Estonia since 1991

Under Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991) the USSR went through a period of liberalization and democratization. Estonian politicians agreed in viewing the Soviet annexation of 1940 illegal, and thus Estonia still enjoying the status of political independence. Russia (Pres. Boris Yeltsin) recognized Estonian independence in 1991; the dissolution of the USSR late in 1991 removed the last obstacle to universal recognition of Estonia's independence.
Estonia joined the UN in 1991, NATO and the EU in 2004. In 2003, Estonia joined the Coalition of the Willing, contributing 50 men to the occupation of Iraq.
In 1992 Estonia implemented a currency reform, replacing the Rouble by the Kroon. Estonia experienced a banking crisis in 1992; the Tallinn Stock Market opened in 1996. In recent years, the nation of 1.37 million (census of 2000) experienced strong growth (Baltic Tiger).

Estonian Timeline, from BBC News
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Estonia
Global History of Currencies : Estonia
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : Estonia
Historical Population Statistics : Estonia, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
REFERENCE Toivo U. Raun, Estonia and the Estonians, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 2001 [G]
Article Estonia, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1992 pp.423, 592, 1993 pp.432, 603, 1994 pp.430, 604, 1995 pp.404, 604, 1996 pp.402, 604, 1997 pp.418, 602, 2002 pp.422-423, 600 [G]
Article : Estonia, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1992-1993 pp.527-529, 1993-1994 pp.533-536, 1994-1995 pp.523-527, 1995-1996 pp.521-525, 1996-1997 pp.461-465, 1997-1998 pp.470-475, 1998-1999 pp.515-520, 2000 pp.593-599, 2001 pp.574-579, 2002 pp.598-604, 2003 pp.601-607, 2004 pp.601-607, 2005 pp.600-606, 2006 pp.595-601 [G]
Article : Baltic Republics, in : Americana Annual 1993 pp.130-131, 1994 pp.130-131, 1998 pp.130-131 [G]
Entry : Travel Warning - Estonia, pp.482-484, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2000, Supplement [G]
Entry : Republic of Estonia, Cabinet pp.37-38, Background Notes : Estonia, pp.543-550, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Entry : Estonia, pp.448-453 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on October 31st 2006, last revised on March 18th 2007

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