1871-1890 World War I
Galicia 1890-1914 Polish National Movement

Province Posen 1890-1914

With Bismarck's dismission in 1890 ended the Kulturkampf. However, the Polish representatives in the Reichstag formed a solid block in the opposition. In 1894 the DEUTSCHER OSTMARKENVEREIN (German Eastern March Association, often named HKTists or Hakatists after their leaders Hansemann, Kennemann and Tiedemann) was founded, an organization which strongly supported the policy of Germanification of the province. In 1901 it was ordered that school instruction in religion had to be given in German language; this triggered local school strikes, which in 1906 appeared province-wide, extending even into West Prussia and the Ermland (61,000 participants).
In 1908 the Prussian Landtag passed a law for the purpose of strengthening the German-ness in the provinces of Posen and West Prussia; it permitted the expropriation of Polish-owned land. The law was rarely applied; however it showed the impartiality of the Prussian legislation. A law on clubs and societies prescribed that club correspondence, protocols etc. had to be held in German language.

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A Brief History of Poland during the last 200 years, from genpoland , encyclopedic, many maps
The Awakening of the Polish Nation, 1870-1914, ch.11 from Henry Bogdan, From Warsaw to Sofia
Deutsche Zollgeschichte : Russland, from Deutsche Zollgeschichte, postcards featuring the border between Germany/ German Poland to Russian Poland/Lithuania, commented in German
DOCUMENTS Maps : Posen 1882, West Prussia 1882, from Blackie & Sons Atlas (Edinburgh, 1882), posted by FEEFHS
List of Polish statesmen, from World Statesmen by Ben Cahoon
Catalog of Polish Banknotes : Prussian Poland
REFERENCE Enno Meyer, Grundzüge der Geschichte Polens (Main Features of Polish History), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft 1977
Manfred Hellmann, Daten der Polnischen Geschichte (Dates in Polish History), München : dtv 1985
Triloyalism and the National Revival : Prussian Poland, pp.27-35 in : R.F. Leslie (ed.), The History of Poland since 1863, Cambridge : UP (1980) 1989 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on March 16th 2002, last revised on May 8th 2006

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