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Estonia Gubernia Courland Gubernia
First posted on February 13th 2010







In 1710 Swedish Livonia surrendered to the Russian Empire. In 1712 Livland Gubernia was established, into which the island of Ösel (modern Saarumaa, Estonia) was annexed. In 1721 Sweden formally ceded Livonia to the Russian Empire.
Until into World War I, Livland Gubernia maintained a considerable degree of political autonomy, confirmed by the Zemstvo legislation of the 1860es.
Since the conquest by the (German) Brethren of the Sword in the early 13th century, political life in Livland was dominated by the German minority. All nobles were German; the cities and guilds used German as official language, as did the Lutheran Church. The vast majority of the population, Latvians and Estonians, until 1819 were serfs. Their emancipation in 1819 changed their legal status, while the feudal lords maintained ownership of most of the land.
The Russian administration in the later 19th century applied a number of policies aimed at undermining the control the German minority had over the country, such as encouraging the Estonians and Latvians to convert to Russian Orthodox Christianity.
In the course of World War I, the Russian Revolution and Civil War, Livonia was contested by Germany, the Russian Empire, and in the succession of both by the German Freikorps, the Russian Whites and Reds, as well as by the newly established republics of Latvia and Estonia, which partitioned the country.

Livonia 1914-1918 . Livonia 1795-1848 . Livonia 1880-1914
Livonia 1721-1795 . Livonia 1848-1880 . Livonia 1621-1721

Historical Atlas : Livonia Page
List of Wars, Livonia Page







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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Articles : Governorate of Livonia, from Wikipedia
Articles : Gouvernement Livland, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Livland, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Courland, Livonia and Estonia. Confidential Handbooks No.57, 1919, from the British Foreign Office, posted on the Web by jewishgen.org
Links, on History Category : Livonia, from Wikipedia
Kategori : Livland, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Organizations Öpetatud Eesti Selts (Learned Estonian Society)
Estonian Museum Association; Latvijas Muzeju Biedriba (in Latvian)
Eesti Genealoogia Selts (Estonian Genealogical Society); Latvian Genealogical Society; Association of the Four Baltic Noble Corporations, Livonia, Estonia, Courland, and Oesel (Baltische Ritterschaften); click Estonia, Livonia, Oesel (Estländische Ritterschaft; Livländische Ritterschaft; Oeselsche Ritterschaft)
Institut für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen in Nordosteuropa at Universität Hamburg
Latvijas Institute
Historical Dictionary Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens, in German
Timelines
Accounts of History general Uldis Balodis, Livonian History
Gustav von Bergmann, Geschichte von Livland, nach bossuetischer Art entworfen 1776, in German, posted on Google Books
Specific Periods Articles : Governorate of Livonia, from Wikipedia
Articles : Gouvernement Livland, from Wikipedia German edition
F.G. Bienemann, Die Statthalterschaftszeit in Liv- und Estland (1783-1796), 1886, in German, posted on Internet Archive
J. Eckardt, Livland im achtzehnten Jahrhundert : Umrisse zu einer livländischen Geschichte, 1876, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Historiography
Military Article : Great Northern War, Estonian War of Independence, Latvian War of Independence, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances Bruno von Gernet, Die Entwicklung des Rigaer Handels und Verkehrs im Laufe der Letzten 50 Jahre bis zum Ausbruche des Weltkrieges 1919, in German, posted on Internet Archive
The Virtual Matchbox Labels Museum : List of the Match Factories of the Russian Empire, click Livland Gubernia
Ethnography
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses, Estonia, Latvia, from Kirken i Norge
Jewish Virtual History Tour : Estonia, Latvia, from Jewish Virtual Library; Estonia, Latvia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category : Religion in Estonia, Religion in Latvia, from Wikipedia
Religion, Eastern Orthodoxy in Estonia, from Estonica
Patron Saint Index : Estonia, Patrons of Livonia
Andres Andresen, The Reconfiguration of Lutheran Church Organization in the Baltic Region from the 1520s to 1917
Anton Fahne, Livland: Ein Beitrag zur Kirchen- und Sittengeschichte , 1875, in German, posted on Internet Archive
A. Buchholtz, Geschichte der Juden in Riga bis zur Begründung der rigischen Hebräergemeinde im J. 1842, 1899, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Geographical Regions for the JewishGen Latvia Database : Livland Gubernia
Der livländische Konsistorialbezirk, from Die evangelisch-lutherische Kirche in Russland 1914
History of Regions Peter Wilhelm Baron von Buxhövenden, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Provinz Oesell, 1838, posted by Google Books
Local History Tartu History Timeline, from tartu.ee (Dorpat)
Riga, History of, from vest_ang
Institutions Structurae : Estonia; Search Lighthouse Explorer for Estonia, Latvia
Staatsrecht des Herzogtums Livland der Jahre 1721 bis 1918, from verfassungen.eu after Engelmann: Das Staatsrecht des Russischen Reiches, Freiburg 1889
Culture
Biographies Baltische Biographische Lexika (Baltic Biographical Lexica), in German
J.F. von Recke, Allgemeines Schriftsteller- und Gelehrten-Lexikon der Provinzen Livland, Esthland und Kurland, vol.II : G-K, 1829, vol.III : L-R, 1831, Supplements vol.I : A-K, 1859, in German, posted on Internet Archive
J.G. Frobien, Rigasche Biographieen, (1881) 1973, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Others Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
F.G. von Bunge, Einleitung in die Liv-, Esth- und curländische Rechtsgeschichte und Geschichte der Rechtsquellen, 1849, in German, posted on Internet Archive
F.G. von Bunge, Geschichte des Gerichtswesens und Gerichtsverfahrens in Liv-, est- und Curland, 1874, posted on Internet Archive
H.J. Krannhals, Die Influenza-Epidemie des Winters 1889-90 in Riga, 1891, in German, posted on Internet Archive

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Livonia
Population Figures
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers], scroll down for Estland
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Online Digital Archive, from Estonial National Archive
Archival Deposits Catalogue Online Estonia Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
P.K. Grimsted, Archives and manuscript repositories in the USSR, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belorussia, 1981, posted on Internet Archive
Dokumentesammlung des Herder-Instituts, mainly Baltic documents
Document Collections
Individual Documents Livländische Bauer-Verordnung am 13. November 1860 Allerhöchst bestätigt, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Historical Maps click here
City Panoramas 19th Century, from Historic Maps, Riga 1866
Alphabetism in the Baltic Provinces 1897, from Köztes Europa
Baltic Provinces Ethnic, 1897, from Köztes Europa
Old City Maps, from NLE Cartography Collection
Old geographical maps from the NLE Cartography Collection
K.R. Kupffer, Baltische Landeskunde : Atlas (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Map : Russian Baltic administrative, c.1895, from Wikipedia (Meyers Konversationslexikon 5th edition 1893-1897)
Map : Russian Baltic administrative, c.1890, from Retro Bibliothek (Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th edition 1885-1892)
Maps, on Uldis Balodis, Livonian History
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Articles Livonia, Pernau, Riga, Wenden, from EB 1911
Article Riga, Baltic Provinces, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 edition
Articles Livland, Dorpat, Pernau, Riga, Walk, Wenden, Esthen, Letten, Liven, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Pernau, Riga, posted by DTBSWS
J. Chr. Nelckenbrecher, Taschenbuch eines Banquiers und Kaufmanns enthaltend eine Erklärung aller ein- und ausländischen Münzen ..., Berlin : Wever 1769, in German, entries Riga, posted by DTBSWS
Entry : Livonia pp.271-277, Estland pp.277-279. Letten/Litland pp.279-280,, in : T.G. Smoillett, The Present State of the World, vol.1 1768, posted on Google Books; Livonia listed under chapter "Sweden"
Riga, pp.218-220, in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Das Gouvernement Livland, pp.454-460 in Th. Fr. Ehrmann, Neueste Kunde vom Russischen Reiche in Europa und Asien, vol.3 of Neueste Länder- und Völkerkunde, 1807, in German, GB
Tour Guides K. Baedeker, La Russie: manuel du voyageur, 1897, 1902, in French, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, Russland : Handbuch für Reisende, 1888, in German, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, St. Petersburg und Umgebung: Handbuch für Reisende 1901, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives State Archives of Latvia
Musea Category : Museums in Estonia, from Wikipedia
List of Museums in Latvia, from Wikipedia
Monuments
Libraries
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Coat of Arms, Vidzeme, from International Civic Heraldry
Coins Search Coin Archives for Livonia

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Estonia, Latvia Estonian National Bibliography, from Slavic and East European Library
Eesti Rahvus Bibliograafia (Estonian National Bibliography)
National Bibliography Databases, from National Library of Latvia
Baltische Historische Kommission, Publikationen (in German)
J. Paucker, Die Literatur der Geschichte Liv-, Ehst- und Curlands aus den Jahren 1836 bis 1847, (1848) reprint 1973, posted on Internet Archive
on Livonia Historia Livoniae, p.502 in vol.8 of J.D. Reuss, Repertorium commentationum a societatibus litterariis editarum, 1810, GB
on Specific Issues
Concerning Livonia
Baltic Amber Bibliography Estonia
Publikationen, from IKGN
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Eastern Central Europe National Library of Estonia : E-Library
Central and Eastern European Online Library
Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
Online Journals full text online Livländische Geschichtsliteratur vol.2 1884, vol.4 1904, posted on Internet Archive
Baltische Monatsschrift 1859, posted on Internet Archive
Estonian Journal of Archaeology, years 2000-2006 / vols. 4-10 online
Acta Historica Tallinensia, years 2000-2006 / vols.4-10 online
Online Yearbooks full text online
. . until 1789
The Present State of Europe, or the Political and Historical Mercuries, containing all the Publick and Private Occurrences, Civil, Ecclesiastical and Military, that are most considerable in every court, vol.22, 1711, GB
Europische mercurius, vol.21, 1710, vol.22, 1711, vol.23, 1712, vol.24, 1713, vol.25, 1714, vol.26, 1715, vol.27, 1716, vol.28, 1717, vol.29, 1718, vol.30, 1719, vol.31, 1720, vol.32, 1721, vol.33, 1722, vol.34, 1723, vol.35, 1724, vol.36, 1725, vol.37, 1726, vol.38, 1727, vol.39, 1728, vol.40, 1729, vol.41, 1730, vol.42, 1731, vol.43, 1732, vol.44, 1733, vol.45, 1734, vol.46, 1735, vol.47, 1736, vol.48, 1737, vol.49, 1738, vol.50, 1739, vol.51, 1740, vol.52, 1741, vol.53, 1742, vol.54, 1743, vol.55, 1744, vol.56, 1745, vol.57, 1746, vol.58, 1747, vol.59, 1748, vol.60, 1749, vol.61, 1750, vol.62, 1751, vol.63, 1752, vol.64, 1753, vol.65, 1754, vol.66, 1755, vol.67, 1756, in Dutch, GB
The Annual register, or a view of the history, politics and literature for the year 1762, 1787, 1762, 1805, 1766, 1793, Index 1758-1780, 1799, GB
Mercure historique et politique, vol.49 : July-Dec. 1710, vol.50 : Jan.-June 1711, vol.51 : July-Dec. 1711, vol.55 : July-Dec. 1713, vol.56 : Jan.-June 1714, vol.57 : July-Dec. 1714, vol.58 : Jan.-June 1715, vol.59 : July-Dec. 1715, vol.60 : Jan.-June 1716, vol.61 : July-Dec. 1716, vol.62 : Jan.-June 1717, vol.63 : July-Dec. 1717, vol.64 : Jan.-June 1718, vol.66 : Jan.-June 1719, Jan.-June 1756, Aug.-Dec. 1756, incomplete scan, Jan.-June 1759, July-Dec. 1759, Jan.-June 1760, July-Dec. 1760, Jan.-June 1765, Nov.1768-May 1769, June-Dec. 1769, in French, GB
. . 1790-1848 J. Mallet du Pan, The British Mercury : or, Historical and critical views of the events of present times, vol.1 1798, vol.2 1798, vol.3 1799, vol.4, 1800, vol.5, 1800, GB
Almanacco istorico, politico, militare, scientifico, 1794, 1795, in Italian, posted on Google Books
The Annual register, or a view of the history, politics and literature for the year 1792, 1799, 1805, 1807, 1806, 1808, 1817, 1819, 1820 I, 1822, 1820 II, 1822, General Index 1758-1819, 1826, on Tuscany page 277, 1827, 1828, 1828, 1829, 1834, 1835, 1835, 1836, 1838, 1839, 1839, 1840, 1840, 1841, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, 1848, 1849, posted on Google Books
. . 1848-1918 The Annual register, or a view of the history, politics and literature for the year 1849, 1850, 1850, 1851, 1854, 1855, 1858, 1859, 1859, 1860, 1862, 1863, 1863, 1864, 1867, 1868, posted on Google Books
General Accounts on Eastern Europe David G. Kirby, The Baltic World 1772-1993, London : Longman 1995
Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Westport CT : Greenwood 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.9 O18h
Reinhard Wittram, Baltische Geschichte. Die Ostseelande Livland, Estland und Kurland 1180-1918 (Baltic History. The Baltic Lands of Livonia, Estonia and Courland, 1180-1918), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft (1954) 1973, in German
on Estonia or Latvia Toivo U. Raun, Estonia and the Estonians, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 2001 [G]
Andrejs Plakans, The Latvians, a Short History, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 1995, 257 pp.
Specific Topics
Historical Atlas Latvijas Vestures Atlants, Riga 1998 [G]
Historical Dictionary Tojvo Miljan, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 2004
Andreis Plakans, Historical Dictionary of Latvia, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 2008