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Finland Latvia
First posted on February 14th 2010

Following the Swedish defeat in the Battle of Poltava 1709, in 1710 the Estonian diet switched its allegiance from Sweden to the Russian Empire. As Estland Gubernia (or Reval / Revel Gubernia) it maintained political autonomy until 1918. The German-speaking minority - the entire nobility was German; German was the language of the administration of the cities, the guilds and the Lutheran church - maintained her control of the country. The majority Estonians were serfs, until liberated in 1816. The Russian administration in St. Petersburg long respected Estonia's autonomy, and only in the later half of the 19th century began to implement policies designed to undermine the German nobility's hold on the country.
In 1917 - World War I still going on - the Russian Revolution broke out, escalating into the Russian Civil War. Soon Estoinia was contested by Germany, Russia, the Russian Whites and Reds, and the newly proclaimed Republic of Estonia. The latter prevailed, her territory comprising of Estonia Gubernia and the northern half of Livland Gubernia. The introduction of Estonian as official language and a Land Reform broke the hold the German minority had held over the country.

Estonia 1914-1918 . . . see also Russian Empire
Estonia 1880-1914 . . . see also Russian Empire
Estonia 1848-1880 . . . see also Russian Empire
Estonia 1795-1848 . . . see also Russian Empire
Estonia 1721-1795 . . . see also Russian Empire
Historical Atlas : Estonia Page

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
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Biography Others
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P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Article : Governorate of Estonia from Wikipedia
Article : Gouvernement Estland, from Wikipedia German edition
Links, General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from SSEES; from Internet Archive
Links, on History Category : History of Estonia, from Wikipedia
Kategorie : Estnische Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Kategori : Estlands Historie, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Kategori : Estlands Historia, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
from Virtual Library History
Organizations Öpetatud Eesti Selts (Learned Estonian Society)
Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes against Humanity; Latvia's History Commission, from MOFA Latvia
Estonian Museum Association; Latvijas Muzeju Biedriba (in Latvian)
Eesti Genealoogia Selts (Estonian Genealogical Society); Latvian Genealogical Society; Association of the Four Baltic Noble Corporations, Livonia, Estonia, Courland, and Oesel (Baltische Ritterschaften); click Estonia, Livonia, Oesel (Estländische Ritterschaft; Livländische Ritterschaft; Oeselsche Ritterschaft)
Institut für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen in Nordosteuropa at Universität Hamburg
Historical Dictionary Estonica
Timelines Timeline of the History of Estonia, from Wikipedia
from timelines.ws
Accounts of History Article History of Estonia, from Wikipedia
History, from Estonica
E. Seraphim, Geschichte Liv-, Est- und Kurlands von der "Aufsegelung" des Landes bis zur Einverleibung in das russische Reich, vol.1, 1895, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods F.G. Bienemann, Die Statthalterschaftszeit in Liv- und Estland (1783-1796), 1886, in German, posted on Internet Archive
M. Martna, L'Esthonie; les Esthoniens et la question esthonienne, 1920, in French, posted on Internet Archive
Military Wars of Estonia, from ACED
Article : Military History of Estonia, from Wikipedia
Category : Military of Estonia, from Wikipedia
Estonian Military History, from Visit Estonia
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Estonia
Article Economy of Estonia, from Wikipedia
History of the Nordic Exchange
Raimo Pullat and Lauri Suurmaa, Probate Inventories as Sources for the Study of the History of Luxury in Estonian Towns in the Early Modern Period (18th Century), IEHC 2006
Estonia, from European Textile Network (historical sites)
Baltic Sea Trade, from Baltic Connections
Ethnography Languages of Estonia, from Ethnologue
Ethnic Minorities in Estonia, from Estonia Page (1998)
Estonia, from European Centre for Minority Issues
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Estonia
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Estonia, from Kirken i Norge
Jewish Virtual History Tour : Estonia, from Jewish Virtual Library; Estonia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category Religion in Estonia, from Wikipedia
Religion, Eastern Orthodoxy in Estonia, from Estonica
Patron Saint Index : Estonia
Andres Andresen, The Reconfiguration of Lutheran Church Organization in the Baltic Region from the 1520s to 1917
Der estländische Konsistorialbezirk, from Die evangelisch-lutherische Kirche in Russland 1914
History of Regions Hiiumaa : History (Dagö, Dagø), Harjumaa (Harrien), Virjumaa (Vironia, Wierland), Järvamaa (Jervia), Revelia, Läänemaa (Wiek), from Wikipedia
Counties of Estonia, Municipalities of Estonia, from www.statoids.com
Local History History of Tallinn (Reval), from Wikipedia
Article Narva, from Wikipedia
F.G. von Bunge, Die Revaler Rathslinie nebst Geschichte der Rathsverfassung und einem Anhange über Riga und Dorpat 1874, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions History of Tallin Stock Exchange, from The Nordic Exchange
Estonia, from Airline History
Structurae : Estonia; Search Lighthouse Explorer for Estonia
History (of Narrow-Gauge Railways in Estonia, since 1896), from Estonian Museum Railway; scroll down for English language text; Estonian Railways : History, from Railroad Development Corporation
Culture A Short History of Estonian Literature, from Estonian Literature Information Centre
A Brief History of the Estonian Book, by Lott / Moeldre
Article : Music of Estonia : History, from Wikipedia
Film, from Estonica
Architecture, from Estonica
Russian Culture in Estonia
Biographies Baltische Biographische Lexika (Baltic Biographical Lexica), in German
List of Estonians, from Wikipedia
J.F. von Recke, Allgemeines Schriftsteller- und Gelehrten-Lexikon der Provinzen Livland, Esthland und Kurland, vol.II : G-K, 1829, vol.III : L-R, 1831, Supplements vol.I : A-K, 1859, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Others Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Estonia
Category Disasters in Estonia, from Wikipedia
Articles Football in Estonia, from Wikipedia
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
F.G. von Bunge, Einleitung in die Liv-, Esth- und curländische Rechtsgeschichte und Geschichte der Rechtsquellen, 1849, in German, posted on Internet Archive
F.G. von Bunge, Geschichte des Gerichtswesens und Gerichtsverfahrens in Liv-, est- und Curland, 1874, posted on Internet Archive
Ernest Fromme, The republic of Esthonia and private property, 1922, posted on Internet Archive
A. Baron von Heyking, The main issues confronting the minorities of Latvia and Eesti, 1922, posted on Internet Archive

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Estonia, from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
Historical Abortion Statistics - Estonia, from Johnston's Archive
P.A.F.K. Possart, Statistik und Geographie des Gouvernements Esthland , 1846, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers], scroll down for Estland
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
P.E. Damier, Wappen-buch sämmtlicher zur ehstländischen Adelsmatrikel gehöriger Familien, 1837, posted on Internet Archive
Archival Deposits Online Digital Archive, from Estonial National Archive
Archival Deposits Catalogue Online Estonia Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
P.K. Grimsted, Archives and manuscript repositories in the USSR, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belorussia, 1981, posted on Internet Archive
Constitutions, Laws Verfassungen der Republik Estland (Constitutions of the Republic of Estonia), from verfassungen.de, in German
Document Collections F.G. von Bunge, Liv-, Est- und Kurländisches Urkundenbuch und Regesten vol.II : 1301-1367, 1855, vol.III : supplements, 1368-1393, 1857, vol.VI : supplements 1875, 2nd Series vol.1 : 1495-1500, 1900, 2nd Series vol.2 : 1501-1505, 1905, posted on Internet Archive
Monumenta Livoniae Antiqua. Sammlung von Chroniken, Berichten, Urkunden und andern schriftlichen Denkmälern und Aufsätzen, welche zur Erläterung der Geschichte Liv-, Ehst- und Kurland's dienen, vol.1 1835, vol.2 1839, vol.3 1840, vol.4 1844, vol.5 1847, posted on Internet Archive
Individual Documents
Historical Maps click here
City Panoramas 19th Century, from Historic Maps, Reval 1866
Alphabetism in the Baltic Provinces 1897, from Köztes Europa
Baltic Provinces Ethnic, 1987, from Köztes Europa
Old City Maps, from NLE Cartography Collection
Old geographical maps from the NLE Cartography Collection
K.R. Kupffer, Baltische Landeskunde : Atlas (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Encyclopedia Entries
Articles Estonia, Narva, Reval (Tallinn, Revel), from EB 1911
Article Esthonia, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 edition
Articles Esthland, Dagö, Narwa, Reval, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Narwa, Pernau, Reval, posted by DTBSWS
J. Chr. Nelckenbrecher, Taschenbuch eines Banquiers und Kaufmanns enthaltend eine Erklärung aller ein- und ausländischen Münzen ..., Berlin : Wever 1769, in German, entries Reval, posted by DTBSWS
Entry : Livonia pp.271-277, Estland pp.277-279. Letten/Litland pp.279-280,, in : T.G. Smoillett, The Present State of the World, vol.1 1768, posted on Google Books; Livonia listed under chapter "Sweden"
Narva, pp.191-192, Pernau, pp.206-207, Revel, pp.216-217, in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Das Gouvernement Esthland, pp.449-454 in Th. Fr. Ehrmann, Neueste Kunde vom Russischen Reiche in Europa und Asien, vol.3 of Neueste Länder- und Völkerkunde, 1807, in German, GB
Tour Guides K. Baedeker, La Russie: manuel du voyageur, 1897, 1902, in French, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, Russland : Handbuch für Reisende, 1888, in German, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, St. Petersburg und Umgebung: Handbuch für Reisende 1901, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Latvia, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 6 entries
Historical Research in Europe, listing of archives; click Atlas Search, Estonia, 23 entries
Foreign Ministry Archives Services of the European Union Member States : Estonia, from Consilium Europa
Estonian Historical Archives, English language page
National Archives of Estonia, page in Estonian
Estonian Archives in the United States, at Immigration History Research Center, Univ. of Minnesota
Musea Category : Museums in Estonia, from Wikipedia
Estonian War Museum
Estonian Broadcasting Museum
Monuments Category : Monuments and Memorials in Estonia, from Wikipedia
Tentative List : Estonia, World Heritage List, scroll down for Estonia; from UNESCO World Heritage
Windmills in Estonia, from Windmill World
Libraries Libraries in Estonia, from LibDex, 19 entries
National Library of Estonia
History of the Estonian National Library, from The European Library
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coat of Arms of Estland (Reval) Gubernia, from Wikimedia Commons

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Estonia Estonian National Bibliography, from Slavic and East European Library
Eesti Rahvus Bibliograafia (Estonian National Bibliography)
Historia Esthoniae, pp.502-503 in vol.8 of J.D. Reuss, Repertorium commentationum a societatibus litterariis editarum, 1810, GB
on Specific Issues
Concerning Estonia
Baltic Amber Bibliography Estonia
Estonia Bibliography, from European Centre of Minority Issues
Publikationen, from IKGN
Northern Crusades Bibliography, from Crusades Encyclopedia
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Estonia National Library of Estonia : E-Library
Central and Eastern European Online Library
Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
Online Journals full text online Digiteeritud eesti ajalehed (Digitised Estonian Periodicals, 1821-1944)
Estonian Journal of Archaeology, years 2000-2006 / vols. 4-10 online
Acta Historica Tallinensia, years 2000-2006 / vols.4-10 online
Online Yearbooks full text online
. . until 1789
The Present State of Europe, or the Political and Historical Mercuries, containing all the Publick and Private Occurrences, Civil, Ecclesiastical and Military, that are most considerable in every court, vol.22, 1711, GB
Europische mercurius, vol.21, 1710, vol.22, 1711, vol.23, 1712, vol.24, 1713, vol.25, 1714, vol.26, 1715, vol.27, 1716, vol.28, 1717, vol.29, 1718, vol.30, 1719, vol.31, 1720, vol.32, 1721, vol.33, 1722, vol.34, 1723, vol.35, 1724, vol.36, 1725, vol.37, 1726, vol.38, 1727, vol.39, 1728, vol.40, 1729, vol.41, 1730, vol.42, 1731, vol.43, 1732, vol.44, 1733, vol.45, 1734, vol.46, 1735, vol.47, 1736, vol.48, 1737, vol.49, 1738, vol.50, 1739, vol.51, 1740, vol.52, 1741, vol.53, 1742, vol.54, 1743, vol.55, 1744, vol.56, 1745, vol.57, 1746, vol.58, 1747, vol.59, 1748, vol.60, 1749, vol.61, 1750, vol.62, 1751, vol.63, 1752, vol.64, 1753, vol.65, 1754, vol.66, 1755, vol.67, 1756, in Dutch, GB
The Annual register, or a view of the history, politics and literature for the year 1762, 1787, 1762, 1805, 1766, 1793, Index 1758-1780, 1799, GB
Mercure historique et politique, vol.49 : July-Dec. 1710, vol.50 : Jan.-June 1711, vol.51 : July-Dec. 1711, vol.55 : July-Dec. 1713, vol.56 : Jan.-June 1714, vol.57 : July-Dec. 1714, vol.58 : Jan.-June 1715, vol.59 : July-Dec. 1715, vol.60 : Jan.-June 1716, vol.61 : July-Dec. 1716, vol.62 : Jan.-June 1717, vol.63 : July-Dec. 1717, vol.64 : Jan.-June 1718, vol.66 : Jan.-June 1719, Jan.-June 1756, Aug.-Dec. 1756, incomplete scan, Jan.-June 1759, July-Dec. 1759, Jan.-June 1760, July-Dec. 1760, Jan.-June 1765, Nov.1768-May 1769, June-Dec. 1769, in French, GB
. . 1790-1848 J. Mallet du Pan, The British Mercury : or, Historical and critical views of the events of present times, vol.1 1798, vol.2 1798, vol.3 1799, vol.4, 1800, vol.5, 1800, GB
Almanacco istorico, politico, militare, scientifico, 1794, 1795, in Italian, posted on Google Books
The Annual register, or a view of the history, politics and literature for the year 1792, 1799, 1805, 1807, 1806, 1808, 1817, 1819, 1820 I, 1822, 1820 II, 1822, General Index 1758-1819, 1826, on Tuscany page 277, 1827, 1828, 1828, 1829, 1834, 1835, 1835, 1836, 1838, 1839, 1839, 1840, 1840, 1841, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, 1848, 1849, posted on Google Books
. . 1848-1918 The Annual register, or a view of the history, politics and literature for the year 1849, 1850, 1850, 1851, 1854, 1855, 1858, 1859, 1859, 1860, 1862, 1863, 1863, 1864, 1867, 1868, posted on Google Books
General Accounts on Eastern Europe David G. Kirby, The Baltic World 1772-1993, London : Longman 1995
Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Westport CT : Greenwood 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.9 O18h
Reinhard Wittram, Baltische Geschichte. Die Ostseelande Livland, Estland und Kurland 1180-1918 (Baltic History. The Baltic Lands of Livonia, Estonia and Courland, 1180-1918), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft (1954) 1973, in German
Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Westport CT : Greenwood 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.9 O18h
K.R. Kupffer, Baltische Landeskunde : Atlas (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
on Estonia Toivo U. Raun, Estonia and the Estonians, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 2001 [G]
Specific Topics Rein Taagepera, Estonia and the Estonians, pp.75-93 in : Zev Katz et al. (ed.), Handbook of Major Soviet Nationalities, NY : The Free Press 1975 [G]
Estonia, pp.96-98, in : Derek H. Aldcroft, Europe's Third World. The European Periphery in the Interwar Years. Leicester : UP 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 940.09724 A357e
Historical Dictionary Tojvo Miljan, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 2004

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