Galicia - Historic Encyclopedia Entries



Historic Encyclopedias on Galicia : Anskjaer 1858-1863, Meyer 1885-1892, Nordisk Familjebok 1908



Historic Encyclopedias on Bukovina's Economy

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article : Galizien
Galicia, one of the Austrian Empire's crown lands, has the title of a kingdom. It is located between 47 degrees 40 minutes and 50 degrees 40 minutes northern latitude and between 36 degrees 50 minutes and 40 degrees 10 minutes eastern longitude and contains an area of 1,422 1/2 square miles with 5,056,647 inhabitants (1854) without the military population, or 3,555 per square mile. In the North and East it borders on Poland and Russia, in the Southeast on Bukovina, in the South on Hungary, in the West on Moravia and Prussian Silesia. The southern part of the country is mountainous and made up by the Bieskides in the West, until Dunajec Valley, and by the Carpathians (see there). It declines northward toward the Vistula and Dniester. The land to the North of the Dniester belongs to the East European Plain; near the banks of the river it has an altitude of 350 to 500 feet, but then lifts itself to a bulge-form plateau of an altutude of up to 1,000 feet. The most important river is the Vistula, which to the larger part of its 34 mile length within Galicia forms the border with Prussian Silesia and with Poland. In Galicia it takes in the waters of the Sola, Skawa, Rawa, Dunajec, Wisloka and San. The latter is navigable in its lower stretches and is utilised for the transport of grain. The Bug has its source east of Lemberg, flows north as the border river between Poland and Russia and feeds into the Vistula below Warszawa. he land's other main river is the Dniester, the bed of which is 62 miles long. It takes up a large number of small rivers, of which the most important are, from the right the Stry, Swica, Lomnica and Bistrica, from the left the Zlota Lipa, Stripa, Sered and Podhorze, the border river with Russia. The Pruth has its source in the country's southeast in the Carpathians and descends from there into the Bukovina. There are no large lakes here, but there are many ponds and small lakes rich in fish, and some mountain lakes at high altitude (up to 5,000-6,000 feet). Most rivers, in their courses, have stretches of swampland. Here 35 different mineral springs are found, of which some are well-frequented health spas. Because of the mountains which form the border to the South, the climate here is more severe than in adjacent provinces. The winter is often long and severe. Spring comes late and is unsteady. The summer is short and not very warm, but the fall is generally the most comfortable season. In Lemberg the average annual temperature is +5.6 degrees Reaumur, in the summer +13.7 degrees, in the winter -3.2 degrees, the most severe winter temperature -25.8 degrees, the most intense summer heat +28.3 degrees, the annual rainfall 28 barrels, rainy days 144, days with snowfall 44. Galicia by nature is well bestowed with land suitable for grain cultivation, but agriculture is on a comparatively low level. The pure three field rotation system dominates almost everywhere. The annual grain production is given as 1,120,000 ton wheat, 1,760,000 ton rye, 4,580,000 ton barley and 6,300,000 ton oats. Further are grown tobacco (100,000 ctr.), flax (266,000 ctr.), hemp (485,000 ctr.), rapeseed, cucumber, cinnamon, rhubarb, roots and fruits. Forests cover an area of about 300 square miles and consist mainly of oak, coniferous trees, beeches, birches, acorn and elm, but in a number of locations it has been chopped down to such an extent that there is a shortage of firewood. Besides agriculture the main source of income of the population is cattle keeping, and it is supported by excellent meadows. Horses are small, but strong; sheep are kept in large numbers in the mountain regions, and the keeping of sheep has lately increased in the lowlands. The number of livestock for 1851 is given as 530,554 stallions, 487,693 mares, 947,133 head of cattle, 2,140,000 sheep, 221,000 goats, 675,000 hogs. Galicia's mountains are rich in minerals. In 1851 were produced 18,362 ctr. zinc, 14,522 ctr. sulphur, 21,754 ctr. raw iron, 24,578 ctr. iron ore, 1,432 ctr. alum, 951,049 ctr. coal. Of much greater importance is salt production, mainly conducted at Wieliczka (962,420 ctr. mineral salt in 1850) and Bochnia (287,872 ctr. in the same year); the entire production of mineral salt and ciommon salt was 1,760,957 ctr. with a value of 7,330,000 Rigsdaler. In terms of industry Galicia is behind other Austrian provinces; of importance is the linen weaving industry in the western and the distinning industry in the eastern districts, follows by garment production, tanneries, paper mills, sugar refineries, pottash simmeries, Fayence factories and ceramic industry. Trade deals mainly with the export of raw materials, of livestock, wax and honey to Hungary, Moravia and Austria, of grain, salt, timber, leather and yarn to Poland and Prussia, transit trade with skins, wool, grain, tallow and swine bristles is conducted. In regard to manufactured products, the country imports almost their entire demand from the German- Austrian provinces. Roads for the most part are in rather poor condition, without a stone bedding. rom Silesia's border a railroad stretches via Cracow to Dembica; it has been decided to continue it via Lemberg with Brody on the Russian border.
The population, according to a census conducted in 1851 by the Austrian Statistical Bureau, without the military population, numbered 4,555,477, a figure almost certainly too high. Of these were 2,208,477 men and 2,347,000 women. By confession 2,067,292 were Roman Catholic, 2,129,764 Greek Catholics, 79 not united Greeks, 23,346 Lutherans, 1,239 Reformed, 306 of other Christian sects and 333,451 Jews. The number of births was : 183,268 live births of legitimate children, 16,594 births of live illegitimate children, stillborn 2,156 and 422 outside wedlock. The number of deaths was 156,005, of which 1,261 by accident, 153 by murder. Galicia's oldest inhabitants belong to Slavic tribes and in 1854 consist of Poles (2,069,000), which make up the entire nobility and the majority of the population of the western part of the country, and Ruthenians (2,510,000) in the eastern part; the former are Roman Catholics, the latter (united) Greek Orthodox. Immigrants are the Germans (104,000), living almost in all parts of the country, mostly Protestants, mostly living of agriculture, Armenians (3,000) who live in the cities where they conduct trade, Jews (370,000), almost a thirteenh of the population, they immigrated in the time of the crusades, live in the cities of trade and of crafts, in the country as landlords and innkeepers. A separate Jewish sect are the Karaites; they seem to be of Tatar descent, live mostly of agriculture and distinguish themselves from the other Jews by a greater sense for cleanliness.
The crown land is divided into two administrative districts, Lemberg with a stadholder, and Cracow with a government. Lemberg is subdivided into the districts of Lemberg, Zolkiew, Przemysl, Sanok, Zloczow, Brzezan, Stryi, Sambor, Tarnopol, Czortkow, Colomea and Stanislau; Cracow divided into the districts of Cracow, Wadowice, Neu Sandec, Jaslo, Rzeszow, Tarnow and Bochnia.
Galicia used to be a Polish province called Little Poland, and was created by merging Red Russia, Pocutia, Podolia, the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator, which in 1773 on the occasion of Poland's partition, were acquired by Austria, and letely of the Republic of Cracow (1846). Auschwitz and Zator (36 3/4 square miles) belong to the German Federation.

source in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Galizien (excerpts)
Galicia, Ausrian crown land (since 1772) under the title "Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria with the Grand Duchy of Cracow and the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator", is located between 19 degrees 10 minutes and 26 degrees 30 minutes eastern longitude and between 48 degrees and 50 degrees 40 minutes northern latitude, is bordered in the North by Russian Poland, in the East by Russia and the Bukowina, in the South by Hungary, in the West by Austrian and Prussian Silesia, and it has an area of 78,497 square km (1425.6 square miles).
[Physical Condition] The south of the country, on the northern slopes of the Carpathians, is highland which, in mountain ranges, extends up to 30 km into the country. The Carpathians, as Westbieskides, extend to the border, and reach 1722 m altitude (Babiagura). They are followed, between Dunajec and Poprad, by a mountain range of medium elevation (1100-1300 m), which is followed by the Eastbieskides, the low ridge of which (800 m) is crossed by roads (f.ex. Dukla Pass) and railroads. Of considerably greater height are the Forest and Marmarosch Carpathians, which reach 2051 m (Czerna Hora). A parallel chain in the interior has another peak with 1700 m altitude. Galicia has only a small share of the central range of the High Tatra; the highest point of the latter is the Waxmundska (2192 m). Further to the North Galicia turns flatter, into a hill country and toward the Dniestr and Vistula it turns into lain lowland. which only beyond these rivers in the East rises to the rolling plateau of the Podolian Heights (up to 400 m) and to the Northwest of Cracow to the Galician part of the Tarnowitz Plate (up to 470 m.). In regard to the waters, the western part of Galicia belongs to the Vistula river system, the easern part to the Dniestr river system, a small part of it to the siver system of the Dniepr (near Brody) via the Styx, which is a tributary of the Pripet, and that of the Danube via the Pruth, which flows through the southeastern corner of the country. The following rivers, coming from the Carpathians, feed into the Vistula : Sola, Skawa, Raba, the Dunajec with the Poprad and the Biala, the Wisloka, the navigable San with the Wislok and the Bug; into the Dniestr flow, on the right, the Stryj, the Swica, the Lomnica, the Bistrica, on the left the Lipa-Zlota, Stripa, Sered and the Zbrucz (or Podhorce), which forms the eastern border. Among the tributaries of the Pruth the Czeremosz, which forms the border to the Bukowina, is worthy to mention. Among the 35 mineral springs (of which 22 contain sulphur) the sour spring at Szczawnica, the spring containing iron at Krynica, the spring containing iodine at Iwonicz and the sulphur spring of Truskawiec are the most frequented. Among all Austrian crown lands Galicia has the most severe climate, as the extremes of heat and cold lie 80 degrees Celsius apart. Without protection against rough winds from the North and Northeast, it has late springs, short summers, but long and cold winters. The average annual temperature at Lemberg is 8 degrees Celsius, at Tarnopol is is as low as 6.1 degrees Celsius. The average temperature in July in Lemberg is 19.4 degrees, in Tarnopol 18.6 degrees, the average temperature in January in Lemberg -3.8 degrees, in Tarnopol -5.8 degrees. Average rainfall in Lemberg is 72 cm, in Cracow only 57 cm. Thunderstorms are not frequent, winter storms come from northeasterly direction.
The population of Galicia numbered at he end of 1869 5,444,689, at the end of 1880 5,958,907, and thus in the meantime increased by 0.82 % annually. The otherwise even stronger population growth figure (in the period 1857-1869 annually 1.42 %) in the past decade was reduced by devastating epidemic diseases (cholera 1872-1873, diphteria 1878-1879). On average 76 inhabitants live per square km; in the district Biala 131 per square km, in Nadworna 31 per square km. There are 83 cities, 230 market towns and 11,060 villages with 926,319 inhabited houses. By nationality (vernacular) the population at the end of 1880 consiss of 42.9 % Ruthenians, 51.5 % Poles. The latter dominate in western Galicia, the former in eastern Galicia. Within both Slavic nations there are remarkable differences between the inhabitants of the mountains and those living in the plains, not only by customs and clothing, but also in bodily stature. The mountain dwellers of the western Carpathians, the Gorals (one fifth of the entire Polish population) are tall and brunette; the inhabitants of the Vistula plain, the Masurians and Lisowiaks, instead rather stubby and blond. Poles form th Galician nobility, in the west also peasantry. In the east the mountain dwellers, called Huzuls, are the most handsome and sturdy type of Galicians; the others, Ruthenians, of whom they form a small part, are a robust, strong-boned type of people, slow, humble, almost melancholic, but excellent workers, polite and hospitable. Further dwell in Galicia : Germans (over 100,000, among them many colonists, who came into the country under Joseph II.) in the larger cities and in over 100 smaller places scattered all over the country, further 2430 Armenians mostly engaged in trade (in some cases wealthy owners of large estates) and 686,596 Jews, more han two thirds of the Israelite population of the entire Empire. The latter in the cities live of trade and crafts, in the country of rents and of agriculture; businesses are mostly owned by them. A special sect of the Galician Jews are the Karaites, who reject the Talmud and who settled in the 13th century in Halicz. They have presently shrunken to just a few families. Among the christian inhabitants 2,714,977 belong to the Roman Catholic Church (mainly Poles in the West), 2,510,408 to the Greek-Catholic Church (mainly Ruthenians in the East of the country); 40,994 are Protestants, 1430, as already mentioned, Armenians. The Roman Catholics are under an archbishop (in Lemberg) and 3 bishops (in Cracow, Przemysl and Tarnow), the Greek Catholics under an archbishop (in Lemberg) and a bishop (in Przemysl); the Armenians similarly under an archbishop in Lemberg, the Protestants have a superintendent and 4 seniorates.
Galicia predominantly is a land of agriculture and grain cultivation. Almost everywhere, except for stretches in the Carpathians and a number of swampy stetches, the soil is fertile everywhere. But it is poorly cultivated, and the climate in general is not favourable for agriculture; therefore harvests are relatively low. The productive area covers almost 97 % of the country, 50 % used for agriculture, 11 % as meadows, 1 % as gardens, 10 % as pastorage, 26 % as forest and 1/4 of a % as ponds and swamps. Annual grain harvest amounts to 26 million hl., mostly oats, rye and barley, beyond regional consumption; to a lesser extent wheat. Further are grown, namely in the east of the country : maize, buckwheat, millet. In the mountains potatos (30 million hl) and flax (125,000 metric ctr.) are cultivated. Wine is not grown in Galicia. The cultivation of tobacco produces 36,000 metric ctr., that of hemp 250,000 metric ctr., of legumes (1,200,000 hl), clover (3.7 million metric ctr.), several oil and spice plants (rapeseed, cinnamon, fennel ..) and the cultivation of beets (3.8 million metric ctr.) are of importance. Also fruit cultivation, vegetable production and horticulture and meadow cultivation are productive in Galicia. If the country would be cultivated practically and worked with a sufficient number of men, harvests could be considerably larger. The forests, unvenly distributed, consist of foliferous and' coniferous trees and deliver timber (pine, alder, oak) of considerable size, which are exported in quantity for shipbuilding. The annual timber production amounts to c. 6 million cubic meter. Timber expor mostly is directed into Russian Poland and Prussia (Danzig). Transportation methods are mostly the rivers Vistula, Dunajec, San and Dniestr, which annually transport 4 million metrc ctr. of the timber destined for shipbuilding. In some areas the forests have been devastated, and some areas in the east, especially near Tarnopol and Czortkow, suffer shortage of wood.Animal husbandry is of importance, but at many places in need of perfection.On he extensive meadows in the mountains, where a kind of Senn economy is c9onducted, numerous fine catle thrives (a large, white-grey race with long horns) which is exported as slaughter cattle to the western crown lands, namely to the Viennese market.In the plains lately the breeding of ameliorated sheep increases and produces wool. The Galician horses are of a good race and excel by their light weight and robustness. Further goats and poultry, especially geese, and kept in quantity; beekeeping is of no lesser scope, Podolian wax almost equals the quality of Turkish wax.According to the livestock count of 1880 Galicia had 735,262 horses, 1011 mules and donkeys, 2,242,861 head of cattle, 609,253 sheep, 13,225 goats, 674,302 pigs and 295,686 beehives. Fishery in the many rivers and ponds is very productive, hunt also of importance.Among wild animals, still bears, lynxes and wolves are found, of which in 1881 15, 39 respectively 94 were killed.A kind of louse produces the so-called Polish Kochenille, which is collected at roadside grass and which is used as a dyestuff.
Of industries in the proper sense Galicia has few. A factory industry has emerged in the western part bordering on Silesia, where Biala became the center of cloth production (with c.24,000 spindles and 320 power looms). Of significant size is the distillery of spirits (525 distilleries), mainly based on potatos, and which produces beyond regional consumption. There are 185 beer breweries, but only a few of larger scale. In Galicia there are a few machine factories, in Biala for serving textile production, in Lemberg and Cracow agriculture, flour mills, baking, distilling), 16 glass factories (for ordinary bottles/bulbs and table glass), many brick and chalk burning factories, sawmills, 7 paper factories (with 11 paper machines), 2 beet sugar factories, 5 tobacco factories and 50 steam mills (as well as 3700 water- and windmills), finally many smaller tanneries and enterprises for soap, candle and match production. Linen weaving and Halina cloth production, namely in the country's eastern part, is an important side income for the peasant population. Trade, which as aforementioned, is largely concentrated in the hands of the Jews, is rather vivid. Exported are mainly raw materials : grain, clover, oil seed, timber, livestock (namely oxen for slaughter), salt, petrol and alcoholic spirits. On the other hand, almost the entire demand in industrial products is imported from regions in western Austria. Of importance is also transit trade between Western Austria and Germany, and the countries on the Blck Sea, which is supported by the long railway lines traversing Galicia. These are the Karl Ludwigs-Bahn from Cracow via Lemberg to Brody and Podwoloczyska (connection with Russia to Kiev and Odessa), the Lemberg-Czernowitz Bahn (connection with Romania to Jassy and Galatz) and the Galician Transversal Line (from Saybusch via Sandec and Stanislau to Hussiatyn). From Galicia three railroad lines connect with Hungary; they cross the Carpathians at Zwardon, Leluchow and Lupkow, through tunnels. A fourth line from Stryi to Munkacs is under construction. The total length of the Galician railroad lines is 2462 km. Further there are 12,500 km of roads, mostly well-constructed and well-maintained. Also most rivers are navigable or raftable; the regulation of the Vistula, which often for miles is lined by dams protecting against inundation, that of the San and Dnestr are under way. The length of waterways is 1070 km. Banks and credit institutes (mainly credit for real estate owners) in Galicia are 7, with funds of 6.5 million florin, and total credits of over 100 million florin. Savings banks are still few, 22 in total with total savings of 36 million fl. Among insitutes of learning Galicia has 2 universities, at Lemberg and Krakau, with 900 students each, a technical college at Lemberg (200 students), an art conservatory at Cracow (125 students), 4 theological colleges, 17 upper gymnasia, 4 lower gymnasia, 3 real gymnasia, 5 upper real schools and 1 lower real schools, 6 teacher seminaries and 3 for female teachers (number of students at middle schools 14,030), 2 merchant schools, a state vocational school, an art vocational school and 15 other vocational schools, 9 agricultural schools, 1 mining school and 3126 elementary schools with 397,605 students (among 709,941 children of an age where schooling is mandatory, thus 56 %). An academy of sciences is seated at Cracow.

Administrative Division of Galicia

District Area (sq km) Population 1880 District Area (sq km) Population 1880
Biala 658 85,944 Mielec 821 66,218
Bobrka 907 61,183 Mosciska 736 68,190
Bochnia 824 93,988 Myslenice 1,094 80,654
Bohorodczany 933 49,914 Nadworna 1,944 60,040
Borszczow 709 97,935 Neumarkt 1,127 70,251
Brody 1,879 129,690 Neu-Sandec 1,381 99,542
Brzesko 833 85,376 Nisko 993 55,891
Brzezany 1,139 81,108 Pilzno 854 47,537
Brzozow 709 71,389 Podhajce 1,056 71,784
Buczacz 1,113 103,225 Przemysl 1,035 89,734
Chrzanow 722 72,706 Przemyslany 990 61,991
Cieszanow 1,189 68,202 Rawaruska 1401 85,287
Czortkow 810 57,257 Rohatyn 1,162 85,132
Dabrowa 629 55,694 Ropczyce 739 71,237
Dobromil 858 58,553 Rudki 730 58,857
Dolina 2,513 78,833 Rzeszow 1,157 133,409
Drohobycz 1,373 110,901 Sambor 1,256 79,216
Gorlice 886 74,072 Sanok 1,149 86,953
Grodek 802 61,519 Saybusch 1,059 90,450
Grybow 591 45,388 Skalat 870 73,692
Horodenka 827 76,949 Sniatyn 604 68,193
Hussiatyn 903 77,791 Sokal 1,335 80,394
Jaroslaw 1,328 103,281 Stanislau 796 86,700
Jaslo 837 96,931 Staremiasto 712 44,958
Jaworow 1,012 64,465 Stryi 1,906 81,193
Kalusz 1,147 65,089 Tarnobrzeg 1,030 60,079
Kamionka Strumilowa 1,522 87,553 Tarnopol 1,167 108,670
Kolbuszow 851 65,223 Tarnow 802 94,827
Kolomea 1,212 110,091 Tlumacz 1,008 80,027
Kossow 1,928 69,520 Trembowla 572 63,235
Krakau (Cracow, City) 13 66,095 Turka 1,459 55,955
Krakau (Cracow, Land) 493 60,072 Wadowice 863 95,507
Krosno 950 70,702 Wieliczka 711 89,140
Lancut 1,146 119,242 Zaleszczyka 869 66,357
Lemberg (city) 32 109,746 Zbaraz 772 59,869
Lemberg (land) 1,255 98,461 Zloczow 1,687 126,877
Limanowa 948 67,692 Zolkiew 1,203 71,864
Lisko 1,880 74,118 Zydaczow 940 61,829
total 78,497 5,958,907


As the constitution of Galicia is concerned, the diet has 150 members (3 archbishops, 4 bishops, 3 university deans, 44 deputees of the estate owners, 20 deputees of the cities and markets, 3 of the chambers of commerce, 74 of the countryside communities. The number of members of the country commission is 6, that of the deputees in the Reichsrat 63. The magistrates of Lemberg and Cracow and 74 districts (Bezirkshauptmannschaften) are subordinate to the stadholdership in Lemberg. The districts have autonomous district councils. In regard to jurisdiction, the supreme court in Lemberg with country court, 7 circle and 105 district courts and the supreme court at Cracow with country court, 4 circle and 57 district courts operate. Finanmcial administration is conducted by the counry financial directiory with 12 district financial directories, the customs offices, tax offices etc. For trade and economy the postal administration, the mining authority in Cracow, and the 3 chambers of commerce (Lemberg, Cracow, Brody) are responsible. Galicia's coat of arms, in the Empire's coat, fills the lower left corner. It is formed by a blue shield vertically parted, and adorned with a crown; on the right (for Galicia) a small red horizontal beam in a blue field with a black bird above and three tipped crowns below, on the left (for Lodemeria) two checkered horizontal beams (silver, red) in a blue field. The coat for Auschwitz (Oswiecim) is a red one-headed eagle in a blue field with the letter O, for Zator a white eagle in a blue fiield with the letter Z. The country's colour is blue and red. Galicia's parons are St. Michael and St. Stanislaw. The capital is Lemberg. For the administrative division see table above.
History. Galicia, the name of which derives from Slavic Halicz, and which in a historical sense describes the land north of the Carpathians east of the river San, in a modern sense also the former White Chorwatia, to the west of this river, since its conquest by the Lechs or Poles called "Little Poland" or the Duchy of Cracow-Sandomir (thus : East and West Galicia), has a partially Polish, partially Ukrainian or Ruthenian/Rusyn population, because the elder Chorwato-Serbian population moved off southward. So the history of the country is closely connected with that of Poland and Russia. The western part, in a historical sense Galicia proper, since the 10th century depended on the Polish Grand Prince at Cracow, while the eastern part, Wladimir (Lodomeria), named after its conqueror Wladimir the Great, was under the Grand Prince of Kiev, and in those days was called "Red Russia" (Cervonaja Rus). Since Wladimirko (1145) of the dynasty of the Wladimirovici the name Halicz (after the capital) appears. For a long time the country saw feuds and succession struggles, which proved an obstacle to the development of poluitical independence. The expulsion of Prince Vladimir of Galicia was used as an opportunity by King Bela III. of Hungary in order to claim the title "King of Galicia" for himself (1190), and to appoint his son Andreas as stadholder of Galicia. With Polish aid, Wladimir expelled the hated Andreas, and was restored in Galicia by King Casimir in 1191. When he died childless in 1198, Roman Prince of Wladimir, with Polish sdupport, took possession of Galicia and merged it with Lodomeria. Energetic Prince Roman succeeded in maintaining his independence of Poland and Hungary. But after his death (1205), disunity and weakness returned, and succession struggles provided frequent opportunity for the neighbouring powers to interfere; sometimes Polish, sometimes Hungarian influence prevailed. After extended struggle in 1215 an agreement was made according to which Daniel, Roman's son was to get Lodomeria, while Galicia was to fall to Koloman, the second son of the King of Hungary. The latter was to marry the daughter of King Lesko of Poland. In 1215 the archbishop of Gran crowned Koloman to King of Galicia. In 1220 he was expelled by Prince Mstislaw of Nowgorod, who gave Galicia to Andreas, son of King Andreas of Hungary. Andreas in 1228 had to give way to Daniel Romanowic Prince of Lodomeria, who gave Lodomeria to his brother Basil, and who in 1235 attended, as a Hungarian vassall, the coronation of King Bela IV. In 1244 Daniat accepted tributary status toward the Tatars, but simultaneously, converting from Orthodoxy to Catholicism, asked Pope Innocent for aid, and in 1253 at Drogitschin was crowned King of Galicia by a papal legate. When papal aid failed to materialize, in 1257 Daniel cut all ciommunication with the papal see and returned to Orthodox faith. With prudence he maintained his rule among threatening powers, and the land flourished. Following his death in 1266 he was succeeded by his youngest son, Schwamo, who united Lithuania with Galicia. He was followed in Galicia by his elder brother Leo, who ruled Kiev (won by Roman), Galicia and Lodomeria, but who focussed only on Galicia which he newly fortified. The immigration of numerous Cracovians, during a famine in Cracow, contributed to Galicia's prosperity. When Roman's line ended in 1335/1340 (with Georg and Boleslaw) King Casimir III. of Poland took the Principality of Galicia with Lemberg in possession, and in 1349 also Lodomeria. In 1352 King Louis of Hungary resigned his claims on Galicia, under the condition that after Casimir's death Galicia should fall to Hungary. When Casimir died in 1370 without sons, Louis the Great also became King of Poland, Galicia and Lodomeria, and introduced Catholicism in both principalities. he marriage of his daughter Jadwiga with Grand Duke Jagiello of Lithuania resulted in Galicia returning to Poland, with which it remained until the partition of the latter. Relations with Litle Poland intensified until both merged into one country. During the First Polish Partition (1772) the areas which now form Galicia (together 80,000 square km), under the title Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria came to Austria, after Empress Maria Theresia had claimed the title since 1741, and included it in her coat of arms since 1769. In 1786 Austria annexed the Bukovina (Austrian since 1777) with Galicia. In the last partition of Poland (1795) Austria received also the northern areas bordered by Bug and Plica, under the name of New or West Galicia, while the older parts were called Old or East Galicia. Already in the Treaty of Vienna 1809 Austria had to cede all of West Galicia with Cracow and the district on he right bank of the Vistula, as well as the circles Zamosc in East Galicia (50,000 square km and 1,470,000 inhabitants) to the Duchy of Warsaw, the circle of Tarnpol (9000 square km with 400,000 inhabitants) to Russia. The Vienna Congress 1815 left West Galicia with Poland, while the part of East Galicia previously ceded to Russia was returned to Austria, while a part of the area previously ceded by East Galicia to Poland now came to the new Republic of Cracow. The latter since 1830 was a center of Polish conspiracies, which from here spread into Galicia. When in 1846 a general insurrection with the aim of restoring Poland was attempted, Austrian, Prussian and Russian troops entered Cracow, while the Ruthenian peasants rose against the Polish nobility and took gruesome revenge for its oppression. The three protecting powers agreed to dissolve the Republic of Cracow and to annex it into the Austrian monarchy Nov. 6th 1846. In 1849, with the title of a Grand Duchy, it was formally annexed into Galicia, while the Bukovina was made a separate crown land. During the struggle between the nationalities within the Austrian monarchy, the Poles strove for a greater degree of autonomy. Since the introduction of the February Constitution they achieved their goal, by sending deputees to the Reichsrat and by outwardly showing loyalty to the Empire, but by making their approval to government suggestions dependable on concessions regarding the autonomy of Galicia. So they achieved full autonomy for the diet in which the Poles held the overwhelming majority; they used it to move aside Germanness and to fully suppress the Ruthenians; all offices were entrusted to Poles. In the ministry they were represented by several ministers; in the Reichsrat they palyed a decisive role, so that they could gain preferential treatment for Galicia when it came to railroad construction, the fixation of taxes etc. see. Hoppe, Geschichte von G. und Lodomerien (Wien 1793); Engel, Geschichte von Halitsch und Wladimir (bis 1772; das. 1793, 2 Tle.); Schmedes, Geographisch-statistische Übersicht Galiziens (2. Aufl., Lemb. 1869); Lipp, Verkehrs- u. Handelsverhältnisse Galiziens (Prag 1870); Szujski, Die Polen und Ruthenen in G. (Teschen 1882); Jandaurek, Das Königreich G. etc. (Wien 1884); "Spezial-Ortsrepertorium von G." (hrsg. von der k. k. statistischen Zentralkommission, Wien 1886).

source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

Nordisk Fasmiljebok 1908, Article : Galizien
Galicia, crown land of the Empire of Austria, full title "Kingdom Galicia and Lodomeria with the Grand Duchy of Warsaw and the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator". It is located between 18 degrees 56 minutes and 26 degrees 30 minutes eastern longitude and 47 degrees 44 minutes and 50 degrees 48 minutes northern latitude and borders in the North on Poland, in the East on Russia, in the South on Bukovina and Hungary and in the west on Austrian and Prussian Silesia. 78,532 square km, 7,495,606 inhabitants (1902), 95 inhabitants per square km. The southern part of Galicia is highland between 300 and 2000 m altitude above the sea, as the country covers the northern slopes of the Beskides, the Tatra and the Forest Carpathians. The highest elevations are in the Beskides the Babiagora (1,725 m), in the Galician Tatra Polska Grat 2,191 m, in the Forest Carpathians Czornahora (2,025 m). In the central part the country has many small hills, toward the north toward the Dniestr and Vistula it is lowland. To the North of the former stretches the Volhynian Plate into northwestern Galicia, where it reaches an altitude of 400 m. In the eastern part of Galicia, the lain contains a number of small hills, which are believed to be man-made. Also a number of funnels are found, i.e. funnel-shaped deepenings in the landscape, which have a circumference of 40 to 110 m. Northern Galicia has several strong waterfalls and is rich in lakes and cavities. More than 400 rivers irrigate the land. 51 % belong to the Vistula river system, with the tributaries Sola, Skawa, Dunajec (with Poprad), Wisloka,. San and Bug, the remainder belongs to the Dnjestr, Pruth, ereth and Styr river systems, i.e. the area draining into the Black Sea. The climate is distinctly continental, the temperature extremes in Cracow range from +30.9 degrees Celsius to -21.2 degrees Celsius. The average annual temperature in this city is 7.9 degrees, in Lemberg 8.1 degrees. Sonklar calculates the country's average annual rainfall as 730 mm. Without protection against northern and northeastern winds Galicia has a late spring, a short summer, and a long, cold winter.
Galicia's main sources of income are agriculture and forestry. Of the entire area, 96.65 % is productive soil; the cultivated soil makes up 50 %, while forests cover merely a quarter (25.76 %). Agriculture, although not conducted on a high level, in good years produces way more than the domestic consumption. Most grown are rye, wheat, oats and potatos, further grain, maize, buckwheat, millet. Further much cultivated are sugarbeets, rapeseed, flax, hemp, tobacco, hop and fodder plants. Large amounts of tree products are exported. In Galicia is found a small, but enduring race of horses (the Huzul race), and in regard to horse breeding Galicia holds thev first place in the monarchy (over 100 stud farms). Exports of domestic animals are of considerable value. In the foress, among others, bears, wolves and lynxes are hunted. The most important mineral products are salt, petrol and coal. In 1901 144.5 million kg salt were produced, in part mineral salt from the mines at Wieliczka and Bochnia, in part common salt from nine salines. Petrol is pumped from about 2,000 boreholes in the area of Jaslo, Boryslaw and Kolomea. Production ncreased to 450,000 tons. Coal is mined, among others, near Cracow (1901 987,900 tons). Other mining products include lead and zinc ore, ozokerit, lignite and iron ore. The industry is not very developed; most important are the textile industry in and around Biala, distilleries and breweries, petrol refineries, sawmills, tobacco processing industry, flour mills and sugar refineries. Trade is mostly in the hands of the Jews and rather lively. Mostly raw materials are exported, while industrial products are imported. Of importance is the transit trade between western Austria on one side, Germany and Russia on the other. It is mostly conducted by railroad, of which in 1900 3,584 km were found in the country. Navigable waterways were 2,103 km long. The number of post and telegraph offices in the same year was 883.
The population grows fast, from 1890 to 1900 by 10.72 %. In regard to ilegitimate births, Galicia and Bukovina stand out. In 1891-1900, the number was 100.9 per 1,000 unmarried women between 20 and 45 (in Sweden the figure was 37.8). he population consists (1900) mainly of Poles (54.75 %), mostly in western Galicia, under various local names (Gorals - mountainmen, Lachs - plainsmen, Lasoviaks - forest men), Krakoviaks, Podhalanes, Masurians etc., and of Ruthenians (42.2 %), mainly in eastern Galicia (Podolians and Volhynians in the plain, Huzuls and Boyks in the mountains). The river San may be regarded as the border between trhe mass of the Poles and the mass of the Ruthenians. Further there are Germans (211,752 / 2.91 %), West Slavs (Czechs, Moravians, Slovaks, together 9,014), and Jews. 3.95 million are Roman Catholics (mostly Poles), 3.1 million Greek Catholics (mostly Ruthenians), and 811,371 faithful to the Mosaic confession, further 1,532 Armenian christians and 45,331 Protestants. A Catholic archbishop resides in Lemberg, with two suffragan bishops (in Przemysl and Tarnow) and an exempt bishop in Cracow, a Greek Catholic archbishop in Lemberg with two suffragan bishops (in Przemysl and Stanislau) and an Armnian Catholic archbishop in Lemberg. The Protestants have two superintendens (in Biala) and the Jews 252 congregations.
The education of the people is still low, in part in consequence of the fact that only 83 % of the children underlying compulsory education attend school. Of institutions for higher education are found two universities in Cracow and Lemberg (both founded by Poles, but as the latter is concerned, the language of instruction in half the courses is Ruthenian), a technical and a veterinary college in Lemberg, an art conservatory in Cracow, an institution for advanced agriculture in Dublany, a forestry school in Lemberg, 3 theologian diocesan schools, 6 priest seminaries, 34 gymnasia (of which 5 exclusively Ruthenian, the majority using both Polish and Ruthenian as language of instruction, while Ruthenian is mandatory subject in two Polish gymnasia in Przemysl and Sokal) etc. Elementary schools were in 1906 : 2,383 Polish, 2,144 Ruthenian, 24 German. Further there were 230 private schools, almost all Polish. In Cracow an Imperial Academy of Sciences is found.In 1900 234 newspapers and magazines were issued.
Constitution and Administration. The diet has 161 members, part representing themselves, part elected by voters' classes. 106 deputees are sen to Austria's Reichsrat. The land is administrated by the stadholder in Lemberg. Both cities Lemberg and Cracow form separate administrative units; the remainder of the country is divided in 78 districts History. Galicia derives its name from the old Slavic castle and city Halicz (see there). From the beginning of history the country was inhabited by Slavic peoples. In the 9th century, western Galicia made up part of Svatopluk's Greater Moravian Empire and until the 10th century was contested by Bohemians and Poles until it was finally secured by the latter (under Boleslaw the Great, in 999). The princes of eastern Galicia resided mainly in Vladimir (of which Lodomeria is derived) and Halicz; from 981 they were mainly under Kiev, temporarily under Poland, until in 1087 a ukrainian dynasty, the Rostislavits, founded a state there. One of its rulers, Vladimir II. (1187-1198) is refered to as Prince Roman of Lodomeria, who after long quarrels in which Bela III. of Hungary and Casimir the Great of Poland got involved, succeeded in uniting Galicia proper (around Halicz) and Lodomeria (around Vladimir) under his dynasty. Both countries were separated in the succession struggles of the 13th century, and for some time (after 1250) they had to pay tribute to the Tatars. The city of Lvov (Lemberg) is named after Prince Lev (1270-1301), but was founded by his father Daniel. The Romanovich dynasty ended in 1324 with Prince Andrew of Lodomeria and Lev II. of Galicia, both of whom fell in battle against the Tatars. Casimir III. of Poland took possession of Galicia in 1340, of Lodomeria in 1349. Following his death in 1377, both countries were united with Hungary under Louis the Great, but in 1386 were returned to Poland, with which Galicia remained until 1772, when Maria Theresia, on the occasion of thev First Partition of Poland, as queen of Bohemia and Hungary, raised ancient partially Bohemian and partially Hungarian claims on large parts of the counry, which now form Galicia. It was turned into the present kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and divided into 18 circles. In 1786 the Bokovina (annexed in 1775) was added as the 19th circle, and on the occasion of the next Partition of Poland, Austria gaind further territory in the palatinates of Sandomierz, Cracow, Masovia and Podlachia, which were named West or New Galicia, while the older lands were called East or Old Galicia. In the Peace of Vienna 1809 Austria had to cede all of West Galicia with Cracow and half of the sal mine at Wieliczka as well as the circle of Zamosc in east Galicia to he newly established Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and in 1810 Russia annexed the circles Tarnopol and Zaleszezyki in East Galicia. The Vienna Congress (1815) returned these circles to Austria, plus the ceded half of Wieliczka, but left Poland (Russia) in he possession of West Galicia. The circle of Zamosc was left to the newly formed Republic of Cracow, which was placed under the common protection of Prussia, Russia and Austria. Since 1830 his little republic became a center of Polish agitation, and on the occasion of a rising in 1846 with the aim of the restoration of an independent Poland, Austrian, Prussian and Russian troops entered Cracow. According to an agrement of the three powers, the republic was annexed by the Auistrian monarchy, and in 1849, with the title of a Grand Duchy, at the same time of the separation of the Bukovina, integrated into Galicia. Already in the 1770es were undertaken attempts of Germanification in connection with the establishment of the university of Lemberg and the establishment of Germn gymnasia in several provincial towns. In the later part of the 19th century the Polish population element gradually asumed a dominant position. The Ruthenians for a while were encouraged by Vienna to counterbalance the Poles, who in the 1850es and 1860es tended toward revolution and Anti-Austrian thought, and were mistrusted by the central administration. Since the Polish population element has gained much stronger representation in the diet and Reichsrat, than they are entitled by their percentage of the population, and since 1879, when Polish became the official language of instruction at Lemberg university, the latter is completely dominated by Poles; not even a professorship for Ruthenian literature exists. The University of Cracow meanwhile has developed into the center for Polish intelligentsia from all formerly Polish territories. The nationality conflict between Poles and Ruthenians in the last decades has increased in sharpness and bitterness, while the Ruthenians split in the conservative pro-Russian Old Ruthenians and a radical Ukrainian or Hungarian-Ruthenian direction, the latter of which dream of the unification of all Ukrainian-speaking peoples, and the agitation of which recently has taken up revolutionary Russian methods, for instance the hunger strike of students at the University of Lemberg 1907, the murder of stadholder Count Alfred Potocki April 1908 etc. As contributing causes of the rift among the Ruthenians require attention especially the uneven organisation of voting districts, the administration's bias in favour of the Poles, the social imbalance in the countryside, the agitating activity of the Ruthenian peasant students and revolutionary radicalism.
See : Engel, Geschichte von Halitsch und Wladimir, 2 volumes 1793, Szujski, Die Polen und Ruthenen in Galizien (1882), Jandaurek, Das Königreich Galizien 1882, Kuptschanko, Die Schuicksale der Ruthenen (1887) and vol.19 of Die Österreichische Monarchie in Wort und Bild. (1898)

source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg





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