorod with Brest-Litovsk.
Administration. In 1867 Poland lost her separate administration. The government commission which existed until then, seated in Warsaw (Ministry of the Kingdom of Poland), the administrative council and all other central authorities were dissolved, and the respective departments placed under the ministries in Petersburg. An ukas of February 28th 1868 decreed Poland's complete integration into he Russian Empire in adminitrative respects. In 1867 the country was divided in 10 aforelisted governments, an arrangement which was altered in 1913 by the dissolution of the government of Siedlce, the territory of which was partitioned among Lublin and Lomza, and the newly created government of Cholm. The highest military and civil authority in the country lies in he hands of the governor general (until 1875 called stadholder) in Warschau. At his side stand since 1898 an administrative council of many persons, which make up a kind of lawgiving assembly, which shall be heard in all important matters. before the governor general, the president of the former, has the sole right to decide. The Russian system of autonomous local administration does not apply in Poland. Cities are administrated by presidents and magistrates, which make up a council and which are appointed. In the countryside, the adminisration is conducted by district chiefs, at the top of a counry community is an elected foreman (vojt). There are no courts by jury. For civil jurisdiction since 1806 Code Napoleon is valid. The calendar is the Gregorian. Since July 1869 Poland does not have a budget of her own. Only a few Poles occupy higher office; most offices of judges are held by Russians. The formerly Polish orders (the Order of the White agle and the Stanislas Order) now are Russian orders. The former national colours (white and red) are forbidden and exchanged by the Russian ones. The coat of arms of the Polish realm was a quartered shield; the first and fourth field show the white crowned Polish eagle in a red field, the second and hirs a rider in silver harness in a blue field, with golden patriarch's cross and drawn sabre on a jumping horse. The shield in the heart contains the king's family's coat of arms.
History. ... and on the Vienna Congress (1814-1815) the Polish question long was disputed. Czar Alexander had been strongly impressed by Prince Adam Czartoryski's plans to create a constitutionally administrated, large Poland in dynastic union with Russia, but the resistance of Prussia, Austria and England permitted only a partial realization of this concept; the powers were especially unwilling to see the fortresses of Thorn and Cracow fall in Russia's hands. The dispute was solved by compromise : Prussia, which was compensated at Saxony's expense, held on to Posen and West Prussia with Thorn, Cracow became (until 1847) an independent republic, but was placed under the supervision of the partitioning powers; the remainder of the Duchy of Warsaw, as Kingdom of Poland, was placed under Alexander I. and promised a constitution. This (octroyed by Alexander on Nov. 27th 1815) gave the kingdom a bicameral diet, a domestic council, Polish as the national language, a Polish military and civil administration. In the beginning the Czar was loyal to this constitution, and the diet met in 1818, 1820 and 1825; the opposition which appeared especially in 1820 displeased him. It was undermined by he Emperor's special trustee Novosiltsev who was appointed stadholder. He saw in the appearance of secret organizations (freemasonic lodges) a rich field for denunciations. Great Prince Constantine with a strong hand controlled the military and this way did not contribute to the popularity of the dynasty. A series of arrests were ordered in the beginn ing of 1822 against the national revolutionary propaganda headed by Major Lukasinski, which spead especially in the army. The counry's first weak economy underwent significant development, after the recklessly energetic Prince X. Lubecki became minister of finances (1821). The by Alexander I. at first considered plan to reunite Russia's other Polish (Lithuanian) possessions with Poland never was executed, because they supported the leading circles in the Czardom. Complaints over this non-compliance among the Poles were deep and bitter. Relations between them and Alexander I. and the end of his rule were cool. His successor Nicholas I. promised to rule constitutionally, but swore his coronation oath only in 1829 and calld on the diet to convene only in 1830. Although he otherwise strove to become popular, he supported the Poles by introducing a policy of Russification in Lithuania; on the other hand he was discontent with the feeble way in which a Polish diet (1827-1828) dealt with a crackdown on national propaganda. This propaganda was widespread, from 1828 on especially by P. Wysocki, and a revolutionary coup was prepared already during the Russo-Turkish War.
The Rebellion of 1830-1831. The Polish nation after 1832. While the July Revolution broke out in France, it still became the signal for a Polish rising. After an attack on the Great Prince's Palace (Nov. 29th 1830) the latter left Warsaw, leaving the army in the hands of the conspirators. A single-minded organization of the rebellion's conspirators suffered from discord : the more moderate ones under the leadership of Czartoryski, Lubecki and the to the position of "dictator" elevated general Chlopicki wished for reconciliation with the Emperor based on a revision of the constitution; the radicals headed by historian J. Lelewel shifted toward an independent democratic republic. The power slipped out of Chlopicki's hands, and the diet decreed (Jan. 25 1831) the deposition of the dynasty, a "national government" was appointed instead (Czartoryski, Lelewel and others). Attempts to establish relations with other European countries (even Sweden) did not lead o any tangible result, and were quickly rebuffed (so in Sweden); the warm sympathies European Liberalism had for the "cause of freedom" had at least a certain moral importance. Russian troops entered Poland (February 1831) under the command of Diebitsch, and were victorious despite courageous resistance at Grochow, but failed to exploit the victory. The Polish forces were reorganized by General Skrzynecki and won the following skirmishes. The rebellion spread into Lithuania and Volhynia, but the Cholera for a while prevented further troop movements. In May the Russians were victoriuos at Ostrolenka, but not decisively. Diebitsch (died of cholera) was succeeded by Paskievitj, who crossed the Vistula below Warschau. As Skrzynecki did not take action, the diet ordered a review, which resulted in his deposition, but simultaneously damaged discipline in the army which already was divided in camps. Anarchist events in Warschau, the spilling of the blood of 'traitors' and 'aristocrats' (August 1831) increased confusion; the national government had to give way to 'dictator' Krukowiecki. The Army, which first was placed under the command of Dembinski, later under that of Malachowski, could not prevent the city being surrounded by superior Russian forces. Warsaw was stormed and surrendered (Sept. 7th), the fortresses Modlin and Zamosc shortly after (in October); the rebellion was suppressed. The amnesty which was issued is characterised mainly by the many categories which were exempted from the Czar's pardon. Poland's constitution was replaced by the "Organic Statute" of February 26th 1832; the Polish diet and Poland's separate army were abolished, Russian influence in the country strengthened, the possibility of judges being deposed stressed, but the "Kingdom" retained a separate administration, and Polish as official language. These concessions, made in response to the pressure exerted by the Western powers, by and large remained dead letters. The new stadholder Paskievitj with his "administrative council" began a hard-handed policy of repression, which especially affected religion and education. Russian language was aught more methodically. The Polish emigrants, who especially in France attempted to establish new cultural centers, were distrustingly observed by Russia's diplomats. The Polish unrestliness later almost broke out in the Austrian crown land Galicia, which intellectually was controlled by the "republic" of Cracow; the rebellion of 1846 there was as much directed against the large landowners as it was against the Austrian administration. This resulted in the annexation of Cracow by the monarchy and is connected with the emergence of a Ruthenian national movement, hostile to the Polish majoriy. In the Prussian Poland (Posen) in the 1830es under Oberpräsident Flottwell beginnings had been made of a conscious policy of Germanization (German was language of jurisdiction), but Friedrich Wilhelm IV. from the beginning tried to win he population over by making concessions in the questions regarding nationality. However, he did not prevent the outbreak of a rebellion in Posen in 1848 (under Mieroslawski); this resulted in further, much further reaching concesions from the side of the king. The German National opposition suggested that the province should be split off, but even this did not work out, in part because of Bismarck's interference. Any new policy of Germanization, however, was not attempted until 1872, when Bismarck declared war on Polonism. The new course became apparent in church and education policy as well as in support of German colonization (since 1886). These policies implemented ever since have led to dubious resuls and have costed the Prussian state great financial sacrifices. Theu have also, although not in so openly brutal form as the Russian nationalism, made their supporters ('the Hakatiss') deeply hated by the Polish nation. - In Russian Poland the general reform policy after the Crimean War resulted in certain relaxations, but also in daring expectations. Especially the autonomous agrarian-political movement led in 1860 to a conflict between the "Polish Agrarian Society" and the government. Polish national demonstrations, systematically called for, recalled the memory of the revolution and increased tension; Czar Alexander II. was petitioned to reintroduce the constiturion. Alexander II. tried to calm down tension by instead granting the country certain autonomous administrative bodies, and found a tool for his policy of conciliation in Marquis Wielopolski; the 'liberal' Grand Prince Constantine the country's stadholder, with the former as his right hand. The excited public, certain of the Russian as well as of the West European Liberals' sympathies, regarded these measures as an attempt to shortchange them; their demands were accentuated by assassination attempts against representants of the new government. These saw a solution in a sudden campaign calling the most unruly element to arms (January 1863), but this became the signal for a general rising. Mieroslawski was appointed "dictator" by a provisional government (after him Lengiewicz), but unlike as in 1830, the revolutionary leadership had no military force to make use of. The revolution spread over a wide area, even into Lithuania, but the insurgents' unorganized units quickly succumbed to the Russian troops. The British and French government made certain proposals regarding Poland's future, and even Austria carefully expressed her concerns in this regard, but Prussia gave Russia unconditional support. The intervention was rejected, and Poland's administration was reorganized in accordance with aggressive theories of Russian nationalism, which in this case were formulated by Katkov. A severe repression, implemented by the new governors general Berg in Poland and Muraviev in Lithuania were followed by legislation directed against the church and the Polish upper class. In the following years Russification was systematically pursued in all areas of the state; if possible, Polish nationality should be exterminated. Principally, in regard to this policy nothing has changed, and the political course hardly altered under various governors general. Nationalism, which came to power in Russia after the revolution of 1906, has not shown itself more sympathetic toward Poland than previously the Empire's uncontrolled bureaucracy. The (because of specific legislation) relatively few Polish 'peasants' in the Russian Duma usually sides with the powerless opposition. - Only in Galicia, under Ausrian rule, have the Poles found space for their nationality and culture. "The Polish Club" has played an important role in modern Austrian parliamentarian life, and Poles have become influential members of parliament (Badeni, Goluchoweski, Bilinski). The position of stadholder in Lemberg is reserved for indigenous persons, the Galician diet is dominated by the Polish majority, and where Ruthenians increasingly are pushed out. Culturally Cracow and Lemberg have developed into centers of the life of the entire Polish nation, and this nation is lively and capable of development.
See : bibliographies by Estreicher and Finkel, Roepell and Caro, Geschichte Polens, 5 volumes 1840-1888, main work for the middle ages, Brandenburger, Polnische Geschichte (1907), Liske, Öfversikt af den polska litteraturen med särskildt afseende på den svenska historien (in 'Hist. bibl.' 1875-1879), Wotschke, Geschichte der Reformation in Polen, De Noailles, Henri de Valois et la Pologne in 1572, 3 volumes 1867, Roepell, Polen um die Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1876), Nisbet Bain, Polens siste konung (Swed. trsl. 1914), Lehtonen, Der Untergang Polens in seinen wichtigsten Ursachen dargestellt (1904), For administrative history : Hüppe, Verfassung der Republik Polen (1867), Kutrzeba, Historya ustroju Polski w zasysie (2nd ed. 1908, German trsl. 1912), Almquist, Polskt författningslif under Sigismund III. (Historisk Tidskrift 1912), Summaric works in Polish : Szujski, Dzieje Polski (4 volumes 1862-1865, new ed. 1894-1895), Bohrzynski, Dzieje Polski w zarusie (1879, new ed. in 2 volumes 1877-1890), Koneczny, Dzieje Polski w Piastow (1902) and Dziehe Polski w Jagiellonow. For recent works in Polish refer to Zeitschrift für osteuropäische Geschichte (since 1911).

source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg





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