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Poland Livonia
First posted March 27th 2004, last revised on July 13th 2011







The territory of the historic Duchy of Courland and Semigallia became part of Terra Mariana in the course of the conquest of the latter by the Brethren of the Sword in the 13th century.
When Terra Mariana disintegrated in the 1560s, the Duke of Courland and Semigallia placed himself under the protection of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1562-1569), and the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, by the Union of Lublin, became a protectorate of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569-1795). In the 3rd Polish Partition of 1795, the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was annexed by the Russian Empire. It was transformed into Courland Gubernia; Stift Pilten was annexed.

Courland 1561-1641 . Courland 1641-1795

Historical Atlas : Courland Page







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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Modern Articles : Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, from Wikipedia
Articles : Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen, from Wikipedia German edition
The Duchy of Courland, by Ray A. Ceaser
Historical Courland, Livonia and Estonia. Confidential Handbooks No.57, 1919, from the British Foreign Office, posted on the Web by jewishgen.org
Links, on History Category : Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, from Wikipedia
Virtual Library History : Latvia; Internet Resources for Latvian Studies : History, from Slavweb, click history
Organizations Courland Research Group
Latvijas Muzeju Biedriba (in Latvian)
Latvian Genealogical Society; Association of the Four Baltic Noble Corporations, Livonia, Estonia, Courland, and Oesel (Baltische Ritterschaften)
Institut für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen in Nordosteuropa at Universität Hamburg
Latvijas Institute
Historical Dictionary Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens, in German
Timelines Courland, from Timetable of Latvian History, by Karlis R. Zikmanis
Accounts of History general, modern History of Latvia, from vernet
History, Language, Identity and Culture of Latvia. A Brief Synopsis, from Lettland.nu
general, historical K.W. Cruse, Curland unter den Herzögen, vol.1, 1833, vol.2, 1833, in German, GB
O. von Ruthenberg, Geschichte der Ostseeprovinzen, Liv-, Esth-, und Kurland (1860) in German, posted on Internet Archive
E. Seraphim, Geschichte Liv-, Est- und Kurlands von der "Aufsegelung" des Landes bis zur Einverleibung in das russische Reich (1895) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods
Military Article : Great Northern War, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances
Social History Courland and the Courlandic Knightage, from Baltische Ritterschaften
Friedrich Georg von Bunge, Geschichtliche Entwickelung der Standesverhältnisse in Liv-, Esth- und Curland bis zum Jahre 1561, 1838, in German, GB
Ethnography
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses, Latvia, from Kirken i Norge
Jewish Virtual History Tour : Latvia, from Jewish Virtual Library; Latvia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category : Religion in Latvia, from Wikipedia
Andres Andresen, The Reconfiguration of Lutheran Church Organization in the Baltic Region from the 1520s to 1917
Geographical Regions for the JewishGen Latvia Database : Courland Gubernia
History of Regions
Local History
Institutions
Culture Internet Resources for Latvian Studies : Culture, from Slavweb, click culture
Biographies Baltische Biographische Lexika (Baltic Biographical Lexica), in German
J.F. von Recke, Allgemeines Schriftsteller- und Gelehrten-Lexikon der Provinzen Livland, Esthland und Kurland, vol.II : G-K, 1829, vol.III : L-R, 1831, Supplements vol.I : A-K, 1859, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Ch.A. Tiedge, Anna Charlotte Dorothea: Letzte Herzogin von Kurland (1823) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Others Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
F.G. von Bunge, Einleitung in die Liv-, Esth- und curländische Rechtsgeschichte und Geschichte der Rechtsquellen, 1849, in German, posted on Internet Archive
F.G. von Bunge, Geschichte des Gerichtswesens und Gerichtsverfahrens in Liv-, est- und Curland, 1874, posted on Internet Archive

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Courland>
Titles of European Hereditary Rulers :
Courland and Semigallia
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Latvia, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
Online Yearbooks Europäisches genealogisches Handbuch : Hertzog von Curland, 1752 pp.94-95, 1756 pp.98-99, 1763 pp.107-108, 1766 pp.112-113, 1768 pp.114-115, 1770 pp.115-116, 1772 pp.111-112, 1774 pp.109-110, 1776 pp.109-110, 1780 pp.116-117, 1782 pp.118-119, 1784 pp.119-120, 1786 pp.122-124, 1788 pp.117-119, 1790 pp.121-123, 1792 pp.114-116, 1794 pp.111-113, in German, GB
J.Ch. Poncelin de la Roche Tilhac, Etat des Cours de l'Europe et des Provinces de France pour l'annee ... vol.1 MDCCCLXXXIV 1783 p.274, vol.2 MDCCCLXXXV, 1785, pp.293-294, in French, GB
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Military Orders of Kurland, from Orders of the World
Archival Deposits Online
Archival Deposits Catalogue Online P.K. Grimsted, Archives and manuscript repositories in the USSR, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belorussia, 1981, posted on Internet Archive
Dokumentesammlung des Herder-Instituts, mainly Baltic documents
Document Collections
Historical Maps links
overview, modern Maps : Europe in the Year 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, from Euratlas
overview, historic K.R. Kupffer, Baltische Landeskunde : Atlas (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
List of Maps of the (former Swedish) Baltic Provinces, kept in RA Stockholm, Krigsarkivet, some of them clickable; comment in Swedish
detail, historic
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General
Religious
Economic La Curlande, la Prusse, la Pomeranie, in vol.1 of J. Savary de Bruslons, Dictionnaire Universel De Commerce, 1723, in French, GB
Of the Trade of Courland, Prussia and Pomerania, pp.713-714, in W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva, 1773, GB
Liebau, p.146, in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Political Churland, pp.573-575 in F.L. Bressler, Die Heutigen Christlichen Souverainen von Europa, 1698, in German, GB
Churland, pp.573-575 in F.L. Bressler, Des Heiligen Römischen Reiches Haupt und Glieder, nebenst dem angräntzenden Schweitzerland, 1699, in German, GB
Le Duc de Curlande, pp.48-55 in vol.4 of F.L. Bressler, Les Souverains du Monde, 1718, in French, GB
Le Duc de Curlande, pp.42-53 in vol.5 of F.L. Bressler, Les Souverains du Monde, 1734, in French, GB
Du Duc de Courlande, pp.575-576 in vol.2 of J.R. de Missy, Le Ceremonial diplomatique des cours de l' Europe, 1739, in French, GB
Gouvernement de Curlande, pp.659-671 in vol.2 of G. de Real de Curbon, La science du gouvernement, 1762, in French, GB
Courland, pp.216-217 in vol.3 of E. Toze, The present state of Europe, 1770, GB
Geographical La Courlande, in A. du Bois, La Geographie moderne, naturelle historique & politique 1736, in French, GB
Courland, pp.654- in vol.1 of A.F. Büsching, A new system of geography 1762, GB
Courland, pp.68-70 in vol.2 of D. Fenning, J. Collyer, A new system of geography, or a general description of the world, 1765, GB
Article : Curlande, p.483 in Encyclopedie Methodique : Geographie, 1783, in French, GB
Historical The Present State of Poland : Courland, p.739 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
Geschichte von Curland bis zur Huldigung Ernst Johanns und Bestätigung des bironischen Hauses in der Regierung desselben, pp.467-560 in vol.14 of Allgemeine Weltgeschichte, 1777, in German, GB
Livonie et Courlande pp.87-115 in vol.22, Duche de Courlande jusqu'en 1717, pp.398-415 in vol.34 of Maximilian-Samson-Friedrich Schöll, Cours d'histoire des Etats Europeens, depuis le bouleversement de l'empire romain d'Occident jusqu'en 1789, 1832, in French, GB
Travelogues J. Bernoulli, Reisen durch Brandenburg, Pommern, Preussen, Curland, Russland und Pohlen in den Jahren 1777 und 1778 vol.1, 1779, vol.2, 1779, vol.3, 1779, in German, GB
Institutions Archives National Archives of Latvia
Regional State Archives, Jelgava
Musea
Monuments
Libraries Latvian National Library
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Historical Flags of Courland, from FOTW
Coat of Arms, Kurzeme, from International Civic Heraldry
Coins Coinage of the Baltic Countries : Duchy of Courland, 1561-1795

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Courland Bibliography of Courland's Colonial Policy, by Marco Ramerini
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Elektronische Angebote; Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Digitale Sammlungen; Gallica
Scandinavian Digital Libraries and Projects, from Wess Web; Project Runeberg; Sveriges Nationalbibliotek : Digitale Samlingar
on Courland National Library of Latvia : Digital-Library
Central and Eastern European Online Library
Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
Online Journals full text online
Contents Online
General Accounts Andrejs Plakans, The Latvians, a Short History, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 1995, 257 pp.
Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Westport CT : Greenwood 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.9 O18h
Reinhard Wittram, Baltische Geschichte. Die Ostseelande Livland, Estland und Kurland 1180-1918 (Baltic History. The Baltic Lands of Livonia, Estonia and Courland, 1180-1918), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft (1954) 1973, in German
David G. Kirby, The Baltic World 1772-1993, London : Longman 1995