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Austria Yugoslavia
First posted on July 7th 2002, last revised on December 7th 2013






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

For the history prior to 1918, see Kingdom of Hungary
1918-1921 . 1921-1939 . 1939-1944 . 1944-1948 . 1948-1953 . 1953-1956 . 1956-1973 . 1973-1990 . since 1990


1918-1921
Government and Political Status .
The Aster or Chrysanthemum Revolution : On October 25th 1918, Mihaly Karolyi Count de Nagykaroly, since 1916 an opponent of the Great War, formed the Hungarian National Council (consisting of Karolyi's United Party, of the Social Democrats and of the Radical Party). On November 1st 1918 Karolyi was named PM by Emperor Charles I. (King Charles IV. of Hungary) who hoped to save the monarchy; following Charles I. abdication on November 11th, with the Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved, Karolyi proclaimed the People's Republic of Hungary, and assumed the office of provisional president (November 16th 1918).
Simultaneously, a revolution on local level had established a number of Soviets, mostly controlled by the Social Democrats, upon whom Karolyi's government depended, as they provided the bulk of the parliamentarians in his National Council. Late in the war, a federative model for Austria-Hungary or Hungary had been proposed; following the demise of the monarchy, the political organizations representing the ethnic minorities rather opted for independence from Hungary respective annexation into Romania; Karolyi faced the problem of having to govern a country the borders of which were in a state of flux. The Allies argued that the abdication of Emperor Charles had invalidated the armistice of November 3rd; the new armistice for Hungary contained stricter provisions, which, by his political opponents, were blamed on Karolyi. Cooperation within the bloc forming the Hungarian National Council did not work; Karolyi's land reform was not implemented. His order to reduce the Hungarian army according to the armistice conditions rendered the truncated country defenseless on the occasion of numerous transgressions by the forces of Czechoslovakia, SHS and Romania.
Soviet Republic . Bela Kun had broken with the Social Democratic party and formed the Hungarian Communist Party on Nov. 4th 1918. In March 1919, mass demonstrations against the HNC administrations were held; with the support of the Social Democrats, on March 21st the Hungarian Soviet Republic was proclaimed, with Social Democrat Sandor Garbai as chairman and Communist Bela Kun as minister of foreign affairs; yet Bela Kun's small Communist Party dominated policy. Property was nationalized, agriculture organized in collectives. Following a failed coup against the Soviet Republic, the secret police unleashed a campaign of Red Terror. Hungarian forces invaded Slovak and Transylvanian territory. In August 1918, the Hungarians were defeated by the Romanians; Kun fled into exile in Austria.
White Administration . A White Governing Council, under the protection of Romanian troops, had been founded in Arad on May 5th 1919. On August 5th 1919, the Soviet administration was ousted in a coup; now a period of White Terror swept Hungary. The discontinuities in the Hungarian administration had cost the country dearly. Yet the conditions for peace were so extreme that Hungary, pressed by inflation and starvation due to a continued blockade, only signed the Treaty of Trianon on June 4th 1920. In 1919-1920 administrations in Hungary changed frequently; the restoration of the Habsburgs as Kings of Hungary was considered in 1919 and 1921; the forces of Charles IV. were defeated October 24th 1921, he himself arrested and asked to abdicate as King of Hungary. On March 1st 1920, Miklos Horthy had assumed the position of governor or regent; he remained in office until 1944, restoring political stability to Hungary. The white administration of Hungary was labelled "the most reactionary in all of Europe" (quoted after NIYB 1920).
The Question of Hungary's Borders . When the political structure of the Kingdom of Hungary was to be reorganized in October-November 1918, the larger ethnic minorities were no longer interested in a solution providing regional autonomy within the Kingdom of Hungary, but advocated a split from Hungary. The chaotic political development in core Hungary, the country's inability to defend itself against foreign aggression resulted in a situation where the Hungarian government finally realized it had to accept faites accompli in the Treaty of Trianon (June 4th 1920) : it had to cede Transylvania and adjacent regions in eastern Hungary to Romania, most of the Banat (split by SHS and Romania), Croatia-Slavonia and the Bachka (western Vojvodina) to SHS, Fiume which was declared a free city, Slovakia and Carpatho-Ruthenia to Czechoslovakia. The status of Western Hungary (Lajtabanszag, Burgenland) was to be decided by plebiscite. On December 14th to 16th, the inhabitants, except for the district of Sopron (Ödenburg) opted for Austria; Sopron was reintegrated into Hungary.
The Treaty of Trianon deprived Hungary of roughly 60 % of both territory and population of the prewar Kingdom of Hungary; the prevalent attitude among Hungarians toward the treaty conditions was "nay, nay, never". Relations with SHS/Yugoslavia, Romania and Czechoslovakia would remain precarious throughout the Interbellum; the aforementioned states formed the Little Entente in 1921 to prevent Hungary from reclaiming lost territory.
While the argument that the ceded territories had non-Hungarian population majorities was correct, the Trianon borders left considerable ethnic Hungarian minorities in Romanian Transylvania, in Czechoslovak Slovakia and Carpatho-Ruthenia, in the Vojvodina (SHS).
The Economy . Core Hungary is a fertile plain, in which, in the time of the Dual Monarchy, agriculture dominated. Hungary's industries were centered in the few cities and in the fringe regions of Slovakia and Transylvania, where mining was possible; these regions were now cut off.
The Aster Revolution of October 1918 took place in front of a situation marked by a coupon economy no longer capable of supplying the population with basic necessities. Yet the return of large numbers of soldiers, the influx of refugees, the continued economic blockade, the termination of German coal supplies on which the country heavily depended, drastically worsened the situation. The land reform promised by Mihaly Karolyi did not materialize; the Armistice Commission pressured the Hungarian government to make boder concessions, using the needs of the Hungarian populace as a tool to press home her demands.
The Soviet Republic (March-August 1919) energetically pursued measures to address the problems, but the collectivization of the land failed to solve the immediate problems; by the time the next harvest was to be brought in, it was toppled already. The periods of Red Terror and White Terror did not contribute to improving the situation. The Romanian occupation force confiscated goods and shipped them to Romania. The White administration (since August 1919) undid the reforms implemented by the Soviet Republic; yet only the signing of the Treaty of Trianon (June 4th 1920) removed the blockade and thus provided the condition for a gradual economic recovery. An attempt was made to terminate rampant inflation in May 1921, by implementing a currency reform, with limited success.
Society . During the years of the Dual Monarchy (1867-1918), Hungary was an anachronistic polity as the Hungarian nobility ran a country in a century where the hold of nobility over politics was declining almost everywhere else. Elections to the Hungarian diet were not only engineered in a way to produce as few representatives of ethnic minorities as possible, but also discriminated against the parties representing the working classes. Even the leading figure of the Aster Revolution, Mihaly Karolyi, was an estate-owning count, that is until he parcelled out his land to kickstart his land reform which failed to take off.
The Social Democrats, which had joined Karolyi's Hungarian National Council, were distrustful of parliamentary and electoral procedures which in the past time and again had been used to discriminate against them; thus the establishment of Soviets in various locations. The Hungarian Soviet Republic went beyond, confiscating the basisd of the power of the country's nobility - the estates, and during the period of the Red Terror, going after their lives.
Thus, Hungary in 1918-1919 not only experienced the painful loss of territory and population as well as democratization, but also a drastic change of her social structure and the pool, from which her political leadership was drawn.
A number of Jews held prominent positions in Hungary's Soviet Republic; in response the political atmosphere after the toppling of the Soviet Republic was anti-Semitic; c.3,000 Jews died in the White Terror, and c.80,000 Hungarian Jews chose to have themselves baptized (NIYB).

1921-1939
Admiral Horthy's government emerged strengthened from the failed royal coup d'etat. His style of government was patriarchal; communists were regarded as suspect since the days of the Soviet Republic.
Strongman Miklos Horthy brought inflation under control. The country slowly returned to economic stability. Hungary's economy, however, depended on large foreign loans, and when these were recalled by U.S. banks after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the Great Depression set in.
In 1933, Gyula Gömbös attempted to establish a fascist corporate state; he failed, but Hungary pursued a foreign policy of being sympathetic to Germany and Italy, but maintaing political neutrality and striving for regaining some of the areas lost in the Treaty of Trianon. In the Munich Pact of 1938, Czechoslovakia ceded regions with a Hungarian population majority, located in Southern Slovakia, to Hungary. When Germany occupied the remainder of Czechia in March 1939, Hungary annexed Carpatho-Ruthenia.

1939-1944
Prime Minister Pal Teleki's policy of maintaining political neutrality worked until Germany in April 1941 offered stretches of Yugoslav territory in the Vojvodina in case Hungary joined in the attack on Yugoslavia. President Horthy overrode his prime minister and accepted the German offer; Prime Minister Teleki committed suicide. Hungary, which had gained northern Transylvania in June 1940 (Romania's protector France had surrendered to the Germans; Romania had no option but to comply with German, Russian, Hungarian and Bulgarian demands), now gained the Vojvodina west of the Tisza.
Hungary now clearly was a junior partner of Germany. It had to send several divisions which joined in Germany's invasion of Russia. Hungary was not prepared for the war, and by 1944 Admiral Horthy contemplated to follow the Italian model and sign a separate peace treaty with the Allies. However he was too cautious, and in August 1944 the Red Army reached Hungary's frontiers.
Hungary had been one of the last countries where the SS organized the deportation of the country's Jewish population. Here, Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, acting as an agent of the World Jewish Council, saved an estimated 100,000 Jews from deportation to Auschwitz by handing out blank Swedish pasports and placing them under Swedish protection.
In March 1944, German forces occupied Hungary; now it was too late for a negotiated peace. In December 1944, an anti-Fascist provisional government was formed which declared war on Germany. Hungary had to cede all it's territorial gains made since 1938.

1944-1948
Soviet forces entered Hungarian territory late in 1944. Stalin encouraged the formation of a Provisional Government in the city of Debrecen in December 1944; the government represented a broad coalition and was lead by Bela Miklos, who had served as general under Admiral Horthy. The city of Budapest was subject to a siege, from Dec. 29th to February 13th; the estimated number of killed civilians is 40,000; 80 % of the city were destroyed.
For Stalin, the provisional government served several purposes; for the time being, Soviet supervision of Hungarian affairs went uncontested, the new government, including members of the Horthy administration, could claim legitimacy and the communists which had returned from Moscow held the most important post, the ministry of internal affairs, i.e. control of the police.
At the Yalta Conference, Stalin approved of Churchill's conception to divide the Balkans peninsula into a Soviet and a British sphere of influence. Churchill had conceded Soviet domination in Romania and Bulgaria, claimed British domination over Greece and proposed a 50-50 solution in Yugoslavia and Hungary; in Hungary, only Soviet influence, in form of the presence of the Red Army and the Hungarian Communist party, were evident, and the country, like Romania and Bulgaria, became part of the Soviet sphere of influence.
The multiparty coalition government achieved a number of successes, such as getting the inflation, exorbitant in 1946, under control, repairing the country's infrastructure (bridges etc.) and quickly achieving self-sufficiency in food production. A Land Reform dissolved great estates, which were parcelled out and handed out to hitherto landless peasants.
In free elections held in November 1945, the Smallholders Party gained 57 %, the Social Democrats and the Communists 17 % each and the National Peasant Party 7 % of the vote. After the elections, the government coalition was continued.
A political police, the AVO (under the Ministry of Internal Affairs, thus communist-controlled) made arrests of politically suspect individuals, beginning in 1945, thus preparing the country for a communist takeover. The Communists from time to time demanded the removal of 'reactionary elments' from the government thus step by step increasing communist influence (Salami Tactics). In the winter of 1947 to 1948, the period of political pluralism was ended, Hungary declared a Socialist People's Republic.
CARE delivered food parcels to needy families in 1947-1948, but scaled down her operations due to increasing government interference in 1948 and closed down her operations in the country in 1949 (Campbell p.59).

1948-1953
Foreign Policy : In 1948 Hungary became a founding member of COMECON. The country was part of what then was called the Soviet Bloc. Following Tito's break with Stalin in 1948, Hungary sided with the USSR.
Relations with the western powers were poor; a number of western citizens in Hungary were arrested and tried on the charge of espionage.
DomesticPolicy : Matyas Rakosi, secretary general of the Communist Party, was the strongman in Hungary. Under Rakosi, the political police, the notorious AVO, made numerous arrests of persons regarded politically suspect. Among those who were arrested on made-up charges, tried and sentenced was Hungary's Cardinal Mindszenty (who had resisted government policy on education), but also many communists, among them Laszlo Rajk who had served as minister of internal affairs in 1945. The total number of persons detained during the period between 1948 and 1953 is estimated at 200,000.
The Economy : With Hungary becoming a people's republic, the border to Austria was sealed off (Iron Curtain); following Tito's break with Stalin, the border to Yugoslavia similarly was sealed off. Enterprises employing more than 100 employees were nationalized in 1948, the collectivization of farmland was begun, a socialist economy imposed. A first three-year-plan (1947-1949) was succeeded by a five-year-plan 1949-1954. Investment was to increase multifold in order to develop and expand industries. There were difficulties when it came to attracting a workforce for newly created factories. Police was empowered to stop citizens in the streets and ask them about their employment (Britannica BoY 1952).
The economic policy of trying to enforce the collectivization of farmland and rapid industrialization resulted in a severe economic crisis; the production level did not reach the numbers planned for, another problem was the products' often inferior quality, a lack of consumer goods on the market and a drop in incomes.
Cultural History . Hungarian athletes participated in the Summer Olympics in London 1948 and Helsinki 1952. In London, Hungarians took 10 gold, in Helsinki 16 gold, an astonishing accomplishment for a country with a population of then less than 10 million. The legendary Hungarian football team, with Hidegkuti and Puskas, took the gold in 1952.

1953-1956
Administration . From 1948 to 1956, Matyas Rakosi was the Secretary General of the Hungarian Workers Party. From 1952 to 1953 he also held on to the post of PM, in which he was succeeded by Imre Nagy (1953-1955, and briefly in 1956). General Elections were held in 1953.
Foreign Policy . The HWP leadership was well aware that Hungary was a Soviet satellite. Since 1949 Hungary was member of COMECON; in 1955 Hungary was a founder member of the Warsaw Pact.
During the Korean War, Hungary suported North Korea by maintaining a hospital train in North Korea. Hungary condemned the Anglo-French invasion of Egypt during the Suez Crisis.
During the brief period of political euphoria, when Soviet forces had departed from Hungary, Imre Nagy undertook bold steps such as declaring that Hungary would leave the Warsaw Pact and declare political neutrality.
Political History . Stalin had died on 1953. In the same year, demonstrations in East Berlin and the GDR had gotten out of hand and Soviet forces had to intervene. Fearing a similar situation might develop in Hungary, the Soviets had Matyas Rakosi come to Moscow, asked him to resign as prime minister, an office which was bestowed to moderate communist Imre Nagy.
Imre Nagy publicly announced the end of state terror and announced a New Course, of Socialist Legality. The internment camps were abolished, prominent victims of Stalinist terror rehabilitated, civil rights were respected.
The new policy was successful, and public approval of Imre Nagy increased; he gained the image of an honest man, he was personified with the new course. There was a sentiment of relief, having overcome 5 traumatic years of Stalinist state terror, a sentiment which quickly changed into confidence; communist politicians were publicly criticized for their actions during the years of terror.
Yet Rakosi was still party chief, and in 1955 he orchestrated popular prime minister Imre Nagy to be ousted. Nagy was even accused of conspiracy and his party membership cancelled.
On October 23rd, a student demonstration in Budapest got out of control; the students called for Imre Nagy to be reappointed prime minister. The secret police (AVO) was unable to deal with the situation; the army took the sides of the demonstrators. The Communist Party leadership was at a loss regarding how to act; the revolution had no clear leadership, as a number of committees appeared but none seeming to be in control. The mob opened prisons, releasing political prisoners such as Cardinal Mindszenty. Only after a number of days did Imre Nagy form a coalition government including non-communists.
With the Soviet army operating and a number of communist leaders having left Budapest, Imre Nagy undertook bold steps such as declaring that Hungary would leave the Warsaw Pact and declare political neutrality.
The 1956 revolution lasted only for 13 days, before it was put down by the Red Army. Prominent leaders such as Imre Nagy and General Pal Maleter were executed, Janos Kadar appointed new prime minister and party secretary general.
The Economy . In 1953, Hungary produced 2.18 million metric tons of wheat, in 1955 2.13 million (IHS p.278).
Social History . Jan Lahmeyer gives population estimates for Hungary as 9.59 million in 1953 and 9.91 million in 1956, 9.84 million in 1957. The number of Hungarians fleeing west in the course and aftermath of the Soviet invasion of 1956 is estimated as several 100,000.
Cultural History . Hungary's soccer team enjoyed a string of successes, the gold medal at the Summer Olympics Helsinki 1952, the first non-British team to defeat England at Wembley (1953) and the clear favourite to win the World Cup of 1954 (they lost in the final to West Germany 2-3).

1956-1973
Administration . In 1956 Janos Kadar assumed both party leadership and the position of prime minister. He was regarded a moderate - in the early days of the revolution his name was suggested for the position of prime minister to appease the demonstrators. Under Janos Kadar, stability returned to Hungarian politics; he remained secretary general until 1985.
Foreign Policy . The USSR refrained from openly interfering in Hungarian politics, while Kadar made sure that Hungary did not divert from 'proper socialist policy' in Soviet understanding : when Warsaw Pact troops occupied Czechoslovakia in 1968, Hungarian troops joined them.
Political History . Seventh HSWP Congress 1959, Eighth HSWP Congress 1962, Ninth HSWP Congress 1966, Tenth HSWP Congress 1970. The Hungarian Socialist Workers Party was founded in 1956, replacing the discredited Hungarian Workers' Party (the numbering of party congresses continued). Kadar pursued a policy of political liberalization; while the HSWP maintained control of the political process, the powers of the secret police were reduced, the practice of political purges and show trials discontinued.
The Economy . First Five Year Plan 1956-1960, Second Five Years Plan 1961-1965, Third Five Years Plan 1966-1970, Fourth Five Years Plan 1971-1975.
In 1957, Hungary produced 1.95 million metric tons of wheat, in 1973 4.50 million (IHS p.278).
In regard to economic policy, Kadar was willing to experiment. A new attempt to collectivate farmland was made, this time by offering the farmers incentives rather than apply force; it succeeded. In 1964 a New Economic Policy was proclaimed, implementing deregulation. Market mechanisms were permitted to work within a set frame. The Hungarian economy grew. Hungary's economic policy was referred to as Goulash Communism.
Social History . Jan Lahmeyer gives the estimated population of Hungary in 1957 as 9.84 million, in 1973 as 10.43 million.
Cultural History . Television broadcasting began in 1957.
Hungarian football player Ferenc Puskas joined Real Madrid in 1958 and contributed to the team's victory in the European Cup in 1959 and 1960.
Hungarian athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of Melbourne 1956, Rome 1960, Tokyo 1964, Mexico City 1968 and Munich 1972. Hungarian athletes took 9 gold in Melbourne, 6 in Rome, 10 in Tokyo, 10 in Mexico City and 6 in Munich.


1973-1990
Administration . Janos Kadar was the dominant political figure, holding on to his post as Secretary General of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (HWSP) from 1956 to 1988. Parliamentary elections were held in 1971 and 1975; the next elections were held in 1990.
Foreign Policy . The experience of the Hungarian Rebellion of 1956 and the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, in which Hungarian forces had participated, had taught the Hungarian leadership lessons. Any foreign policy other than unwavering loyalty to Moscow, active membership in COMECON and the Warsaw Pact, was perilous. When Mikhail Gorbachev took the reigns of power in the USSR in 1985, the Hungarian administration found herself under a lesser degree of scrutiny; the USSR was in the process of letting go of her grip of eastern central Europe.
Early in 1989, Hungary openly cut the Iron Curtain, permitting Hungarian citizend to freely visit Austria. That summer several 10,000 East German tourists declared their desire to travel to the FRG rather than return to the GDR. The Soviet Block was in dissolution, and Hungary was in the center of the action. The end of communist rule in Hungary was only a matter of time; it came after the 1990 elections.
While Hungary was experiencing the liberation from Soviet domination and the deficiencies of a socialist system, neighbouring Romania became even more defiant. Ceausescu's secret police oppressed the Hungarian minority living in Transylvania, and many ethnic Hungarians fled to Hungary, where refugee camps had to be established to provide them with shelter (1989).
Political History . 11th HSWP Party Congress 1975, 12th HSWP Congress 1980. 13th HSWP Party Congress 1985. In 1989 the HSWP split in two.
Kadar pursued a policy of gradual liberalization, reducing the powers of the secret police, terminating the policy of party purges etc.
In 1985 at the congress of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (HWSP), reform communists such as Karoly Grosz and Imre Pozsgay were elected into the Politburo, soon emerging as influential men behing aging secretary general Janos Kadar.
The Economy . Fourth Five Year Plan 1971-1975, Fifth Five Year Plam 1976-1980, Sixth Five Year Plan 1981-1985, Seventh Five Year Plan 1986-1990.
In 1973, Hungary produced 4.50 million metric tons of wheat, in 1988 7.0 million (IHS pp.278-279).
Janos Kadar's Goulash Communism had been relatively successful in the 1960es and early 1970es. The Oil Crisis of 1973 hit Hungary hard, for the country had no oil sources and depended on imports from the Soviet Union or elsewhere. Hungary soon accumulated foreign debt, and another economic reform was necessary.
A new economic policy was implemented in 1979. Industrial monopolies were broken up, consumer prices of many products raised to world market level (hitherto, most prices were state-subsidized). Yet the success of these measures did not satisfy expectation. In 1985, Hungary openly discussed bold plans such as making the Hungarian currency convertible.
Social History . Jan Lahmeyer estimates Hungary's population in 1968 as 10.27 million; the census of 1980 counted 10.70 million, the census of 1990 10.37 million.
Cultural History . Hungary's athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of Montreal 1976, Moscow 1980 and Seoul 1988. Hungary boycotted the games held in Los Angeles in 1984. Hungaryan athletes took 4 gold in Montreal, 7 in Moscow and 11 in Seoul.

since 1990
Administration . Hungary began her transition from a Communist one-party state to a multiparty democracy in 1989. From 1990 to 2000, Arpad Göncz served as president, from 2000 to 2005 Ferenc Madl, since 2005 Laszlo Solyom. The office of PM was held by Miklos Nemeth (MSzP) 1988-1990, by Joszef Antall (MDF) 1990-1993, by Peter Boross (MDF) 1993-1994, by Gyula Horn (MSzP) 1994-1998, by Viktor Orban (Fidesz-MPP) 1998-2002, by Peter Medguessy (MSzP) 2002-2004 and by Ferenc Gyurszany (MSzP), since 2004. Parliamentary elections were held in 1990, 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2006.
Foreign Policy . Soviet forces withdrew in 1991. Hungary joined NATO in 1999, the EU in 2004. In 1991 Hungary joined the coalition which liberated Kuwait (Operation Desert Storm); Hungarian engineers, by mounting jet engines which blew out fires, contributed to ending the ecological disaster the retreating Iraqi army had caused by setting the Kuwaiti oil fields on fire.
In 2003 Hungary joined the Coalition of the Willing, contributing troops to the occupation of Iraq. They were withdrawn in 2004.
Relations with neighbour Romania, tense during the later part of the Ceausescu period, improved as following the Romanian Revolution pressure on Romania's ethnic Hungarian minority eased.
The disintegration of neighbour Yugoslavia in 1991-1995 concerned Hungary, especially as they related to the ethnic Hungarian minority concentrated in the Vojvodina, an autonomous region in the Republic of Serbia.
Political History . As Hungary was among the most liberalized economies of the Eastern Bloc, transition to free market economy and pluralist democracy was comparatively smooth. This is indicated by stable cabinets; the dominant political parties are the Socialist Workers' Party (MSzP, former Communists), the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) and Fidesz.
The Economy . A policy of fast-pace economic liberalization (1990-1994) resulted in high unemployment and huge foreign debt; the next administration pursued a policy of austerity (from 1995), emphasizing exports and privatizing state-owned enterprises. Hungary's GDP shrunk until 1993, grew at a slow pace until 1996, from when economic growth picked up.
The Hungarian Stock Market was opened in 1990. The Hungarian Forint was made freely convertible in 1995.
Social History . According to the 1990 census, Hungary had 10.37 million inhabitants, according to the 2001 census 10.10 million.
Cultural History . Hungarian athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996, Sydney 2000 and Athens 2004. In Barcelona, the Hungarian team took 11 gold, in Atlanta 7, in Sydney 8 and in Athens 8.

Historical Atlas : Hungary
Historical Demography : Hungary

Students' Paper : Park Hyun, The 1956 Hungarian Revolution and the Western Intervention: Expectations and Reality (2011)






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook, countries - Hungary
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Hungary
historic
Links General
on History from Virtual Library History; from Virtual Library Labour History; Virtual Library Economic and Business History
Links to Hungarian History, from BalkanWeb
from KODEKS (focussing on Slavic Culture in H.)
European History Primary Sources : Hungary, from Virtual Library History
Organizations Hungarian Academy of Science, Institute of History
Hungarian Studies Association (US)
Ungarisches Institut, München (FRG)
Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Archaeological Institute
Törtenelemtanarok Egylete, from Euroclio
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines Timeline, from BBC News, from timelines.ws
Category : Years in Hungary, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History General Accounts Istvan Lazar, Hungary - A Brief History, Budapest : Corvina 1989/1993
from Wikipedia
1000 Jahre Ungarn (1000 Years of Hungary), posted by Budapester Zeitung Online, in German; History of Hungary stressing German-Hungarian relations
General, Historical Istvan Lazar, Hungary, a Brief History, from Historical Text Archive, Online Book
Texts on Hungarian History, from Don Mabry's Historical Text Archive
C.A. Macartney, Hungary : A Short History, Edinburgh 1962, online edition; also from Historical Text Archive
Specific Periods C.A. MacArtney, Hungary and her Successors, 1919-1937 (1937), from Hungarian History, online book
Articles : Hungarian Democratic Republic, Hungarian Soviet Republic, Red Terror (Hungary), White Terror (Hungary), Kingdom of Hungary (Regency), Hungary during the Second World War, People's Republic of Hungary, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, from Wikipedia
Peter Pastor, Hungary between Wilson and Lenin : the Hungarian Revolution of 1918-1919 and the Big Three, 1976, posted by Magyar Elektronik Konyvtar
Hungary and the Paris Peace Treaties, links from Corvinus Library
Hungary in World War II, from World War II Multimedia Database
John Flournoy Montgomery, Hungary, the Unwilling Satellite, from Historical Text Archive, Online Book
Review of Uprising ! One Nation's Nightmare : Hungary 1956, by David Irving, in Journal of Historical Review, full of details, critical of US stand in the affair
Richard Lettis and William I. Morris, Hungarian Revolt, October 23 - November 4, 1956, from Historical Text Archive, Online Book
Historiography D. Bartha, Trianon and the Predestination of Hungarian Politics: A Historiography of Hungarian Revisionism 1918-1944, thesis Univ. of Central Florida 1991
V. Bacskay, Social History in Hungary
Politics Political Resources on the Web : Hungary
For the Record 2000 : Hungary, from UN Human Rights System
Article Politics of Hungary, from Wikipedia
The Socialist Alternative : a Soviet Republic, in : Revolutions and National Movements after the Collapse of the Monarchy (1918-1919) by Zoltan Szasz; deals with the fate of Transylvania; posted at MEK
Red Terror in Hungary 1919, from ACED
Hikmet Öksüz, The Reflections of the Balkan Pact in Turkish and European Public Opinion, in : Turkish Review of Balkan Studies 2007 pp.147-171
Hungary : The Party System in 1950-1956 and 1957-1962, in : Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : A Cross-National Survey
Estimates of the Death Toll due to Communist Repression, 1948-1989, posted by Matthew White, scroll down for Hungary
A. Peter, Fabricating Authenticity : 1919 and the Hungarian Communists between 1949 and 1959, thesis Debrecen 2009
E.E. Novak, Limitations of Hungarian National Power in World War Two, thesis Univ. of North Texas 1969
L. Waters, Resurrecting the Nation: Felvidek and the Hungarian Territorial Revisionist Project, 1938-1945, thesis UCLA 2012
S.C. Karadeli, Legitimacy and the post-communist Hungarian political change , thesis Glasgow 2004
S.J. Long, Containing liberation: The US Cold War strategy towards Eastern Europe and the Hungarian revolution of 1956, thesis Birmingham 2005
L.C. Crump, The Delicate Balance of Power in the Soviet Bloc: A Comparative Analysis of the Soviet Response to the Hungarian Revolution and the Polish Crisis, thesis Utrecht 2009
J. Feledy, The Hungarian Labour Movement and Bela Kun's regime in their European setting, thesis McGill 1963
Military click here
Category : Military History of Hungary, from Wikipedia
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Hungary, from ODM
M.P. Pulido, Transmitting a revolution : mass communications and the 1956 Hungarian uprising, thesis Univ. of North Carolina at Wilmington 2009
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Hungary, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article Hungary's Interwar Economy, from Wikipedia
Banking in Hungarian Economic Development 1867-1919, by Thomas Barcsay
Hungarian Wine History, from Bacchus Hungaricus; Hungarian Wine - Historical Brackground, History of Hungarian Wine-Growing - Past and Present, by Hungarian Horticulture
Traditions of Hungarian Vegetable Production, from Hungarian Horticulture
A Brief History of the Hungarian Poultry Industry
Landmarks in the History of Hungarian Engineering, by Josef Nemeth
A Brief History of the Hungarian Mining Authority
The Hungarian Petroleum Museum; Hungarian Energy Profile, from Energy Information Administration
Brief History of Pump Manufacturing in Hungary, from Aquamedia
Hungary, from European Textile Network (historical sites)
Walder, Andrew G., editor The Waning of the Communist State: Economic Origins of Political Decline in China and Hungary. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
L. Csizmadia, The Transition Economy of Hungary between 1990 and 2004, thesis Aarhus 2008
J. Batt, Economic reform and political change in eastern Europe : a comparison of the Czechoslovak and Hungarian experiences, thesis Birmingham 1987
Social History Istvan Mocsy : The Effects of World War I : The Uprooted Hungarian Refugees and Their Impact on Hungary's Domestic Politics, 1918-1921, 1983, posted by Magyar Elektronik Konyvtar
B. Novak, The Duellist Gentleman. The History of Duelling in Hungary, its Effects on Society from 1867 till 1945, thesis Budapest 2007
T.D. Zsitvay, The Hungarian Revolution of 1956: The Roots of Political Violence , thesis Univ. of Arizona 1975
T. Valuch, A Cultural and Social History of Hungary 1948-1990
P.T. Nagy, The social and political history of Hungarian education, n.d.
Ministry of Education in Hungary, Higher Education in Hungary 2002; has chapter on the history of higher education
G. Kornis, Education in Hungary, 1932; has section on history
E. Zalai, Persistent Problems of Transition: Higher Education Reform In Hungary 1997
A. Toth, Feminism in Hungary, 1999
Anonymous, History of class struggle in Hungary 1919-1945 2008, tendentious
Ethnography Languages of Hungary, from Hungary
Slovene Raba Region (within Hungary), posted by Tibor Horvat
Hungary, from European Centre for Minority Issues
Migration, from Encyclopedia of the Nations : Hungary
Migration Information Source Country Profiles : Hungary
Assessment for Roma in Hungary, from Minorities at Risk
Assessment for Magyars in Romania, from Minorities at Risk
Assessment for Hungarians in Yugoslavia, from Minorities at Risk
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Hungary
Hungary, pp.2633-2688 in vol.4A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
T. Spira, The German minority school problem in Hungary, 1918-1938, thesis McGill 1965
E. Sallinen, Hungarian National Identity during the Period of European Integration, thesis Helsinki 2002
E. Lopez, Romani Education in Hungary: History, Observances and Experiences 2008
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Hungary, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Hungary, from Jewish Virtual Library; Hungary, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
History of the (Greek Catholic) Hungarian Church, from Eastern Catholic Pastoral Association of Southern California
M. Csiszer, Towards a new vision of the laity and their mission : an exploration of the response of the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary to the Vatican II documents, thesis Univ. of South Africa 2009
A.M. Berger, Munkacs: A Jewish World That Was, thesis Sydney 2009
History of Regions Slovene Raba Region (within Hungary), posted by Tibor Horvat
Local History History of Budapest, from Budapest Page, from Wikipedia, from Virtual Jewish History Tour
History of Debreczen, from Wikipedia
History of Pecs (Fünfkirchen), from Wikipedia
History of Miskolc, from Wikipedia
Institutions Article Hungarian State Railways, from Wikipedia; History of the Electric Locomotives in Hungary, by Imre Jakli; Short History of the Hungarian Railways, by Janos Erö
History of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences; History of the University of Budapest, from Wikipedia
Magyar Televizio, from Wikipedia
Hungary, from Airline History
Structurae : Hungary
Culture Article History of the Hungarian Language, from Wikipedia
Article Hungarian Literature, from Wikipedia
Article Music History of Hungary, from Wikipedia
History of the Hungarian Film, from Filmkultura
B. Varga, Film Censorship, Production History and Politics in Hungary from 1957 to 1963 Theses to the Doctoral Dissertation, summary of a thesis Budapest n.d.
T. Valuch, A Cultural and Social History of Hungary 1948-1990
Biographies History & Culture : Who is Who ?, from Go to Hungary, brief biographies
List of Hungarians, from Wikipedia
Nobel Prize Winners & Famous Hungarians, from HipCat
D.S. Kim, A political biography of Hungary's first post-Communist President, Arpad Göncz, thesis Glasgow 2011
Environmental History
Others Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Hungary
Disaster History by Country : Hungary, from Relief Web; Category : Disasters in History, from Wikipedia
Article Hungary at the Olympics, Categories Sport in Hungary, Football in Hungary, from Wikipedia
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF

Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . ONLINE PRIMARY SOURCES . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies, scroll down for Belgium; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated); Political Leaders of Hungary, from ZPC, including party leaders; Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Titles of European Rulers : Hungary
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Hungary 1928-, from Wikipedia
Liste der deutschen Botschafter : Budapest, from Wikipedia German edition (1937- ); List of Soviet and Russian Ambassadors to Wengria (= Hungary)
Article : United States Ambassadors to Hungary (1922-), from Wikipedia
Embajadores de Mexico en Hungria, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico
Lists of Bishops List of Ordinaries, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kalocsa-Kecskemet 1009-, Bishops of Eger 1467-, Bishops of Györ 1051-, Bishops of Pecs 1009-, Bishops of Szeged-Csanad 1536-, Ordinaries of Vac 1595-, Bishops of Veszprem, 1009-, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Hungarian Central Statistical Office
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Hungary, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Historical Abortion Statistics - Hungary, from Johnston's Archive
Election Results from Psephos (since 1998); from IFES Election Guide (since 1998); from Electoral Geography 2.0 (since 1990)
Hungary, from Elections and Electoral Systems
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazette Flare, Union List of Official Gazettes : Hungary
Magyar Közlöny: a Magyar Köztarsasag hivatalos lapja, contents 2009-
Hemerotheques Wikipedia : List of Online Newspaper Archives : Hungary
Links, Overviews Periodika, from Digitales Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa, German language historical periodicals from Central and Eastern Europe
Individual Newspapers Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Hungary", search all issues; 1190 Hungary articles, GB
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Online Yearbooks - Hungary Entries
Newsreels Magyar Filmhirado 1919-1990, selected clips posted by Kozma Robert
Propaganda Films George C. Marshall Motion Pictures
Paranoia Recycling Archive, from OSA Archivum
Films on History/Society Hungary Film Archives linked by National Film Preservation Board (U.S.)
Filmarchives Online (Europe-wide); Magyar Filmintezet
Article : Cinema of Hungary, from Wikipedia
Hungary, from Cinema of the World
List of Hungarian Films, from Wikipedia; Hungary Film, from IMDb
Radio OSA Archivum, Radio Free Europe Background Reports on Hungary, 1954-1989
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Photographs Documenting the Holocaust in Hungary, from Holocaust History
J. Mayfield, The Jews and synagogues of Hungary, and their disappearance under the Hungarian Nazi Arrow Cross regime
Historical Text Archive : Hungarian Images and Historical Background
Illustrated History : Relive the Times : Russian Imperialism : The Soviet Invasion of Hungary : 1956
Hungarian Propaganda Posters, from : Miscellaneous Propaganda Posters, posted by Earth Station #1
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons : Hungary
Universal Collections
Items on Hungary
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports, scroll down
Airline Timetable Images : Hungary
Time Magazine : Hungarian Freedom Fighters, man of the year 1956
Archival Deposits Hungary Documents, from Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Search CIA Released Documents for Hungary
Guide to the Hoover Institution Archives 1980, GB ; search for Hungary
Hedervary Collection, from OSA Archivum, Documents on the activities of the UN Special Committee on the Problem of Hungary (set up in 1957)
Digital State Security Archives, from OSA Archivum, site in Hungarian
Nationaalarchief (NL) : Inventaris van het archief van de Nederlandse Actie voor Kindertehuizen in Hongarije, (1921) 1922-1936
Constitutions
Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Hungary, from ILO, 66 docs. since 1922
Internet Law Library : Hungary
Treaties General Treaty Collections Collection of Documents on Nationality Conflict, Treaties etc. in Eastern Central Europe, posted by Ungarisches Institut; comment in German, documents in German, English or French
Bilateral Treaty Collections Hungary, pp.982-1148 in vol.8 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1971, GB
Consular Reports Foreign Relations of the United States 1851-1958/1960
Document Collections European History Primary Sources : Hungary
Primary Documents to the History of Austria (-Hungary), of Hungary, from Eurodocs
OSA Archivum
Open Society Archive : Digital 1956 Archive
Was there a 1989 ?, in Hungarian language
Making the History of 1989 : Hungary
Wilson Center Digital Archives : 1956 Polish and Hungarian Crises
Bela Kun Archive, from marxists.org
Janos M. Rainer, The Yeltsin Dossier: Soviet Documents on Hungary, 1956, from CWIHP
Janos M. Rainer, "The Road to Budapest, 1956: New Documentation on the Kremlin's Decision to Intervene," The Hungarian Quarterly, Volume XXXVII No. 142 Summer 1996, from Cold War Page at Mt.Holyoke
Working Notes from the Session of the CPSU CC Presidium on 21 October 1956, from National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 14 titled : Did NATO Win the Cold War?
Simon Bourgin, "The Well of Discontent: A Senior American Correspondent's Briefings on Budapest, 1956, The Hungarian Quarterly, Volume XXXVII No. 142 Summer 1996, from Cold War Page at Mt.Holyoke
National Security Council : US Policy toward development in Poland and Hungary, from National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 14 titled : Did NATO Win the Cold War?
Gyorgy Litvan, "1957 - The Year After: A Memoir," The Hungarian Quarterly, Volume XXXVII No. 143 Autumn 1996, from Cold War Page at Mt.Holyoke
Reform to Revolution. Detailed Interview Given by Gyorgy Heltai to an American Journalist, dated 12th December 1956 and Submitted to the UN Special Committee on the Question of Hungary, from The Hungarian Quarterly
Individual Documents An Undiplomatic Diary by the American Member of the Inter-Allied Military Commission to Hungary 1919-1920, by Maj.Gen. Harry Hill Bandholtz, posted by Magyar Elektronik Konyvtar
The Annotated Memoirs of Admiral Miklos Horthy, Regent of Hungary, 1996, posted by Magyar Elektronik Konyvtar
Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary - And Protocol and Declaration, signed at Trianon June 4th 1920, downloadable from Corvinus Library, 273 K
U.S.-Hungary Peace Treaty 1921, from Wikisource
Armistice with Hungary Jan. 20th 1945, from Avalon Project
Wartime American Plans for a Postwar Hungary, 1942-1944, posted by Magyar Elektronik Konyvtar, downloadable
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO, National Mapping Agencies : Hungary : Fldmrsi s Tvrzkelsi Intzet (FMI, Institute of Geodesy, Cartography and Remote Sensing), Budapest
collections click here
South East Europe History Map Index, from Eliznik
Historical Text Archive : Hungarian Images and Historical Background ; has many maps
Discus Media, The 1900 Collection, Maps of Yesteryear, Hungary
Hungary Maps, PCL, UTexas
Department of Cartography and Geoinformatics, Eövös University, Budapest, Maps on the Hungarian part of the Web
Category : Old Maps of the History of Hungary, Maps of the History of Hungary, Wikimedia Commons
David Rumsey Map Collection, Hungary
I. Hatsek, A Magyar Szent Korona Orszagainak Megyei Terkepei, 1880 (An Atlas of Hungary's Counties), maproom
Hungary, hindsight Europe in the Year 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000, euratlas
Hungary, contemporary Hungary 1906, 1922, 1932, 1938, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article Hungary, Budapest, Debreczen, Esztergom, Munkacs, Pecs, Sopron, Szeged, Szombathely, EB 1911, from Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Articles Ungarn, Budapest, Debreczin, Fünfkirchen, Gran, Munkacs, Ödenburg, Steinamanger, Szegedin, Waitzen, Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th ed. 1885-1892, Retro Bibliothek, in German
Religious Article Hungary, Archdiocese of Gran, Eperies, Fünfkirchen, Munkacs, Steinamanger, Veszprem, Waitzen, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Article Hungary, Budapest, Alt-Ofen, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Economic
Geographical
Historical
Parliamentary Debates
Historic Tour Guides
Travelogues Stephen Graham, Europe - Whither Bound ? Being Letters of Travel from the Capitals of Europe in the Year 1921 (Toronto 1922), chapter VII : Budapest, posted online by Gutenberg Library Online
Institutions Archives National Archives of Hungary
Musea Lists, Links Category : Museums in Hungary, from Wikipedia
ICOM : Museums in Hungary on the Web
Musea Museum Websites Hungarian National Museum
House of Terror, Museum (prison were political prisoners were tortured 1944-1956
Monuments Category : Monuments and memorials in Hungary, from Wikipedia
UNESCO World Heritage Site, List (search for Hungary), Tentative Lists : Hungary
Hungary, from Showcaves
Libraries Libraries in Hungary, from LibDex, 14 entries
History of the Hungarian National Library, from The European Library
National Szechenyi Library
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Historical Text Archive : Hungarian Images and Historical Background ; has coats of arms
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Hungary, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Hungarian coins 15th-20th century, from Collection Mirko Plavsic
Hungary Coins, from Don's World Coin Gallery

Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . BIBLIOGRAPHIC AND PRINT SOURCES

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Hungary survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database Hungarian National Bibliography
Humanus
EBSEES (European Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies)
Bibliographieportal zur Geschichte Ostmitteleuropas - LitDok Ostmitteleuropa
general bibliographies pp.749-812 in Steve Bela Vardy (ed.), Historical Dictionary of Hungary, London : Scarecrow 1997, 704 pp., KMLA Library R 943.9 V291h
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Hungary Bibliography, from European Centre for Minority Issues
M. Sarközi, World Bibliographical Series 198 : Budapest, Oxford : Clio 1997 [G]
serial publications Studia Hungarica, from Ungarisches Institut, mostly in German
Center for Hungarian Studies and Publications : Publications
general bibliographies
Hungary entries
booksellers
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
on Hungary Central and Eastern European Online Library
Hungarian Electronic Library (Magyar Elektronikus Könyvtar)
Corvinus Library : Hungarian History
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories : Hungary
Online Journals Links Directory of Open Access Journals
Hungarian Electronic Library : Electronic Periodicals Archive
full text online Jahrbücher für die Geschichte Osteuropas 1936-2006, BSB
Journal of Hungarian Studies 1997-1997
2001-
Hungarian Studies Review, 1998-2001
Table of Contents
Online
Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung 1952-, in German
Historiography Article : Hungarian Historiography, by Attila Pok, pp.431-433, in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
On Central, Eastern Europe Adrian Webb, The Longman Companion to Central and Eastern Europe since 1919, London etc.: Longman 2002 [G]
General Accounts Peter F. Sugar (ed.), A History of Hungary, Indiana Univ. Press 1990, 432 pp.
Specific Topics Hungary, pp.116-126, in : Derek H. Aldcroft, Europe's Third World. The European Periphery in the Interwar Years. Leicester : UP 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 940.09724 A357e
Chapter XXVIII : Hungary and Dr. Habsburg, pp.418-427, in : John Gunther, Inside Europe, 1940 war edition, NY : Harper & Bros. [G]
United States Holocaust Museum, Historical Atlas of the Holocaust, NY : MacMillan 1996 [G], pp.168-190 on Hungary
Hungarian New World, pp.165-197; The Man who Rules Hungary, pp.198-212, in : John Gunther, Behind the Curtain, NY : Harper & Bros. (1948) 1949 [G]
Wallace J. Campbell, The History of CARE, NY : Praeger 1990 [G]
George Schöpfflin, Hungary, pp.95-111 in : Martin McCauley (ed.), Communist Power in Europe 1944-1949, London : MacMillan 1977 [G]
Elizabeth Barker, British Policy toward Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary 1944-1946, pp.201-220 in : Martin McCauley (ed.), Communist Power in Europe 1944-1949, London : MacMillan 1977 [G]
Chapter 23 : Satellites and Soviet Policy, pp.327-352, in : John Gunther, Inside Europe Today, NY : Harper & Bros. 1961 [G]
Historical Dictionary Steve Bela Vardy (ed.), Historical Dictionary of Hungary, London : Scarecrow 1997, 704 pp.
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Europe 1750-1988, London : Palgrave 2000 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Hungary, 1944 pp.344-345, 1945 pp.347-348, 1946 pp.377-378, 1950 pp.349-350, 1951 pp.352-353, 1952 pp.345-346, 1953 p.344, 1954 pp.343-344, 1955 p.393, 1956 pp.334-335, 1957 pp.394-397, 1958 pp.329-330, 1959 pp.326-327, 1960 pp.325-326, 1961 pp.331-332, 1962 p.323, 1963 pp.440-441, 1964 pp.417-418, 1965 pp.412-413, 1966 pp.365-366, 1967 pp.398-399, 1968 pp.401-402, 1969 pp.394-395, 1970 pp.403-404, 1971 pp.383-384, 1972 pp.350-351, 1973 pp.348-349, 1974 pp.356-357, 1975 pp.374-375, 1976 pp.397-398, 1977 pp.396-397, 1978 pp.429-430, 1979 pp.421-422, 1980 pp.426-427, 1981 pp.426-427, 1982 pp.423-424, 1983 pp.419-420, 1984 pp.421-422, 1985 pp.550, 699, 1986 pp.544-545, 696, 1987 pp.515-516, 665, 1988 pp.471, 617, 1989 pp.472-473, 618, 1990 pp.489, 633 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Hungary, 1919 pp.677-686, 1924 pp.1008-1016, 1925 pp.1016-1023, 1926 pp.985-993, 1928 pp.1006-1015, 1929 pp.990-999, 1932 pp.998-1008, 1937 pp.1030-1039, 1943 pp.1001-1009, 1970-1971 pp.1017-1023, 1975-1976 pp.1010-1017, 1976-1977 pp.1018-1025, 1978-1979 pp.584-591, 1979-1980 pp.588-595, 1980-1981 pp.586-593, 1981-1982 pp.589-596, 1983-1984 pp.594-601, 1984-1985 pp.595-602, 1985-1986 pp.598-605, 1986-1987 pp.601-608, 1987-1988 pp.607-614, 1988-1989 pp.609-616, 1989-1990 pp.614-622 [G]
Americana Annual Hungary, 1927 pp.419-421, 1928 pp.371-373, 1930 pp.383-385, 1931 pp.383-385, 1932 pp.344-346, 1933 pp.376-379, 1934 pp.295-296, 1935 pp.351-353, 1936 pp.349-350, 1937 pp.342-343, 1938 pp.330-331, 1939 pp.363-365, 1940 pp.371-373, 1943 pp.351-352, 1944 pp.327-328, 1945 pp.348-349, 1946 pp.354-356, 1947 pp.330-331, 1957 pp.359-363, 1961 pp.339-341, 1962 pp.344-345, 1963 pp.311-313, 1964 pp.309-310, 1965 pp.320-321, 1967 pp.339-340, 1968 pp.332-333, 1969 pp.342-343, 1970 pp.345-346, 1971 pp.337-338, 1972 pp.331-333, 1973 pp.339-340, 1974 pp.285-286, 1976 pp.285-286, 1988 p.270, 1989 pp.269-270, 1990 pp.263-264 [G]
Peace Conference and Pacts, 1947 pp.542-546 [G]
Other Austria-Hungary, in : New International Year Book 1919 pp.71-77, 1920 pp. [G]
Hungary, in : New International Year Book 1920 pp.330-332, 1921 pp.328-331, 1923 pp.335-337, 1925 pp.315-318, 1928 pp.335-338, 1930 pp.352-355, 1932 pp.363-365, 1933 pp.349-350, 1934 pp.301-303, 1935 pp.311-313, 1938 pp.323-325, 1939 pp.348-350, Events of 1940 pp.339-343, 1941 pp.265-267, 1942 pp.309-312, 1943 pp.269-271, 1944 pp.278-281, 1945 pp.262-263 [G]
Article : Hungary, in : Yearbook on International Communist Affairs 1976 pp.39-51 (Bennett Kovrig), 1980 pp.40-49 (B.K.) [G]