Russian Rule

Estonia under Russian rule, 1848-1880

Estonian intellectuals founded Estonian cultural organizations and Estonian language publications (magazines), raising the national identity, political awareness and confidence of the Estonian peasants. In 1857-1861, Estonia's national epic KALEVIPOEG was published.
While the RITTERSCHAFT (corporate nobility) held on to their inherited privileges, i.e. their exclusive control of the LANDTAG (diet) and of the country's administration, the Latvian population majority expected major reforms and lost patience.
In 1857, Reval's city wall was broken down and soon afterward the city was linked with St. Petersburg by railway line. The population increased, factories sprang up, the city soon had sizeable Russian and Estonian communities. In 1877 Russian town legislation replaced the century old German city law; Russian became the language of administration.

Estonian History, 1850-1939, from Estonica
Courland, Livonia and Estonia. Confidential Handbooks No.57, 1919, from the British Foreign Office, posted on the Web by
Estonian Timeline, by Tapani Hietaniemi
History of Tallinn (Reval), by infomaterjalid
REFERENCE David G. Kirby, The Baltic World 1772-1993, London : Longman 1995

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2000, last revised on November 11th 2004

Click here to go Home
Click here to go to Information about KMLA, WHKMLA, the author and webmaster
Click here to go to Statistics

Impressum · Datenschutz