1815-1846 1867-1890
Congress Poland
Grand Duchy of Posen

Galicia 1846-1867

A.) The Rebellion of 1846

In 1846, patriots living in the REPUBLIC OF CRACOW patriots propagated a Polish rising; in Western Galicia a peasant rebellion (leader JAKUB SZELA) targetted estate owners, a number of whom were killed. Already in March, Cracow was occupied by Russian troops. The partitioning powers agreed that a free city would serve as a haven for revolutionaries. The city was annexed by Austria.
The revolutionary fever of 1848 also caused revolutionary committees to be formed in Cracow and Lvov. The revolutionaries split by ethnicity, the main organizations being the (Polish) NATIONAL COUNCIL and the (Ukrainian) SUPREME RUTHENIAN COUNCIL. The corvee was declared abolished; still violence erupted in West Galicia, targetting the nobility. Now Austrian troops entered the scene; Cracow surrendered after a short bombardment; the councils were dissolved.

B.) Austrian Administration 1846-1867

Briefly the territory was subjected to a policy of GERMANIFICATION; German was declared the official language of administration, jurisdiction and (higher) education.
In 1849, the revolution in Vienna, Prague and Hungary having been suppressed, COUNT A. GOLUCHOWSKI, a Polish nobleman, was appointed stadholder of Galicia, an indication for Viennese willingness to reconcile with the Polish nobility, which, after the events of 1846 and 1848 were fearful of revolution and social reform. Gradually, Galician autonomy was established. In 1860, Galicia was given a separate diet, organized in 4 Estates - clergy, high nobility, lower nobility, burghers.

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A Brief History of Poland in the Last 200 Years from genpoland, with maps
Commented Timeline of Polish History, 1807-1918 from Inside Poland
The 19th Century. Polish Wars and Uprisings, part 9 of A Brief History of Poland, by Polonia today
Revolution and Rebirth, chapter 4 of The History of Poland, by Mieczyslaw Kasprzyk
Articles from Encyclopedia of Revolutions of 1848 at ohiou : The Cracow Revolution of 1846,
the Galicia Revolution of 1848,
Halychina - Galicia, by Roman Zakhari (focussing on (Ruthenian) Eastern Galicia
Little Poland, Halicka Province, posted by Paul Havers, Polish Perspective
REFERENCE Enno Meyer, Grundzüge der Geschichte Polens (Main Features of Polish History), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft 1977
Manfred Hellmann, Daten der Polnischen Geschichte (Dates in Polish History), München : dtv 1985

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2000. last revised on November 11th 2004

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