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Posen Congress Poland
First posted on June 5th 2005, last revised on September 24th 2010






For the history prior to 1914, see under Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1569-1795. The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria was a product of the First Polish Partition of 1772 (the section annexed by Austria). It remained under Austrian rule until 1918. In 1846 the hitherto Free City of Krakow was annexed. In 1848 the Bukovina, hitherto an annex to Galicia and Lodomeria, was declared a separate Austrian crownland. Until 1867 the administration pursued a policy of promoting German culture; in 1867 Galicia was granted autonomy. While the population was composed of Poles and Ukrainians (then referred to as Ruthenians) in roughly equal numbers (plus etyhnic minorities), the administration of autonomous Galicia and Lodomeria was dominated Poles who exposed the other vethnicities, most notably the Ukrainians, to a policy of Polonization. In 1918 West Galicia joined Poland, East Galicia formed Western Ukraine. Following the Russo-Polish War, all of former Galicia and Lodomeria was annexed into the Republic of Poland (1921).

Galicia 1890-1914 . Galicia 1867-1890 . Galicia 1846-1867 . Galicia 1815-1846 . Galicia 1795-1815 . Galicia 1772-1795

Historical Encyclopedias on Galicia, 1857-1902

See also Poland in Exile

Historical Atlas, Poland Page
List of Wars, Poland Page

Students' Papers : Lee, Si eun, Nations unhappy with foreign monarchs : Poland under Russia, Prussia/Germany and Austria, in Historic Encyclopedias (2009)






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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles modern Article Galicia, from Wikipedia
Article Galizien, from Wikipedia German edition
Halychina - Galicia, by Roman Zakhari (focussing on (Ruthenian) Eastern Galicia
Little Poland, Halicka Province, posted by Paul Havers, Polish Perspective
Galizien : Basisinformationen (Galicia : Basic Information), from Galizien Online, in German
Article Galicie, from Speedy Look
Article : Galizien, from GenWiki, in German
historical S. Tomaszewski, Die weltpolitische Bedeutung Galiziens (1915) in German, posted on Internet Archive
S. Bergmann, Galizien, seine kulturelle und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung (1912) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Links on History Category : Galicia (Central Europe), from Wikipedia
Kategorie : Galizien, from Wikipedia German edition
Clio Online, keyword Galizien; German language History Portal
Galizien Online, in German
Organizations
Historical Dictionary
Timelines Timeline of Galician History, from Toronto Ukrainian Genealogy Group
Chronology of Delatyn, Galicia, from JewishGen Shtetl Links
Accounts of History General, Modern History of Galicia, from Toronto Ukrainian Genealogy Group
Article Geschichte Galiziens, from Wikipedia German edition
Article Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, from Wikipedia
General, Historical L.A. Gebhardi, Geschichte des Grossfürstenthums Siebenbürgen und der Königreiche Gallizien .. (1808) in German, posted on Internet Archive
A.J. Gross-Hoffinger, Die Theilung Polens und die Geschichte der oesterreichischen Herrschaft in Galizien, 1847, in German, GB
Specific Periods Anon., Galizien und der panslavismus: beitrag zu den akten ?er die ereignisse in Polen und Galizien im Jahre 1846, 1847, in German, GB
Military
Economy & Finances Petroleum in Galicia, from JewishGen Shtetl Links
Article : Wieliczka Salt Mine, from Wikipedia
S. Bergmann, Galizien, seine kulturelle und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung (1912) in German, posted on Internet Archive
L. Cwiklinski, Wirtschaftliche Zustände Galiziens in der Gegenwart (1913) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Social History
Ethnography Articles History of the Ukrainian Minority in Poland, Repatriation of Ukrainians from Poland to USSR 1944-1946, Repatriation of Poles 1944-1946, Repatriation of Poles 1955-1959, Operation Wisla, from Wikipedia
The Germans from Galicia, by Manfred Prokop
R.F. Kaindl, Geschichte der Deutschen in den Karpathenländern, v.2, v.3 (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
A. Dabczanski, Die ruthenische Frage in Galizien, 1848, in German, GB
D. Zubrzycki, Gränzen zwischen der russinischen und polnischen Nation in Galizien, 1849, in German, GB
Galiziendeutsche
Galicia, pp.247-250 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Religion Arnold Bachmann, Galiziens Mennoniten auf der Wanderschaft (Galicia's Mennonites on the Wandering Path), posted on Galizien Online, in German
Jews of Galicia, from Haruth
Article History of the Jews in Galicia, from Wikipedia
Category : Jewish Galician History, from Wikipedia
Piotr Wrobel, The Jews of Galicia under Austro-Polish Rule 1867-1918
Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lviv, from GCatholic
W.J. Birkbeck, Religious persecution in Galicia (Austrian Poland) (1912), posted on Internet Archive
J.V. Goehlert, Die Karaiten und Mennoniten in Galizien, 1862, in German, GB
Historische Skizze über die Dotation des ruthenischen Clerus in Galizien, 1861, in German, GB
Article : Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, from Wikipedia
Regions Allgemeiner Ukrainischer Nationalrat, Die Schaffung einer ukrainischen Provinz in Österreich (1915) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Local History Articles History of Krakow, History of Lviv, Przemysl : History, Ivano-Frankivsk : History (Stanislawow), Ternopil : History, Tarnow : History, Prato, Siena : History, from Wikipedia
Institutions Structurae : Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Swietokryszie Voivodeship, Silesian Voivodeship, Lesser Voivodeship
Jagiellonian University in Krakow
Article : Lviv University, from Wikipedia
Culture
Biographies O. Titan von Hefner, Neues Wappenbuch des blühenden Adels im Königreiche Galizien, 1863, in German, GB
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen List of governors, from World Statesmen by Ben Cahoon
Lists of Bishops Archbishop of Krakow : List of Bishops and Archbishops, from Wikipedia
List of Roman Catholic Archbishops of Lviv; List of Major-Archbishops of Kiev-Galicia, from Wikipedia
Population Figures Population Galizien 1819-1866, Zator 1819-1866, from HGIS
Documents Historical Newspapers see G.M. König, Die Zeitschriftenlandschaft der Habsburgermonarchie in den slawischen Ländern der habsburger Monarchie vor 1848 und die Wiener Unterhaltungsblätter als Quellen 2008, in German
Lemberger Zeitung [1811-1864] 1812 II, 1813 II, 1814 1815, 1816, 1817 1819, 1820, 1821, 1822, 1824, 1825, 1826, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1834, 1836, 1837, 1839, 1840, 1843, 1844, 1847, GB
Gazeta Lwowska [1811-1939] 1812, 1813, 1814, 1816, 1817, 1818, 1821, 1823 I, 1823 II, 1825, 1844, in Polish, GB
Simplicissimus 1896-1944, Index (p.138), Volumes 5 cartoons on Galizien, more on places in G.; in German
New York Times Archive 1851-1980 has 5,177 articles on Galicia
The Jewish Chronicle, English language newspaper published since 1841, all issues online, has 1964 articles on Galicia
Newspaper / Magazine Articles
Staatskalender Links, from GenWiki
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Krakow Archives - Jewish Records, from Shtetl Links
Constitutions, Laws Provinzial-Gesetzsammlung des Königreichs Galizien und Lodomerien 1825, 1826, in German, GB
Document Collections Poland Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Magna charta von Galizien, oder, Untersuchung der Beschwerden des Galizischen Adels Pohlnischer Nation über die österreichische Regierung, 1790, in German, GB
Memoiren und Actenstücke aus Galizien, im jahre 1846, von einem Mähren, 1847, in German, GB
Historical Maps Krakow 1911, L'viv 1911, from Discus Media
External Online Maps : Cracovia 15th C., Cracovia 1492, from Mappa di Citta ed Altra Mappe Antiche Diverse
Galizien : Verwaltungskreise 1906-1914 (Administrative Districts 1906-1914), from Galizien Online, in German
City Panoramas 1750, from Historic Maps, Krakau
Ungarn, Galizien, Siebenbürgen, from Sohr-Berghaus, 4th ed., 1847, Galizien und Bukowina, from Sohr-Berghaus, 8th ed., 1892, Lemberg & Environs, from Sohr-Berghaus, 8th ed. 1892, posted by M. Witkam
Maps : Galicia 1882, from Blackie & Sons Atlas (Edinburgh, 1882), posted by FEEFHS
Map : Austria-Hungary (borders of Catholic Dioceses; from Streit, Atlas Hierarchicus 1913), posted by M. Witkam
Maps of Galicia, from Galizien German Descendants
Historic Maps : Galizien (Galicia), from Familienchronik Jursitzky
Ethnic-Administrative Map of Galicia 1910, from Köztes Europa
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article : Galizien und Lodomerien, pp.491-492 in vol.4 of Allgemeine deutsche Real-Encyklopädie für die gebildeten Stände, 1830, in German, GB
Articles Galicia, Austria, Brody, Cracow, Lemberg, Przemysl, Stanislau, Tarnopol, Tarnow, from EB 1911
Articles Galizien, Biala, Bobrka, Bochnia, Bohorodczany, Borszczow, Brody, Brzesko, Brezezan, Brzozow, Buczacz, Chrzanow, Czortkow, Dabrowa, Dolina, Drohobycz, Gorlice, Grodek, Horodenka, Jaroslaw, Jaslo, Jaworow, Kalusz, Kamionka, Kolbuszow, Kolomea, Krakau, Krosno, Lancut, Lemberg, Mielec, Mosciska, Nadworna, Neumarkt, Sandec, Podhajce, Przemysl, Rohatyn, Rzeszow, Sambor, Sanok, Saybusch, Skalat, Sniatyn, Sokal, Stanislau, Staremiasto, Stryi, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnopol, Tarnow, Tlumacz, Trembowla, Turka, Wadowice, Wieliczka, Zaleszczyki, Zbaraz, Zloczow, Zolkiew, Zydaczow, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Cracow, Tarnow, Ruthenians, Lemberg, Stanislawow, Przemysl, Union of Brest, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Articles Galicia, Austria, Bolechow, Cracow, Lemberg, Przemysl, Tarnopol, Tarnow, Yaroslav, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Galizien, Lodomerien und die Bukowina, pp.580-582 in vol.2 of C.Fr. Staeudlin, Kirchliche Geographie u. Statistik, 1804, in German, GB
Province of Lvoff, p.46 in J.M. Neale, A History of the Holy Eastern Church, 1850, GB
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Brody, Galizien und Lodomirien, Lemberg, posted by DTBSWS
Geographical Kingdom of Gallicia, or Austrian Poland, pp.675-692 in vol.6 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography, or, a description of all parts of the world 1828, GB
Austrian Poland, pp.138-140 in vol.2 of H. Murray et al., The encyclop?ia of geography, 1839, GB
Historical
Tour Guides Jozef Krasinski, Guide du voyageur en Pologne et dans la republique de Cracovie, 1820, in French, GB
A. Schmidl, Reisehandbuch durch da Königreich Böhmen, Mähren, Schlesien, Galizien, die Bukowina und nach Jassy, 1836, in German, GB
Travelogues J. Holman, Travels through Russia, Siberia, Poland, Cracow, Austria, Bohemia, Saxony, Prussia, Hanover &c. &c, undertaken in the years 1822, 1823 and 1824, 1834, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Institutions Archives Archiwum Panstwowe w Krakowie
D. Peltz, Central State Historical Archives of Ukraine in Lviv
State Archives of Lviv Region
Musea Czartoryski Museum, Krakow
Article : Historical Museum of Krakow, from Wikipedia
Article : Lviv National Museum, from Wikipedia
Monuments Wawel Royal Castle
Libraries Jagiellonian Library in Krakow
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of the Kgd. of Galicia and Lodomeria, from FOTW
Coat of Arms, from Hic Leones
Coins Catalog of Polish Banknotes : Austrian Poland

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Galicia Historia Galiciae et Lodomiriae, p.505 in vol.8 of J.D. Reuss, Repertorium commentationum a societatibus litterariis editarum, 1810, GB
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
on Galicia Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
Central and Eastern European Online Library
Electronic Library of Ukrainian Literature
National Digital Library, Poland
Online Journals full text online
Contents Online
General Accounts
Specific Topics Joachim Rogall, Land der grossen Ströme. Von Polen nach Litauen. Deutsche Geschichte im Osten Europas (Land of the Large Streams. From Poland to Lithuania. German History in Europe's East), Berlin : Siedler 1996; in German
Triloyalism and the National Revival : Austrian Poland, pp.8-26 in : R.F. Leslie (ed.), The History of Poland since 1863, Cambridge : UP (1980) 1989 [G]
Historical Atlas W. Czaplinski, T. Ladogorski, The Historical Atlas of Poland, Wroclaw : State Cartographic Publishers 1986 [G]