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Kovno Gubernia Livland Gubernia
First posted on September 23rd 2010

The territory of the historic Courland Gubernia became part of Terra Mariana in the course of the conquest of the latter by the Brethren of the Sword in the 13th century.
When Terra Mariana disintegrated in the 1560s, the Duke of Courland and Semigallia placed himself under the protection of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1562-1569), and the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, by the Union of Lublin, became a protectorate of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569-1795). In the 3rd Polish Partition of 1795, the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was annexed by the Russian Empire. It was transformed into Courland Gubernia; Stift Pilten was annexed.
During World War I Courland was occupied by German troops. In 1920/1922 it became part of the Republic of Latvia.

Courland 1795-1848 . Courland 1848-1880 . Courland 1880-1914 . Courland 1914-1920

Historical Atlas : Courland Page

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
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P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles modern from Wikipedia
historical H. von Bienenstamm, Geographischer Arbiss der drei deutschen Ostsee-Provinzen Russlands , 1826, in German, GB
L. Brunier, Kurland: Schilderungen von Land und Leuten, 1868, in German, GB
Courland, Livonia and Estonia. Confidential Handbooks No.57, 1919, from the British Foreign Office, posted on the Web by jewishgen.org
Links on History Category : Courland, from Wikipedia
Virtual Library History : Latvia; Internet Resources for Latvian Studies : History, from Slavweb, click history
Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
Organizations Courland Research Group
Baltische Historische Kommission, page in German; Latvia's History Commission, from MOFA Latvia
Latvijas Muzeju Biedriba (in Latvian)
Latvian Genealogical Society; Association of the Four Baltic Noble Corporations, Livonia, Estonia, Courland, and Oesel (Baltische Ritterschaften); click Kurland (Kurländische Ritterschaft)
Institut für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen in Nordosteuropa at Universität Hamburg
Latvijas Institute
Latvijas Vestures Skolotaju Asociacija (Latvian History Teachers Association)
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines Courland, from Timetable of Latvian History, by Karlis R. Zikmanis
Accounts of History General, Modern History of Latvia, from vernet
History, Language, Identity and Culture of Latvia. A Brief Synopsis, from Lettland.nu
General, Historical O. von Ruthenberg, Geschichte der Ostseeprovinzen, Liv-, Esth-, und Kurland (1860) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods
Military J.P. Deane, The law of blockade: as contained in the report of eight cases argued and determined in the High Court of Admiralty on the Blockade of the Coast of Courland, 1854, 1855, GB
Article : Crimean War, Latvian War of Independence, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances The Virtual Matchbox Labels Museum : List of the Match Factories of the Russian Empire, click Kurland Gubernia
Ethnography G.F. von Fircks, Die Letten in Kurland, 1804, in German, GB
Social History Courland and the Courlandic Knightage, from Baltische Ritterschaften
M. Lieven, Die Arbeitsverhältnisse des Grossgrundbesitzes in Kurland (1903) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Latvia, from Kirken i Norge
C. Joubert, The tyranny of faith : a story of Courland (1906), posted on Internet Archive
Jewish Virtual History Tour : Latvia, from Jewish Virtual Library; Latvia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Andres Andresen, The Reconfiguration of Lutheran Church Organization in the Baltic Region from the 1520s to 1917
Der kurländische Konsistorialbezirk, from Die evangelisch-lutherische Kirche in Russland 1914
History of Regions
Local History
Institutions Search Lighthouse Explorer for Latvia
Culture Internet Resources for Latvian Studies : Culture, from Slavweb, click culture
Alphabetism in the Baltic Provinces 1897, from Köztes Europa
Biographies Baltische Biographische Lexika (Baltic Biographical Lexica), in German

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Lists of Bishops
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Latvia, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
Documents Historical Newspapers
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits P.K. Grimsted, Archives and manuscript repositories in the USSR, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belorussia, 1981, posted on Internet Archive
Dokumentesammlung des Herder-Instituts, mainly Baltic documents
Constitutions, Laws Staatsrecht des Herzogtums Kurland 1795-1918, from verfassungen.eu, in German
Document Collections
Historical Maps links
overview, modern Maps : Europe in the Year 1800, 1900, from Euratlas
overview, historic K.R. Kupffer, Baltische Landeskunde : Atlas (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Map : Russian Baltic administrative, c.1895, from Wikipedia (Meyers Konversationslexikon 5th edition 1893-1897)
Map : Russian Baltic administrative, c.1890, from Retro Bibliothek (Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th edition 1885-1892)
detail, historic
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article : Courland, pp.110-111 in vol.8 of Penny cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 1837, GB
Religious Article : Russland, evangelische Kirche in, pp.177-185 in vol.13 of Real-encyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, 1860, GB
Economic Libau (in Russia), pp.207-209 in vol.1 of P. Kelly, The universal cambist, and commercial instructor, 1821, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Curland und Semgallen, posted by DTBSWS
Geographical The Government of Courland, pp.521-523 in vol.6 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography, or, a description of all parts of the world, 1828, GB
Tour Guides K. Baedeker, La Russie: manuel du voyageur, 1897, 1902, in French, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, Russland : Handbuch für Reisende, 1888, in German, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, St. Petersburg und Umgebung: Handbuch für Reisende 1901, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Travelogues J. Carr, A northern summer: or, Travels round the Baltic, through Denmark, Sweden, Russia, Prussia and part of Germany in the Year 1804, 1805, GB
L. Ritchie, A journey to St. Petersburg and Moscow through Courland and Livonia , 1836, GB
Institutions Archives
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Historical Flags of Courland, from FOTW
Coat of Arms, Kurzeme, from International Civic Heraldry

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Courland
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Courland
Online Journals full text online
Contents Online
Online Yearbooks full text online Mitauischer Kalender auf das Jahr 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1847, 1848, 1852, 1853, 1854, 1855, 1856, 1857, in German, GB
General Accounts Andrejs Plakans, The Latvians, a Short History, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 1995, 257 pp.
Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Westport CT : Greenwood 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.9 O18h
Reinhard Wittram, Baltische Geschichte. Die Ostseelande Livland, Estland und Kurland 1180-1918 (Baltic History. The Baltic Lands of Livonia, Estonia and Courland, 1180-1918), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft (1954) 1973, in German
David G. Kirby, The Baltic World 1772-1993, London : Longman 1995

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