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First posted on July 7th 2002, last revised on December 7th 2013

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

895-955 . 955-1196 . 1196-1301 . 1301-1382 . 1382-1526 . Ottoman Hungary 1526-1683 . Royal Hungary 1526-1683
1683-1790 . 1790-1815 . 1815-1840 . 1840-1849 . 1849-1866 . 1867-1914 . 1914-1918
see also History of Transylvania, History of the Banat
For the history since 1918/20, see Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Slovakia, Carpatho-Ruthenia, Romania, Yugoslavia, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia, Burgenland, Austria

Pagan Magyar Polity in Hungary, 895-955
The Proto-Magyars were a Finno-Ugric people living in the steppes of the lower Volga region; in around 880/890 seven Magyar tribes, joined by the non-Magyar Kabar (believed to be a Turkic federation of three tribes), split from the Khazar Khanate, becoming a tribal federation of their own. Under High Prince Almos, they soon dominated the steppe of Etelköz, between lower Volga and the Carpathians, until the lower Danube. In 895, pressed out of Etelköz by the Pechenegs, they moved into the Carpathian Basin, the old center of the Avar Khanate, at first occupying only the plains to the east of the Danube. Here they grazed their herds, well-protected by the Carpathian mountains. From here they launched raids into central Europe - into Italy in 898, in 902 into Moravia, in 915 and 933 deep into the Empire, in 924 into Aquitaine, in 928 to Rome, in 934 into Bulgaria, in 942 even across the Alps and Pyrenees into Andalusia, in 954 into Flanders.
The tribal federation was strong under the rule of Almos (858-895) and Arpad (895-907); when a Magyar peace offer was rejected by the Empire, Magyars proceeded to occupy Pannonia (the plains to the west of the Danube, c.900).
Margrave Luitpold of Bavaria (889-907), Carinthia and Upper Pannonia (893-907) pursued an expansive policy of his own; in 896 he achieved the submission of Great Moravia; in 907 he lead an army into Hungary, but was defeated and slain in the Battle of Pozsony (Pressburg, Bratislava). Now Magyar control of the Carpathian basin was undisputed; the rival Great Moravian Empire destroyed, Bavaria considerably weakened.
The death of Khan Arpad (907) resulted in a competition between tribes/tribal leaders to emerge. The Magyars (the Kavars and Proto-Magyars assimilated into the M.) were pagan nomads, excellent horsemen who found raiding christian settlement an easy and profitable business. The frequent Magyar raids since 907 indicate rather undertakings of individual tribes respectively the followers of one of a group of Magyar tribal leaders than of the entire federation. In a number of cases, Magyars allied themselves with other tribes accustomed to steppe warrior type warfare, in one case even with the pope.

Christianization, 955-1196
In 955 the Magyars were defeated in the Battle of Lechfeld; this was the end of Magyar raids into the west. Raids into Byzantine territory (at times in alliance with Bulgars, Kievan Rus and Pechenegs) continued until 970. The Germans retook the Danube valley west of Vienna, calling it the Ostmark (which developed into Austria).
Hungary itself - i.e. the Pannonian basin - was divided into two parts, the western half, under Prince Arpad and his successors, and the eastern half under Gyula Bogat and his successors, lower in rank than the prince, but technically independent. The Tisza river marked the border between both areas.
In the years after the defeat, Hungary both east and west of the Tisza underwent a reform. Gyula Zombor accepted orthodox christianity in 953, had a bishopric established at Mitrovica; Prince Taksony requested a missionary bishop from Rome in 961; he encouraged permanent settlement and the introduction of agricultural techniques from Germany; market places were designated.
Only in 996 did Prince Vajk accept baptism and the christian name Stephen (Istvan). Stephen was crowned King of Hungary in 1000; in 1003 he conquered the gyula's realm in Transsylvania, unifying Hungary. Archdioceses were established at Esztergom (Gran, suffragan dioceses at Veszprem, Pecs, Gyor, Eger and Vac) and at Kalocsa (suffragan dioceses at Csanad, Gyulafehervar and Bihar. later, Nyitra was added). All Hungarians had to convert to christianity; orthodox christians were converted to catholics, the orthodox bishopric at Mitrovica is not heard of since. Diets were held at Szekesfehervar, where Hungary's kings were buried in the basilica.
The introduction of christianity had far-reaching consequences. One of them was monogamy - marriage in the princely/royal family was a highly political affair. Now the king could have only one wife, more often than not this was a foreign princess, leaving the Hungarian noble families with little opportunity to intermarry with the royal family.
After Stephen's death in 1038 struggle over succession broke out in which adherents of paganism as well as disaffected Hungarian noblemen fought the protagonists of christianization and foreign influence. In 1046 the pagans were defeated and King Andrew I reestablished the christian state. Feuds over the succession were commonplace. Ladislas began the Hungarian policy of interfering in Croatian affairs, and his successor Koloman in 1102 was (also) crowned King of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia, establishing a Dynastic Union between Hungary and Croatia-Slavonia that would last until 1918.
In Hungary the monarchy was omnipotent, owning most of the land and controlling most of its resources. The population density was low, economically frontier country. The kings invited settlers from western and central Europe, from Byzantium and elsewhere, who brought knowhow helpful to develp the economy.
Several of Hungary's early kings and their relatives weare beatified - Saint Stephen (997-1038) and Saint Ladislas (1077-1095) being the most famous. Saint Stephen became Hungary's patron saint.

The Introduction of Feudalism, 1196-1301
After the death of Bela III. conflict broke out over the succession to the throne. Both sides handed out royal estates to dignitaries such as bishops and noblemen to secure their support. The result was the emergence of a strong and powerful nobility. The economic foundation of royal power was even more eroded when King Andrew II. went on a crusade in 1217, which he financed with the sale of royal estates.
In 1211 the Teutonic Knights had been invited to take care of the defense of the Burzenland (southeastern Transylvania) against the pagan Cumans. However, in 1226 they were expelled from the country.
In the course of the crusades, the communities of Jewish and Muslim merchants had been pillaged, and the consequence was an economic crisis; to replace them, German merchants were invited, who were given privileges granting them the conditions they enjoyed in Germany - German city law.
The Golden Bull of 1222 - called the Hungarian Magna Carta - called for a diet to be episodically held in the open at Pest, giving what was to become Budapest the first of it's capital function.
In 1237, pagan Cumans fleeing from Tatar pressure were admitted into Hungary; in 1241 a fast-moving Tatar army entered the country. The Hungarians, meanwhile, had been accustomed to fight Europeans and lost their nomadic strategic skills; their army was annihilated in the Battle of Mohi (Sajo River). King Bela IV., had to flee the country; the Tatars withdrew from Hungary in 1242 due to the death of the Great Khan. The invasion had been disastrous; population loss east and north of the Danube is estimated at 25-30 percent. Only a few well-fortified places (cities, most notably Szekesfehervar, and monasteries such as Pannonhalma) had held out.
It seemed necessary to resettle devastated regions and to build fortified cities as well as castles. To accomplish this, more settlers were called in from Germany; German communities emerged in southern Transylvania (Siebenbürgen). The Knights of Saint John were also called in.
German miners brought in knowhow which made mining at a greater depth possible; mining towns emerged in Upper Hungary (Slovakia, here especially in the Zips region, and in Transylvania.
The nobility was forced to properly equip themselves with battlehorse and armour, in order to serve in the king's army. In countryside Hungary, castles were built - hitherto unknown in Hungary.

Hungary under the Angevine Dynasty, 1301-1382
In 1301, King Andrew III. died, and with him ended the Arpad Dynasty. The result was a conflict over succession. The Croatian Sabor elected Charles Robert of Anjou king in 1301; in Hungary proper he was crowned in 1310, after two other candidates, Venceslas of Bohemia- Poland (1301-1305) and Otto of Wittelsbach (Bavaria, 1305-1308) had reigned.
It is characteristic that all of these kings had been foreign-born; both feudal and church law were international and high nobility, through a long practise of intermarriage, had created an atmosphere in which a foreigner could be tolerated as king.
Still Charles had, in some regions, to establish his rule by force; by 1323 the reunification of Hungary was completed.
Angevin Hungary was naturally allied with the Angevin kingdom of Naples and closely allied with Bohemia and Poland. Charles' son Louis the Great was crowned King of Hungary in 1342 and King of Poland in 1370, establishing a Personal Union of both kingdoms. Louis also hoped for the crown of Naples, but campaigns in Italy in 1347/48 and 1350-1352 were not successful. Furthermore, Louis pursued an active Balkans policy, securing Belgrade from Stephen Dusan's disintegrating Serb Empire and forcing the Venetians to withdraw from Dalmatia (1358). In the East, Halich (Eastern Galicia) was gained, placed under Hungary.
Louis'reign resulted in numerous achievements, but had several flaws. One was a lack of state institutions outside the monarchy which would hold the Empire together. Another one was the fact that he had no son. Immediately after his death, the Polish-Hungarian union broke apart and Poland, dissatisfied with Louis having resided in Hungary, demanded from future kings that they took up residence in Cracow.

Hungary 1382-1526
With the death of Louis I. the Great, the Hungarian-Polish union fell apart. A few years later the Angevin dynasty ended and the Hungarian throne fell to Sigismund, son of Emperor Charles IV. of the Luxemburg Dynasty. In 1396 Sigismund organized a crusade against the Ottoman Empire, which ended in defeat in the Battle of Nicopolis.
Sigismund attempted to implement reforms, in Hungary as well as in the Empire, meeting suspicion and at times open hostility on the side of Hungary's magnates (who controlled most of Hungary's estates and who wished to monopolize the royal council as well). Hussitism was a problem in Hungary, too, as there were Hussite communities in the country and a Hussite bible translation was published in the 1430es. Hussite raids ravaged western Slovakia.
In 1437, a major peasant revolt broke out in Transylvania; it was suppressed in 1438. During Sigismund's rule, Venice had reestablished its rule over much of Dalmatia; Sigismund, frequently short of cash, had to pawn a number of cities in the Slovakian Zips region to Poland.
Under Ladislas V. Postumus, the wars against the Ottoman Empire, who in recent years had subjugated most areas south of the Danube, were resumed. In 1444 Ladislas V. Postumus lead an army of crusaders, many of them Hungarians, into Ottoman territory, where they were defeated in the Battle of Varna.
The country's Diet, in which the landowners - nobility, the church, cities were represented, grew in political importance and here it was the wealthy magnates who dominated politics, as they could afford to stay for lengthy debates while others were pressed for time. In a time of frequently changing dynasties it was the diet which had the right to elect a king.
Hungary's next king, Matthias I. Corvinus (Hunyadi) again pursued an active foreign policy. In 1478 he gained Moravia, in the 1480es, Styria, Vienna (1485) and most of Austria was occupied. During his reign, Budapest became a center for Renaissance Humanism. Most famous is the Bibliotheca Corviniana.
When preparations for yet another criusade against the Turks were made in 1514, another peasant revolt broke out - Hungary's magnates had used their influence in the diet to pass legislation in their favour, tying the peasants to the farms. The revolt was suppressed. In the South, Turkish raids devastated the landscape. Belgrade fell in 1521, and in the Battle of Mohacs 1526, King Louis II. himself fell while his army was annihilated. Hungary was defenseless against Turkish raids.

Ottoman Hungary 1526-1683
In the Battle of Mohacs, the Hungarian branch of the Jagiellon dynasty had ended with the death of Louis II. Hungary now was open to Ottoman raids, but also open for Emperor Ferdinand I. of Habsburg to press his claim of Hungary's crown. Hungary's diet in the meantime had elected Janos Zapolyai, the Vajda of Transylvania, king. Ferdinand's army chased him out of the country, fleeing to Poland. He submitted to Ottoman rule; an Ottoman army defeated the Habsburg forces in 1529 and laid siege to Vienna in 1529, without success.
The war lingered on; the Turks took Buda in 1541. By now it had become apparent that Hungary was partitioned in three parts - Royal Hungary in the west, under Habsburg control (with core Croatia and much of Slovakia), Ottoman Hungary in the central plains, and Transylvania in the east, largely autonomous until 1683. In 1547 and 1568, peace was agreed upon on the basis of the status quo.
Ottoman Hungary was divided into sandzaks (provinces), the highest ranking Ottoman official in Hungary being the Pasha of Buda. Pashas and beys were responsible for administration, jurisdiction and defense. Of major importance to Istanbul was the collection of taxes, some of which were used to pay for the construction of fortification. Taxation left little for the landlords to collect; Hungary's nobility by and large emigrated into Royal Hungary or Transylvania, as did large numbers of Hungary's burghers.
Peace was fragile; the Habsburgs pursued plans to both reunite Hungary, to promote the Counterreformation and to continue with their policy of centralization. The Ottomans attempted to use the religious division of their christian opponents in 1620 and, with vigour, in 1683 when they laid siege to Vienna for the second time.

Royal Hungary 1526-1683
In Royal Hungary, pre-1526 institutions such as the Diet continued to function. The Catholic church was in disarray, as during the reformation a significant part of the clergy and most of the populace chose a reformed confession; religious issues were to dominate politics for over a century to come. The Habsburg dynasty stuck to Catholicism and supported the Counterreformation. With Hungary's traditional political centers - Szekesfehervar, Buda, Pest - under Ottoman control, Viennese political institutions such as the Hofkriegsrat (Military Court Council, est. 1556) and the Hofkanzlei (Court Chancellery) extended their area of responsibility over Hungary. The complicated political situation favoured the Habsburg policy of centralizing the administration of their complex patchwork of territories. Another step further undermining the political power of Royal Hungary's diet was the establishment of the Militärgrenze in 1553/1578.
Peace was fragile; the Habsburgs pursued plans to both reunite Hungary, to promote the Counterreformation and to continue with their policy of centralization. In 1548/1551 they failed to acquire Transylvania; in spite of religious toleration guaranteed in the Treaty of Vienna 1606 the Jesuits made extensive use of the inquisition in subsequent years, causing Transylvania's Prince Bethlen Gabor to rise in arms in the cause of Hungary's protestants. He was elected King of Hungary by the diet of 1620, and only the appearance of an Ottoman force prevented a clash. The Counterreformation made progress in Hungary, as Catholics gained the majority of the country's diet, but the protestants remained very sceptical of the Habsburgs. Often protestants were involved when Hungarians conspired or rebelled against Habsburg rule, most notably in 1678-1684; this time a Turkish force appeared and again laid siege to Vienna (1683). The Reformation in Hungary
Hungary was partitioned in three parts : Ottoman Hungary (the central plain, with Buda, Pest and Szekesfehervar), Royal Hungary in the west (with core Croatia and much of Slovakia) and Transylvania in the east.
In the 1540es and 1550es the reformation made great progress in Hungary, to an extent that much of the country's clergy and populace professed protestantism; only remnants of the Catholic church remained, most of the ranks of the Hungarian Catholic church hierarchy were deserted.
Among the protestants, there were three interpretations competing - the Lutherans with strongholds in the German speaking communities of Royal Hungary and in German communities in Transylvania, the Calvinists dominating in the lands east of the Danube, and the Antitrinitarians. The Calvinists turned out to be the strongest group, organized in dioceses under superintendents. Gaspar Karolyi published the Hungarian bible translation in 1590. A feature characteristic to Hungarian Calvinism is that the church continued to be administrated by bishops (superintendents); councils of elders, according to the Genevan model, emerged only in the 17th century.
The Habsburg dynasty professed Catholicism and introduced the Counterreformation to Royal Hungary. Yet given the volatile politic situation of Hungary, the inquisition had to act with restraint in order not to cause a revolt. Thus progress of recatholization was slow; at the end of the century, ca. 90 % of the Hungarians were protestants. The Treaty of Vienna 1606 granted religious freedom to Hungary's Lutherans and Calvinists; yet in the first decades of the 17th century, the Counterreformation made progress, causing Bethlen Gabor in Transylvania to take up arms (1619); protestants and catholics soon came to an agreement when a Turkish force appeared. The diet of 1620 elected Bethlen Gabor King and dissolved most of Hungary's dioceses. Yet, in the cause of the 30 years War, the Habsburg side held the upper hand, and the Counterreformation made considerable progress at the expense of the protestants. In the Treaty of Linz (1645, complete religious freedom, even for serfs, was implemented for Hungary. The diet of 1646 allocated 90 out of 400 churches claimed by the protestants to them, indicating a great shift in the religious balance. Hungary's protestants continued to be dissatisfied, and from time to time protestants participated in conspiracies or rebellions against Habsburg rule, such as in 1678-1684, at a time when Vienna faced the second Turkish siege.

Hungary Reunited, 1683-1790
In the Battle of Kahlenberg 1683 the Ottoman siege of Vienna was broken and the Habsburg conquest of Hungary begun. In the Treaty of Carlovitz 1699 the Ottoman Empire ceased Hugary (except the Banat and Slavonia), and Transylvania. After another war, the Habsburgs, thanks to their able general Prince Eugene of Savoy, gained the Banat, Serbia and Little Wallachia; the latter two were ceded back to the Ottoman Empire in 1739. These territories were administrated separately
Decisive victories over the Turks established Habsburg rule over a devastated country. The Habsburg administration had gained the upper hand in conflicts with the Hungarian diet earlier in the 17th century; by and large, Hungary, and to a lesser extent Transylvania (since 1690), were administrated from Vienna; in fact Hungary was an Austrian province, in the original meaning of the word.
The Habsburg Emperors, recognized as the protectors of the Catholic church, ruled absolute. The Militärgrenze was moved south, in accordance with the present political situation. Religious tolerance was granted - Calvinist and Lutheran communities continued. The Viennese administration discriminated against Protestants; the letter of the law and practiced policy did not match. A major concern for the Habsburg administration was to resettle the vast depopulated areas, an undertaking that took decades. Settlers were called in from near and far, permitted to live according to their respective customs and religion. Thus an ethnic patchwork was created, with pockets of German, Serb, Croat, Slovak settlement on Hungarian soil; the Hungarian ethnicity lost much of its traditional lands.
At times the Habsburg faced Hungarian rebellions, such as the one under Ferenc Racocsy in 1703, ended in the Peace of Szatmar 1711; Austrian patience and power held the upper hand.
With Emperor Charles VI. having no son, Maria Theresia aimed at his succession. The Hungarian Diet in 1723 approved to the Pragmatic Sanction enabling Maria Theresia to succeed; Maria Theresia was grateful to the Hungarians in her own specific way, attempting to rule in the Hungarians' interest without consulting the Hungarian diet and without appointing anyone to the highest Hungarian office, that of the palatine, until 1765. A number of Hungarian magnates lived at Maria Theresia's court in Schönbrunn (Vienna), Austria's pendant to Versailles. In 1778, Banat was integrated into Hungary, but kept a certain degree of autonomy. Maria Theresia was succeeded by her son Joseph II., who was regarded an enlightened absolute monarch, but also perceived arbitrary. Maria Theresia improved education; many new schools were opened during her reign. Buda and Pest attracted additional central functions, such as a royal palace erected in Pest and the Hungarian university moved there from Nagyszombat.
Under Joseph, censorship was removed from church control and taken over by the state; the result was a considerable increase in publications. Joseph ordered monasteries of contemplative orders to be shut down - 138 in Hungary alone. A major blunder was his edict declaring Latin a dead language and replacing it as language of administration and education by German (1784), giving Hungarian officials and teachers 3 years to learn it. They stubbornly refused, demanding Hungarian to become the language of administration and education in Hungary. Finally, Joseph had to give in, revoking some of his edicts.
In 1789 war broke out with the Ottoman Empire; Habsburg forces took Belgrade, only to return it to the Turks in 1792.

Hungary 1790-1815
In 1789, sentiment in Hungary was highly rebellious. Emperor Joseph II. in January 1790, in one of his last political acts, cancelled his language edict and a number of other edicts.
His brother and successor Leopold II. called for the Hungarian Diet (the first to assemble since 1765). This diet established Hungary to be a free and independent kingdom with its own laws and customs; that king and diet together were responsible for legislation and that the king could not govern my edicts, patents, ordinnances; that Hungary's Holy Crown (held in Vienna) was to be kept in Buda; that the diet was to be called to assemble once every 3 years and taxes only could be approved by the diet; that Hungarian should be the language of education and that protestants should enjoy freedom of religion.
The demands reestablished the rights of the Hungarian diet (nobility) and, technically, the country's independence. As far as they left much of the active government in the hands of royalty, they were acceptable to the king, who continued to reside in Vienna.
At that time, Transylvania had a separate diet. Hungary's diet was dominated by the country's magnates (landowning noblemen); noblemen made up only about 5 % of the population; in addition, the country's national minorities were under- or not represented. The Vojvodina Serbs, the Transylvanian Vlachs, demanded recognition of their status and representation.
There were demands for a political reform benefitting the peasants, formulated by Istvan Martinovics, K. Koppi and J. Hainoczy (1790), including the taxation of the nobles, the etablishment of contracts between landlords and serfs, extension of the franchise, civil rights as well as reforms of the education and promotion of trade and commerce. Leopold II., who had encouraged Martinovics, had died in 1792. In 1794, Martinovics - who by the way was an Austrian secret agent - was found to have established secret organizations planning for the overthrow of the established order; the conspiracy was suppressed by force. With the events in France getting out of hand, secret police was ordered to look out for potential revolutionaries.
In Hungary with it's largely agricultural society there was limited potential for such a revolution, as much of the ethnically Hungarian population still looked up to it's nobility for leadership. The ethnic division of the population also prevented the masses to unite against the privileged classes, and the low level of education made the spread of revolutionary ideas difficult.
In 1797 France annexed previously Venetian Dalmatia, turning it into the Illyrian Provinces, bringing France's political reforms to Hungary's borders (the Kingdom of Croatia, although technically an independent state, since 1102 was regarded an annex to Hungary). In 1803/1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved, and Emperor Franz now proclaimed Emperor of Austria. His loss of the German Imperial crown enabled the Habsburgs to focus more on their eastern possessions.
In central and Eastern Europe, the Age of the French Revolution is the age of Romantic Nationalism. Johann Gottfried Herder, a protagonist of this romantic nationalism in his native Germany and beyond, predicted that the Hungarian culture and language was destined to be absorbed by its Slavic, German and Rumanian neighbours. Hungarian patriots responded by proclaiming the supremacy of the Magyars within Hungary's borders; Magyar nationalism has its roots in the defiance of both Viennese (Austro-German) administration and of the demands of the minorities for recognition of their national cultures.
From 1805 onward, Magyar was made the compulsory language of education and administration in many Hungarian counties, in spite of the fact that in some of them the majority of subjects were non-Hungarians - the beginning of Magyarization.
Napoleon's armies never entered Hungary. After Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by the coalition in 1813/1815 and Europe's post-Napoleonic order was discussed at the Vienna Congress, the hold of the Habsburg Dynasty on Hungary was unchallenged.

Hungary 1815-1840
As not so many reforms had been implemented in Hungary during the years of the French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte, the policy of Restauration had a rather indirect impact on Hungary - political reforms which potentially undermined Habsburg rule had to be prevented, potential revolutionaries sorted out by the Secret Police before they could do any harm. Austria also was an active supporter of the Holy Alliance and in 1820 ans 1821 sent troops to quell liberal uprisings in Piemonte and Naples, troops most of whom were recruited in Hungary. In 1825, Vienna also demanded taxes to be paid which had been approved by the diet of 1815, but not collected due to the victory over Napoleon at Waterloo.
Hungarian leaders were very concerned about the unexpected, high taxation and demanded a Written Constitution which Emperor Francis outright refused. However, he called for the diet to assemble.
The Hungarian diet was still dominated by the nobility; it stressed the necessity to hold up the (unwritten) feudal constitution, a demand which indirectly targeted at limiting royal absolute authority. The diet of 1825/27 reiterated demands of the diet of 1790/1791, such as no taxation without the diet's approval and the stipulation that a diet should be called to assemble every three years. These demands were accepted by Francis, as they had been accepted by his predecessor Leopold in 1790/91.
The Hungarian diet was bicameral. In the Lower Chamber the country's nobility, clergy and royal cities were represented; in the Upper Chamber high dignitaries of the clergy or nobility or persons with a royal invitation were present; both chambers had to agree if legislation was to be passed. Members of the lower chamber were bound to stick to their instructions.
While the diet made little progress in regard of democratic reforms, it set in motion the process which lead to the foundation of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1830) which promoted the use of Hungarian language in arts and sciences. Count Istvan Szechenyi, whose donation was instrumental in setting up the Academy, sought to prepare the Hungarians for modernizing reforms by publishing; he criticized the outdated economic system and suggested the introduction of a banking system.
Liberalism became the dominant force in Hungary's diet of 1832-1836, which debated the elimination of religious discrimination (against protestants and Jews) and worked toward the emancipation of the peasants, the abolition of serfdom.
Hungary's political centers, Buda and Pest, were to be joined by a bridge across the Danube.
1825 had marked a turning point in Hungarian history, as the diet's demands of 1790/91 from now on were implemented, the diet regularly called for and given an active roll in legislation.
Although the necessity for political reform was obvious, reform progress was very slow. In 1831 a peasant revolt broke out among the Slovak, Ruthenian and Vlach minorities in the north and northeast.

Hungary 1840-1849
The years between 1840 and 1848 were marked by political debates about the scope, direction and procedure of political reform, both in the diet and in the gazettes, in which Count Istvan Szechenyi and Lajos Kossuth, a law student turned parliamentarian, featured prominently. Newspapers were a major instrument to familiarize the readership - an estimated 200,000 Hungarians subscribed to newspapers - with the democratic procedures and constitutions reformers wanted to implement. Censorship regulations easily could be circumvented by reporting in detail on parliamentary debates in Britain or France.
Szechenyi was the more conservative, Kossuth the more radical liberal, but they had many views in common, such as supporting the decision of the diet of 1843/44 to make Hungarian the official language of administration, jurisdiction and education, in the entire kingdom. The diet of the Kingdom of Hungary thus more and more turned into a diet of the Hungarian ethnicity; the minorities - Croats, Serbs, Germans, Vlachs, Ruthenians, Slovaks - felt alienated, did not read the Hungarian newspapers and books, did not feel part of the sentiment towards a reformed, modernized Hungary.
In 1843/44 relations between the Austrian administration and Hungary's diet turned to the worse, as economic interests conflicted and Metternich regarded the diet overstepping its bounds in discussing topics such as the status of cities, educational and economic reform.
In February 1848, revolutionaries established control over Vienna, paralyzing Austria's government. In the Hungarian diet, meeting in Bratislava, Hungary's administrative capital, far reaching reforms were now discussed when radicals lead by Sandor Petöfi revolted, organizing a Committee of Public Safety which took over the administration of the city of Budapest.
The Hungarian diet, under the leadership of Count Szechenyi and Lajos Kossuth, had become more confident and daring in its demands for reform, but continued to accept the Habsburg dynasty as the country's legitimate kings. Emperor Ferdinand V., aware of the momentary weakness of his position, made concessions but supported Croatia's Ban Josip Jelacic in fighting the revolutionaries.
In April 1848, the April Laws were passed, which functioned as Hungary's new constitution; Hungary was to be a constitutional hereditary monarchy, parliament to be convened annually, royal decisions required the signature of a minister; representatives of the lower house should be elected; Hungary was to have a separate army, administration and judiciary. Civil rights, such as equality before the law, the abolition of privileges of the Catholic church and of nobility, serfdom was abolished.
A major flaw of the constitution was that it did not mention the national minorities, most notably the Kingdom of Croatia, which technically formed a state in a state as Hungary did within the larger Austrian Empire.
The Hungarian diet called for militias to be formed, which were to take an oath on the new constitution. The minorities fealt threatened, for instance the Vojvodina Serbs and Transylvania's Germans and Vlachs. At the Pan-Slav congress held in Prague speeches were held describing the Hungarians as enemies of the Pan-Slavic movement.
Croatian Ban Jelacic invaded Hungary in August; tension ran high. An Austrian general, Count F.P. Lamberg, coming to Budapest to negotiate, was lynched by a mob, the situation in Vienna itself equally getting out of (Habsburg's) hand. Now Emperor Ferdinand V. resigned; new chancellor Count Felix zu Schwartzenberg accepted Russia's offer to send troops. Early in 1849, Austria's forces suffered setbacks, but with the aid of Russian troops in summer and early fall of 1849, Hungary was occupied.
Under military pressure, in July 1849, revolutionary Hungary was finally willing to grant rights to it's ethnic minorities, most notably the Romanians and Serbs (Slovakia and Ruthenia were occupied by Russian troops). However, the revolutionaries were defeated, most of their reforms undone. Men like Lajos Kossuth had to go into exile.

Hungary 1849-1866
Austria's rule had been reestablished in a civil war waged against the forces of parliament. Many Hungarian leaders either faced exile, such as Lajos Kossuth, or execution, such as Count Lajos Batthyany. Austria's chancellor Count Felix zu Schwartzenberg argued the Hungarians had 'forfeited their historical rights'; the diet was called no more, Hungary administrated from Vienna. Croatia-Slavonia, Transylvania, the Vojvodina were separated from Hungary.
A few laws, such as the abolishment of serfdom, had survived the revolution.
In the post-revolutionary years, Hungary's public opinion was split into those loyal to Lajos Kossuth and his exile government, refusing cooperation with Austria, and those who searched to improve Hungary's situation by cooperating.
Internationally, Austria was isolated. Russia was displeased with Austria's failure to come to Russia's aid in the Crimean War. In Italy Count Cavour, the prime minister of Savoy-Piemonte, engineered Italy's unification after a successful war against Austria (Battle of Solferino 1859). Worst of all, Lajos Kossuth had been promised French support by adventurous Emperor Napoleon III., and a Hungarian Legion was recruited in France. Bismarck's Prussia took a leading role in the German Federation, contesting the leadership which formally belonged to Austria. In 1866 Austria's army was defeated, Austria forced to leave the German Federation and concede to Germany's unification (without Austria) under Prussian leadership.
Old-fashioned imperial policy, of holding on to old claims, refusing political representation and participation and playing a leading role in international diplomacy did not work any more; the number of peoples ruled was too big, the base of those who supported the monarchy - the Germans - too small.

Hungary 1867-1914
After having been defeated by France and Savoy-Piemonte in 1859 and by Prussia in 1866, the Austrian administration realized that in order for the state to survive, an understanding had to be reached with the Hungarians. The result was the Ausgleich (compromise) of 1867, which established the Doppelmonarchie (dual monrachy, of Austria and Hungary). From now on the Habsburg Empire was referred to as Austria-Hungary, its administration as K.u.K. Austro-Hungarian (K.u.K. stands for Kaiserlich (Imperial Austrian) and Königlich (Royal Hungarian). Croatia-Slavonia, the Vojvodina and Transylvania were reintegrated into Hungary.
Budapest now officially became Hungary's capital; Hungary's parliament became a permanent institution. Hungary was largely autonomous in internal affairs, the central government (Vienna) responsible for foreign affairs and defense.
In Hungary fervent nationalists got in power, pushing for an active policy of Magyarization in an attempt to coerce the ethnic minorities into assimilation. This policy was resented by the minority Croats, Serbs, Slovaks and Vlachs (Rumanians) who over time came to regard Hungarians and Germans as oppressors, while the Hungarians overcame their anti-Habsburg sentiment and became supporters of the Dual Monarchy.

Hungary in World War I, 1914-1918
In the days after the assassination of crown prince Franz Ferdinand, Hungary's Prime Minister Istvan Tisza was cautious regarding the prospect of a war with Serbia, fearing a Rumanian attack on Transylvania.
When the war broke out, Rumania stayed neutral and Serbia was busy defending her borders. Danger came from another direction - the Russian army made unexpected territorial gains and advanced across the Carpathian mountains into Hungarian Ruthenia (Carpatho-Ruthenia). In the winter of 1914/15 the Russians were stopped and then pushed back. In 1916, Rumania joined the Entente; Rumanian forces invaded and occupied parts of Transylvania. A Central Powers offensive began in September, and Rumania was quickly occupied.
Militarily, the Central Powers seemed to hold. But within Austria-Hungary, it was only the ethnic Germans and Hungarians who identified with their government and supported the war; within the ethnic minorities, many played it cool, sympathized with the Entente and waited for the war to end.
Because of the economic blockade and the lack of workforce on farms and in factories, vital consumer goods soon had to be rationed and a serious lack of food resulted in malnutrition, starvation, epidemics of infectious diseases.
When the United States entered World War I on the side of the Entente, President Wilson published his famous 14 points, directly adressing Hungary's ethnic minorities, promising them self-government. On November 3rd 1918 the Austrian government requested a truce; on November 11th, Karl I. abdicated. The Dual Monarchy was is a process of dissolution.

Historical Encyclopedias on the History of Hungary, 1740-1905
Historical Atlas : Hungary
Historical Demography : Hungary

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles current Article Kingdom of Hungary, from Wikipedia
historic M. Zeiller, Neue Beschreibung des Königreichs Ungarn, 1646, in German, GB
J. Paget, Hungary and Transylvania: with remarks on their condition, social and economical, vol.1, 1839, vol.2, 1839, GB
Ch.L. Brace, Hungary in 1851, with an Experience of the Austrian Police 1851 (1852), posted on IA, GB
La Hongrie Contemporaine et le Suffrage Universel (1909, in French), posted on IA
P. Magda, Neueste statistisch-geographische Beschreibung des Königreichs Ungarn, 1832, in German, GB
J.C. von Thiele, Das Königreich Ungarn : ein topographisch-historisch-statistisches Rundgemälde vol.1, 1833, vol.2, 1833, vol.3, 1833, vol.4, 1833, vol.5, 1833, vol.6, 1833, in German, GB
Percy Alden, Hungary of to-day (1909), posted on Internet Archive
Victor Tissot, Unknown Hungary, vol.1 (1881), vol.2 (1881), posted on Internet Archive
Frederic Augustin Ogg, The Governments of Europe (1913), posted by Gutenberg Library Online, Pt.6 pp.442-517 on Austria-Hungary
Links General
on History from Virtual Library History
from BalkanWeb
Category : Kingdom of Hungary, from Wikipedia
Kategorie : Ungarische Geschichte, from Wikipedia German Edition
Organizations Hungarian Academy of Science, Institute of History
Institute of Habsburg History, Hungary
Hungarian Studies Association (US)
Ungarisches Institut, München (FRG)
Historical Dictionary J.M. Korabinsky, Geographisch-historisches und Produkten Lexikon von Ungarn, 1786, in German, GB
J. Lipsky, Repertorium Locorom Objectorumque in XII Tabulis Mappae Regnorum Hungariae, Slavoniae, Croatiae et Confiniorum Militarium magni ptem Principatus Transilvaniae occurentium, 1808, in Latin, GB
J.J.H. Czikann, Oesterreichische National-Encyklopädie, oder, Alphabetische Darlegung der wissenswürdigsten Eigenthümlichkeiten des österreichischen Kaiserthumes ... vol.1 : A-D, 1835, GB, vol.2 : E-H, 1835, GB, vol.3 : J-M 1835, GB, vol.4 : N-Sedria, 1836, GB, vol.5 : Seeauer-V, 1836, GB, vol.6 : W-Z, Suppl., 1837, GB, in German
Timelines Timeline, from BBC News, from timelines.ws
Accounts of History general, modern Article History of Hungary, from Wikipedia
National Histories, from Library of Congress, Country Studies Hungary
C.A. Macartney, Hungary : A Short History, Edinburgh 1962, online edition; Istvan Lazar, Hungary - A Brief History, Budapest : Corvina 1989/1993
1000 Jahre Ungarn (1000 Years of Hungary), posted by Budapester Zeitung Online, in German; History of Hungary stressing German-Hungarian relations
general, historical J. Howell, Florus Hungaricus Or The history of Hungaria and Transylvania, 1664, GB
K.G. von Windisch, Kurz gefasste Geschichte der Ungarn, 2nd ed. 1784, in German, GB
M. Horvath, Historia Ungariae politica, 1786, in Latin, GB
G. Spanyik, Historia pragmatica regni Hungariae, 1820, in Latin, GB
J. Mailath, Der ungarische Reichstag im Jahre 1830, 1831, in German, GB
S. Klein, Handbuch der Geschichte von Ungern und seiner Verfassung, 1833, in German, GB
J. Paget, Hungary and Transylvania, with Remarks on their Condition (1839), posted on Internet Archive
E.L. Godkin, The History of Hungary and the Magyars, 1853, posted on IA, GB
E. Szabad, Hungary Past and Present, with a Sketch of Hungarian Literature (1854), posted on Internet Archive
A. Vambery, The Story of Hungary (1886), posted on Internet Archive
A. Vambery, Hungary in ancient, medieval and modern times (1890), posted on Internet Archive
The Millennium of Hungary and its People (1897), posted on Internet Archive
Hungary, its People, Places and Politics, the visit of the Eighty Club in 1906 (1907), posted on Internet Archive
L. Felbermann, Hungary, A Short Outline of its History (1908), posted on Internet Archive
W.B. Foster Bovill, Hungary and the Hungarians (1908), posted on Internet Archive
H. Wickham-Steed, Austria-Hungary and Poland, EB 1911
R.F. Kaindl, Geschichte der Deutschen in den Karpathenländern, v.2, v.3 (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
C.A. MacArtney, Hungary, a Short History, from Historical Text Archive, Online Book
Specific Periods 1002-1526 Geza Perjes, The Fall of the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary : Mohacs 1526 to Buda 1541, posted by Corvinus Library : Hungarian History
Article : Kingdom of Hungary in the Middle Ages, from Wikipedia
Von der Aufklärung zum Geheimdienst (From Enlightenment to Secret Service), from 1000 Jahre Ungarn (1000 Years of Hungary), posted by Budapester Zeitung Online, in German (mainly on events 1780-1795)
Articles from the Encyclopedia of the Revolutions of 1848 : Serbia's Role in the Conflict in Vojvodina in 1848-1849, Ban Josip Jelacic, Jozef Zachariasz Bem, Crowd Politics in the Hungarian Revolution, Slovak Peasant Revolt, Slovak Newspapers
Steven W. Sowards, Nationalism in Hungary 1848-1867, from Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History, at Michigan State
1526-1699 Articles : Royal Hungary, Principality of Transylvania (1571-1711), Ottoman Hungary, from Wikipedia
Neue ungarische und siebenbürgische Chronick, 1664, in German, GB
1699-1806 H. Marczali, Hungary in the Eighteenth Century (1910), posted on Internet Archive
Article : History of Hungary 1700-1919, from Wikipedia
1806-1866 Article : History of Hungary 1700-1919, from Wikipedia
B. Szemere, Hungary from 1848 to 1860 (1860), posted on IA, GB
M. Schlesinger, The War in Hungary 1848-1849 (1850), posted on IA
G. Klapka, Memories of the War of Independence in Hungary, vol.1 (1850), vol.2 (1850), posted on IA
O. von Wenkstern, History of the War in Hungary 1848 and 1849 (1859), posted on IA
W. Beck, Personal Adventures during the Late War of Independence in Hungary, Part 1 (1850), Part 2 (1850), posted on IA
B.F. Tefft, Hungary and Kossuth, or an American Exposition of the Late Hungarian Revolution (1852), posted on IA
Ch. Pridham, Kossuth and Magyar Land : Personal Adventures during the War in Hungary, 1851, posted on IA
A. Görgey, My Life and Acts in Hungary in the Years 1848 and 1849 (1851), posted on IA
F. Bowen, The War of Races in Hungary (1850), posted on IA
Nachrichten und Betrachtungen über die ungarische Nazionalsynode vom jahre 1822, 1824, in German, GB
1866-1919 Articles : History of Hungary 1700-1919, Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Magyarization, Hungary in World War I, Treaty of Trianon, from Wikipedia
J. Altenburger, Hungary before, during and after the Great War (1919), posted on IA
R.W. Seton-Watson, Corruption and Reform in Hungary, a Study of Electoral Practice, with Documents (1911), posted on IA
L. Hengelmüller von Hengelvar, Hungary's Fight for National Existence, or the History of the Great Uprising .. (1913), posted on IA
Annotated Memoirs of General Miklos Horthy, from Historical Text Archive, Online Book
Politics F.D.R. Shipton, British diplomatic relations with Austria-Hungary and British attitudes to the monarchy in the years 1885-1918, thesis Univ. of Sussex 2012
Military click here
Article : Military History of Hungary, from Wikipedia
J. Kalo, Ferenc Szombathelyi, Head of the General Staff of the Hungarian Royal Army, thesis Debrecen 2010; 1941-1944
Economy A Global History of Currencies : Hungary
Andras Vari, Credit-Cooperatives in Hungary, 1875-1908, IEHC 2006
Peter Pozsgai, Land Tenure, Property Transfer and the Development of the Market in Land in Hungary, 17th to 19th Centuries, IEHC 2006
Windmills of Hungary, from Windmill World
History of Hungarian Wine Growing, from Hungarian Horticulture
A Brief History of the Hungarian Mining Authority
Barcsay, Thomas. Banking in Hungarian Economic Development, 1867-1919. Business and Economic History, 2d ser., 20 (1991): 216-25.
E. Viczian, Waterways, Hydraulic Powers and Territorial Integrity of Hungary (1919), IA
I. Daranyi, The state and agriculture in Hungary; report of the minister of Agriculture, Dr. Ignatius Daranyi on his agricultural administration during the years 1896-1903 (1905), IA
Social History B. Novak, The Duellist Gentleman. The History of Duelling in Hungary, its Effects on Society from 1867 till 1945, thesis Budapest 2007
C.M. Mielke, No Country for Old Women: Burial Practices and Patterns of Hungarian Queens of the Arpad Dynasty (975-1301), thesis Univ. of Maryland 2010
P.I. Hidas, Imperial liberal centralists and the Hungarian ruling class : the impact of Franz Joseph's administration on Hungary, 1849-1853, thesis McGill 1974
P.T. Nagy, The social and political history of Hungarian education, n.d.
Ethnography R.W. Seton-Watson, Racial Problems in Hungary (1908), posted on Internet Archive
Th. Capek, The Slovaks of Hungary, Slavs and Panslavism (1906), posted on Internet Archive
Die Ungarischen Rumänen und die ungarische Nation. Antwort der Hochschuljugend Ungarns auf das Memorandum der rumänischen Universitätsjugend (1891, in German), posted on Internet Archive
Articles : History of the Szekely People, from Wikipedia
G. Bencsik, Image and Picture: The Romani People Thesis to the Historical Iconology of the Hungarian Gypsies, South East European and Middle East Studies vol.1 n.d.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Hungary : Gypsies/Roma in Hungary
I. Kemeny, History of Roma in Hungary
E. Kallai, The Gypsies/Roma in Hungarian Society, 2002
H. Samer, "Gypsy-politics" in Austria and Hungary From the 19th century to 1938, Rombase
A. Landauer, Gypsies in the history of Hungarian protestant churches 2011
Die Schwäbische Entwicklungshilfe in Ungarn (Swabian Development Aid in Hungary), from 1000 Jahre Ungarn (1000 Years of Hungary), posted by Budapester Zeitung Online, in German
E.M. Bodnar, Making Magyars, Creating Hungary: Andras Fay, Istvan Bezeredj and Ödön Beöthy's Reform-Era Contributions to the Development of Hungarian Civil Society, thesis Univ. of Alberta 2011
T. Spira, The growth of Magyar national awareness under Francis I, 1792-1835, thesis McGill 1969
Religion General
Catholic Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Hungary, from Kirken i Norge
Archdiocese of Gran, Archdiocese of Kalocsa-Bacs, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914
Archdiocese of Eger, from Wikipedia
Diocese of Alba Julia / Gyulafehervar, Diocese of Banska Bystrica, Diocese of Cluj, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Eger, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Kalocsa-Kecskemet, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Kosice, Diocese of Nitra, Diocese of Pecs, Diocese of Szeged-Csanad, Diocese of Szekesfehervar, Diocese of Szombathely, Diocese of Vac, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Veszprem, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Zagreb, from GCatholic
Ordo Fratrum Minorum, scroll down for Hungaria
Franciscan Provinces with their Custodies and Convents, c.1350, from M. van der Heijden and B. Roest, click Hungaria
Search OSB (Order of Saint Benedict) for Hungary etc.
Jesuit Education in Hungary, from Fenyi Gyula Jezsuita Gimnazium es Kollegium, Kalman E., Tracking Jesuit Successes and Failures in Hungary and Transylvania, 1640-1750; Seminar and Lecture; Parbeszed - Magyar Jezsuita Portal, in Hungarian
Protestant F. Balogh, History of the Reformed Church in Hungary (1856), IA
J.H. Merle d'Aubigne, History of the Protestant Church in Hungary (1854), trsl. by J. Bauhofer, IA, GB
J. Ferencz, A Short Account of the Unitarian Church in Hungary (1907), IA
E. Tibiscanus, Die Religionsbeschwerden der Protestanten in Ungarn, 1833, in German, GB
H.L. Lehmann, Von dem Zustande der Protestanten in Ungarn, 1789, in German, GB
F.A. Lampe, Historia ecclesiae reformatae in Hungaria et Transylvania, 1728, in Latin, GB
A. Landauer, Gypsies in the history of Hungarian protestant churches 2011
G.A. Kish, The Origins of the Baptist Movement among the Hungarians: A History of the Baptists in the Kingdom of Hungary from 1846 to 1893, thesis Amsterdam 2010
GAMEO : Hungary, Slovakia
Article : History of Unitarianism : Transylvania and Hungary , Wikipedia
Article : Reformed Church in Hungary, Wikipedia
Orthodox; Greek-Catholic History of the (Greek Catholic) Hungarian Church, from Eastern Catholic Pastoral Association of Southern California
OrthodoxWiki, Orthodoxy in Hungary
M.G. Dampier, History of the Orthodox Church in Austria-Hungary. I. Hermannstadt. 1905
Jewish Virtual Jewish History Tour : Hungary, from Jewish Virtual Library
A. Gabor, Settling History and Architectural Relics of Jews in Northeastern Hungary , thesis Budapest 2010
Regions see History of Upper Hungary (Slovakia), History of Transylvania, History of the Banat
Category : Counties in the Kingdom of Hungary, from Wikipedia; Liste der historischen Komitate Ungarns, from Wikipedia German Edition
V. Batthyany, Ueber das Ungrische Küstenland in Briefen 1805, in German, GB
Local History History of Budapest, from Budapest Page, from Wikipedia, from Virtual Jewish History Tour
History of Debreczen, from Wikipedia
History of Bratislava (Pozsony), from Wikipedia
History of Cluj-Napoca (Koloszvar, Klausenburg), from Wikipedia
History of Timisoara (Temesvar), from Wikipedia
F.B. Smith, Budapest, the City of the Magyars (1903), posted on Internet Archive
J. Korosi, Die Hauptstadt Budapest im Jahre 1881 (1881, in German), posted on Internet Archive
J.S.H. Pardoe, The City of the Magyar, or Hungary and her Institutions in 1839-1840 (1840), posted on Internet Archive
O. Meszaros, History and Topography of the late Medieval Visegrad Town, thesis Debrecen 2008
Structures, Institutions Article Hungarian State Railways, from Wikipedia
History of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
History of the University of Budapest, from Wikipedia
Culture Article History of the Hungarian Language, from Wikipedia
Article Hungarian Literature, from Wikipedia
Article Music History of Hungary, from Wikipedia
A. Bozoki, The History of Hungarian Guitar Playing to the End of the 19th Century, summary of thesis Liszt Academy Budapest 2009
D.L.J. Barrenscott, The Feszty Panorama, spatial politics, and the crisis of modern bodies : founding and finding modern Hungary in fin de siecle Budapest, thesis Univ. of British Columbia 2002
Biographies Standard Works of Reference V.K. Kölesy, Ungarischer Plutarch oder Nachrichten von den Leben merkwürdiger Personen des Königreichs Ungarn und der dazugehörigen Provinzen, vol.1, 1815, vol.2, 1816, in German, GB
Web Compilations, General History & Culture : Who is Who ?, from Go to Hungary, brief biographies
Specialized Compilations A. Horanyi, Memoria Hungarorum et Provincialium scriptis editis notorum vol.1 1775, vol.2, 1776, vol.3, with index of the complete work, 1777, GB
Environmental History
Others History of the Hungarian Vegetarian Societies, from IVU
Hungary at the 1896, 1900, 1904, 1908, 1912 Olympics, from Wikipedia
Football : Hungarian National Championship I, from Wikipedia
Education in Hungary (1908), official, posted on Internet Archive
Gyorgy Bonis, Freedom of the Land in Medieval Hungarian Law (1968), Standen en Landen LIII

Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . ONLINE PRIMARY SOURCES . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Titles of European Hereditary Rulers : Hungary
Lists of Bishops List of Ordinaries, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kalocsa-Kecskemet 1009-, Bishops of Eger 1467-, Bishops of Györ 1051-, Bishops of Pecs 1009-, Bishops of Szeged-Csanad 1536-, Ordinaries of Vac 1595-, Bishops of Veszprem, 1009-, Archbishops of Zagreb 1837-, from Wikipedia
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Hungary, from Population Statistics by J. Lahmeyer (data may go back to the time prior to 1918, but relate to post-1920 borders)
Hungary County Maps & Census Data 1913, from Talma Media
M. von Schwartner, Statistik des Königreichs Ungarn, 1798, in German, GB
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes Landesregierungsblatt für das Königreich Ungarn, vol.4-10, 1853-1859, in German, GB
foreign Hollandsche Mercurius behelsende het gedenckweerdigste in Christenryck, vol.6 : 1655, 1656, vol.7 : 1656, 1657, vol.9 : 1658, 1659, vol.12 : 1661, 1662, vol.15 : 1664, 1665, vol.16 : 1665, 1670, vol.20 : 1669, 1670, vol.24 : 1673-1674, 1674, vol.27 : 1676-1677, 1677, vol.29 : 1678, 1679, vol.30 : 1679, 1680, vol.32 : 1681, 1682, vol.33 : 1682, 1683, vol.36 : 1685, 1686, vol.39 : 1688, 1689, in Dutch, GB
The Present State of Europe, or the Political and Historical Mercuries, containing all the Publick and Private Occurrences, Civil, Ecclesiastical and Military, that are most considerable in every court, vol.1 1690, vol.2 1691, vol.3 1692, vol.4 1693, vol.5 1694, vol.6 1695, vol.7 1696, vol.8 1697, vol.9 1698, vol.10 1699, vol.12, 1701, vol.14, 1703, vol.16, 1705, vol.17, 1706, vol.18, 1707, vol.20, 1709, vol.22, 1711, GB
Europische mercurius, vol.1, 1690, vol.2, 1691, vol.3, 1692, vol.4, 1693, vol.5, 1694, vol.6, 1695, vol.7, 1696, vol.8, 1697, vol.9, 1698, vol.10, 1699, vol.11, 1700, vol.12, 1701, vol.13, 1702, vol.14, 1703, vol.15, 1704, vol.16, 1705, vol.17, 1706, vol.19, 1708, vol.20, 1709, vol.21, 1710, vol.22, 1711, vol.23, 1712, vol.24, 1713, vol.25, 1714, vol.26, 1715, vol.27, 1716, vol.28, 1717, vol.29, 1718, vol.30, 1719, vol.31, 1720, vol.32, 1721, vol.33, 1722, vol.34, 1723, vol.35, 1724, vol.36, 1725, vol.37, 1726, vol.38, 1727, vol.39, 1728, vol.40, 1729, vol.41, 1730, vol.42, 1731, vol.43, 1732, vol.44, 1733, vol.45, 1734, vol.46, 1735, vol.47, 1736, vol.48, 1737, vol.49, 1738, vol.50, 1739, vol.51, 1740, vol.52, 1741, vol.53, 1742, vol.54, 1743, vol.55, 1744, vol.56, 1745, vol.57, 1746, vol.58, 1747, vol.59, 1748, vol.60, 1749, vol.61, 1750, vol.62, 1751, vol.63, 1752, vol.64, 1753, vol.65, 1754, vol.66, 1755, vol.67, 1756, in Dutch, GB
The Annual register, or a view of the history, politics and literature for the year 1762, 1787, 1762, 1805, 1766, 1793, Index 1758-1780, 1799, GB
The London almanack, 1693 GB
Il Mercvrio overo Historia de'correnti tempi, 1644, 1647 (I), 1647 (II), 1652 (III), 1655 (IV.1), 1655 (IV.2), 1657 (V.1), 1657 (V.2), 1667 (VI), 1667 (VIII), 1667 (IX), 1668 (X-XI), 1672 (XII), 1674 (XIII), 1684 (XIV), in Italian, GB
Mercure historique et politique, vol.1 : Nov. 1686 - Feb. 1687 , vol.2 : March-July 1687 , vol.3 : Aug.-Dec. 1687 , vol.4 : Jan.-June 1688, vol.5 : July-Dec. 1688, vol.6 : Jan.-June 1689, vol.7 : July-Dec. 1689, vol.8 : Jan.-June 1690, vol.9 : July-Dec. 1690, vol.10 : Jan.-June 1690, vol.11 : July-Dec. 1691, vol.12 : Jan.-June 1692, vol.13 : July-Dec. 1692, vol.14 : Jan.-June 1693, vol.15 : July-Dec. 1693, vol.16 : Jan.-June 1694, vol.17 : July-Dec. 1694, vol.18 : Jan.-June 1685, vol.19 : July-Dec. 1695, vol.20 : Jan.-June 1696, vol.21 : July-Dec. 1696, vol.22 : Jan.-June 1697, vol.23 : July-Dec. 1697, vol.24 : Jan.-June 1698, vol.25 : July-Dec. 1698, vol.26 : Jan.-June 1699, vol.27 : July-Dec. 1699, vol.28 : Jan.-June 1700, vol.29 : July-Dec. 1700, vol.30 : Jan.-June 1701, vol.31 : July-Dec. 1701, vol.32 : Jan.-June 1702, vol.33 : July-Dec. 1702, vol.34 : Jan.-June 1703, vol.35 : July-Dec. 1703, vol.36 : Jan.-June 1704, vol.37 : July-Dec. 1704, vol.38 : Jan.-June 1705, vol.39 : July-Dec. 1705, vol.40 : Jan.-June 1706, vol.41 : July-Dec. 1706, vol.42 : Jan.-June 1707, vol.43 : July-Dec. 1707, vol.46 : Jan.-June 1709, vol.47 : July-Dec. 1709, vol.49 : July-Dec. 1710, vol.50 : Jan.-June 1711, vol.51 : July-Dec. 1711, vol.55 : July-Dec. 1713, vol.56 : Jan.-June 1714, vol.57 : July-Dec. 1714, vol.58 : Jan.-June 1715, vol.59 : July-Dec. 1715, vol.60 : Jan.-June 1716, vol.61 : July-Dec. 1716, vol.62 : Jan.-June 1717, vol.63 : July-Dec. 1717, vol.64 : Jan.-June 1718, vol.66 : Jan.-June 1719, Jan.-June 1756, Aug.-Dec. 1756, incomplete scan, Jan.-June 1759, July-Dec. 1759, Jan.-June 1760, July-Dec. 1760, Jan.-June 1765, Nov.1768-May 1769, June-Dec. 1769, in French, GB
J. Mallet du Pan, The British Mercury : or, Historical and critical views of the events of present times, vol.1 1798, vol.2 1798, vol.3 1799, vol.4, 1800, vol.5, 1800, GB
Almanacco istorico, politico, militare, scientifico, 1794, 1795, in Italian, posted on Google Books
The Annual register, or a view of the history, politics and literature for the year 1792, 1799, 1805, 1807, 1806, 1808, 1817, 1819, 1820 I, 1822, 1820 II, 1822, General Index 1758-1819, 1826, on Tuscany page 277, 1827, 1828, 1828, 1829, 1834, 1835, 1835, 1836, 1838, 1839, 1839, 1840, 1840, 1841, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, 1848, 1849, posted on Google Books
The Annual register, or a view of the history, politics and literature for the year 1849, 1850, 1850, 1851, 1854, 1855, 1858, 1859, 1859, 1860, 1862, 1863, 1863, 1864, 1867, 1868, posted on Google Books
from Hungary Landesregierungsblatt für das Königreich Ungarn, vol.4-10, 1853-1859, in German, GB
Periodika, from Digitales Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa, German language historical periodicals from Central and Eastern Europe
Online Yearbooks Hungary Entries P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde; entry : De l'Estat du Roy de Hongrie, in French, 1613, pp.725-742, GB; 1614, pp.733-740, GB; 1616, pp.723-733, GB; 1617, pp.723-733, GB; 1621, vol.1 pp.767-, GB; 1628, pp.725-735, GB; 1630, pp.522-527, GB; 1633, pp.725-735, GB; 1659, pp.481-499, GB
Die Durchlauchten Häuser in Europa : Der König in Ungarn 1702 p.59, 1705 p.109, 1708 p.125, 1716 p.153, 1725 p.130, in German, GB
Die Durchlauchtige Welt : König in Ungarn, 1710 pp.262-270, 1739 pp.282-292, in German, GB
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Digitalis Keparchivum (Hungarian Digital Archive of Pictures)
Magyar Digitalis Kepkonyvtar (Hungarian Digital Library of Pictures)
Portraits of Suleyman Pasha, commander of Buda, taken prisoner in 1599, of Cigala Pasha, an Italian renegade, Turkish military commander in Hungary, of Count Nicholas of Serenyi, defender of Szegedin, from Domenicus Custos, Atrium heroicum Caesarum, regum, [...] imaginibus [...] illustr[atum]. , Augsburg 1600-1602, posted by MATEO, Univ. Mannheim
Archival Deposits Hungary, from Monasterium, digitized monastery archives
Slovensko (Slovakia), from Monasterium, digitized monastery archives
F.J. Miller, Catalogus manuscriptorum Bibliothecae nationalis hungaricae Szechenyiano-regnicolaris 1814, IA
Laws Acta comitialia Hungarica Soproniensia 1681 GB
Treaties E. Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty, Showing the Various Political and Territorial Changes which Have Taken Place since the General Peace of 1814, vol.1 1875, vol.2 1875, vol.3 1875, posted on Internet Archive
K. Martens, Recueil manuel et pratique de traites, conventions et autres actes diplomatiques, : sur lesquels sont etablis les relations et les rapports existant aujourd'hui entre les divers etats souvernains du globe, depuis l'annee 1760 jusqu'a l'epoque actuelle, vol.1, 1846, vol.2, on 1788, 1846, vol.3, 1846, vol.4, on 1826 1846, vol.5, on 1839 1849, vol.6, on 1840 1856, vol.7, on 1852 1857, 2nd ser. vol.1 1885, posted on Internet Archive
F. Murhard, Nouveau Recueil General de Traites, Conventions et autres Transactions Remarquables, vol.1 1843, vol.2, on 1841, 1844, vol.3, on 1842, 1845, vol.4, 1846, vol.5 1847, vol.9, on 1846, suppl. 1841-1845, 1852, vol.10, on 1847, 1852, vol.12, on 1848, 1854, vol.13, 1855, vol.14 1856, vol.15 1857, vol.16 1860, vol.17, 1861, vol.18, 1873, vol.4, on 1817-1842, 1843, ? posted on Internet Archive
G.F. Martens, Recueil de traites d'alliance, de paix, de treve ... et plusieurs autres actes servant aa la connoissance des relations etrangeres de puissances et etats de l'Europe ... depuis 1761 jusqu'a present , vol.3 : 1784-1788, 1818, vol.4, 1818, vol.5 : 1791-1795, 1826, vol.6 : 1795-1799, 1829, vol.7 : 1800-1803, 1831, vol.8 : 1803-1808, 1835, in French, posted on Internet Archive
Table General Chronologique et Alphabetique du Recueil des Traites, Conventions et Transactions des Puissances de l'Europe et s'autres Parties du Globe ... vol.1 1837 (garbed scan), vol.1 1838, vol.2 1843, posted on Internet Archive
M. Tetot, Repertoire des Traites de Paix, de Commerce, d'Alliance etc., Conventions et autres Actes conclus entre tous les Puissances du Globe, principalement depuis la Paix de Westphalie jusqu'a notre jours, I : Tableau Chronologique 1493-1866, 1866, posted on Internet Archive
J.L. Klüber, Acten des Wiener Congresses in den Jahren 1814 und 1815, vol.1 2nd ed. 1819, vol.2 1815, vol.3 1815, vol.4 2nd ed. 1832, vol.5 2nd ed. 1833, vol.6 2nd ed. 1836, vol.7 1817, vol.8 1819, vol.9, 1835, in German, posted by Google Books
British and Foreign State Papers 1812-1814 I, 1841, 1812-1814 II, 1841, 1814-1815, 1839, 1815-1816, 1838, 1816-1817, 1838, 1817-1818, 1837, 1818-1819, 1835, 1819-1820, 1834, 1820-1821, 1830, 1820-1821, 1861, 1821-1822, 1829, 1821-1823, 1851, 1822-1823, 1828, 1822-1823, 1850, 1823-1824, 1843, 1824-1825, 1846, 1825-1826, 1848, 1826-1827, 1828, 1827-1828, 1829, 1828-1829, 1832, 1829-1830, 1832, 1830-1831, 1833, 1832-1833, 1836, General List, vols.1-20, I, 1842, 1834-1835, 1852, 1836-1837, 1853, 1838-1839, 1856, 1840-1841, 1857, 1841-1842, 1858, 1842-1843, 1858, 1843-1844, 1859, 1844-1845, 1859, 1845-1846, 1860, 1848-1849, 1862, 1849-1850 I, 1862, 1849-1850 II, 1863, 1850-1851, 1863, 1851-1852, 1864, 1852-1853, 1864, General Index, 1865, 1853-1854, 1865 1854-1855, 1865, 1855-1856, 1865, 1856-1857, 1866, 1857-1858, 1866, 1858-1859, 1867, 1859-1860, 1867, 1860-1861, 1868, 1861-1862, 1868, 1862-1863, 1868, 1863-1864, 1869, posted on Google Books
A collection of state papers: relative to the war against France, vol.1 1794, vol.2 1795, vol.3 I 1795, vol.3 II 1796, vol.5 1797, vol.6, 1798, vol.7, 1799, vol.8, 1800, vol.9, 1800, vol.10, 1801, vol.11, 1802, posted on Google Books
Document Collections Primary Documents to the History of Austria (-Hungary) from Eurodocs; Sources to Habsburg History, from Habsburg Net
Diplomatarium comitatus Sarosiensis, 1780, GB
Codex diplomaticus Arpadianus continuatus vol.1 : 1001-1235, 1860, vol.2 : 1234-1260, 1861, vol.3 : 1261-1272, 1862, vol.4 : 1272-1290, 1862, vol.5 : 1290-1301, 1864, vol.6 : 890-1235, 1867, vol.7 : 1235-1260, 1869, vol,9 : 1272-1290, 1872, vol.10 : 1290-1301 , 1873, vol.11, 1873, vol.12 : 1270-1301, 1874, IA
Codex diplomaticus comitum de Balgay, 1897, IA
Codex diplomaticus hungaricus andegavensis. 1301-1321, 1878, 1322-1332, 1881, 1333-1339, 1883, 1884, IA
1347-1352, 1887, 1353-1357, 1891, IA
Codex diplomaticus comitum Karolyi de Nagy-Karoly vol.5, 1897, IA
Decretum originale Andreae Secundi quo regnum Hungariae constituit anno 1222 , 1829, in Latin, GB
Decreta et vitae regum Hungariae, qui Transylvaniam possederunt, 1743, in Latin, GB
Codex diplomaticus Hungariae ecclesiasticus ac civilis, contents vol.1-6 1829, vol.1 : 104-1094, 1829 vol.2.1 : 1096-1155, 1829, vol.2.2 : 1156-1204 1829, vol.3.1 : 1205-1224, 1829, vol.3.2 : 1225-1233, 1829, vol.3 : 1248-1259, 1829, vol.4.1 : 1235-1247, 1829, vol.4.2, 1829, vol.4.3 : 1260-1269 1829, vol.5.1, 1829, vol.5.2, 1829, vol.5.3, 1830, vol.6.1, 1830, vol.6.2, 1830, Index, 1830, vol.7.1, 1831, vol.7.3 : suppl., 1835, vol.7.5 : suppl. 471-1300, 1841, vol.8.1 : 1301-1316, 1832, vol.8.2 : 1317-1325, 1832, vol.8.3 : 1326-1334, 1832, vol.8.4 : 1335-1342, 1832, vol.8.5 : suppl. 1301`-1342, 1835, vol.8.7 : suppl. 1301-1342, 1842, vol.9.1 : 1342-1350, 1833, vol.9.2 : 1351-1358, 1833, vol.9.3 : 1359-1366, 1833, vol.9.4 : 1367-1374, 1834, vol.9.5 : 1375-1382, 1834, vol.9.6 : suppl. 1342-1382, 1838, vol.9.7 : suppl. 1343-1382, 1842, vol.10.1 : 1382-1391, 1834, vol.10.2 : 1392-1400, 1834, vol.10.3 : suppl. 1382-1400, 1838, vol.10.4 : 1401-1409, 1841, vol.10.5 : 1410-1417, 1842, vol.10.6 : 1418-1428, 1844, vol.10.7 : 1429-1437, 1843, vol.10.8 : suppl. 1382-1437, 1843, 1301-1400, 1835, vol.11.1 : 1438-1440, 1844, tabula chronologica, 1862, GB
Acta comitialia Hungarica Soproniensia 1681, in Latin, GB
Karl Wagner (ed.), Diplomatarium comitatus Sarosiensis, 1780, in Latin, GB
St. Kaprinai (ed.), Hungaria Diplomatica temporibus Matthiae de Hunyad Regis Hungariae, pt.1, 1767, pt.2, 1771, GB
Hungary in 1848/49, a selection of documents posted by Habsburg Net
Individual Documents G. Dankovsky (ed.), Anonymus Belae Regis Notarius, Simon de Keza et Joannes de Turotz de Hungarorum Natali Solo .., 1826, in Latin, GB
J. Probst, Comitiologia Hungarica Semproniensis, 1682
Anonymi Belae regis notarii [magister P ] Historia Hungarica de septem .. , 1772, in Latin, GB
A. Bonfini, Ungarische Chronica, 1581, in German, GB
C. Maurer, Ungarische Chronika: von 1390 - 1661, 1664, in German, GB
Neue ungarische und siebenbürgische Chronick, 1664, in German, GB
Die Petition von Bogarosch 1748 (The Bogarosch Petition), posted by Norbert Neidenbach, in German
Papal Encyclical Constanti Hungarorum by Leo XIII., 1893, from Vatican
Historical Maps collections click here
South East Europe History Map Index, from Eliznik
Hungary County Maps & Census Data 1913, from Talma Media
Historical Text Archive : Hungarian Images and Historical Background ; has many maps
Discus Media, The 1900 Collection, Maps of Yesteryear, Hungary
Department of Cartography and Geoinformatics, Eövös University, Budapest, Maps on the Hungarian part of the Web
Category : Old Maps of the History of Hungary, Maps of the History of Hungary, Wikimedia Commons
David Rumsey Map Collection, Hungary
I. Hatsek, A Magyar Szent Korona Orszagainak Megyei Terkepei, 1880 (An Atlas of Hungary's Counties), maproom
Hungary, hindsight Europe in the Year 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, euratlas
Maps from Magyar Elektronik Konyvtar : The Carpathian Basin before the Hungarian Conquest in the 9th Century; The Wander and Conquest of the Hungarians
Hungary, contemporary Map : Austria-Hungary (borders of Catholic Dioceses; from Streit, Atlas Hierarchicus 1913), posted by M. Witkam
Hungary 1906, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight I.S. Toralba et al., The Historical Hungary of 1914: A Mapinfo Based Project, thesis Budapest 2006; uses WHKMLA maps
detail, contemporary City Panoramas 19th Century, from Historic Maps, Budapest 1851
Encyclopedia Entries
General EB 1911
Article Ungarn, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, posted by Retro Bibliothek, in German; Ungarn, from Meyers Grosses Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, posted by Zeno, in German; Ungarn, from Pierer's Universal Lexikon 1857-1865, posted by Zeno, in German; Ungarn, from Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, posted by Zeno, in German; Ungarn, from Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations Lexikon 1837-1841, posted by Zeno, in German
Article Ungern, from Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899 (1892), posted by Project Runeberg, in Swedish
Religious from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914, from from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Kingdom of Hungary, p.46 in J.M. Neale, A History of the Holy Eastern Church, 1850, GB
Economic Search for article "Ungarn" in J.G. Krünitz' Oekonomische Enzyclopädie 1773-1858, in German
Hongrie, p.136, in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Hungary, pp.216-217 in vol.1 of P. Kelly, The universal cambist, and commercial instructor, 1811, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Fiume, Pesth, Pressburg, Semlin, Temesvar und Debreczyn, Tokai, posted by DTBSWS
Geographical Hungary, pp.444- in : W. Guthrie, A new geographical, historical, and commercial grammar: and present state of the several kingdoms of the world, 1782, GB
Hungary, pp.59- in N. Dwight, A short but comprehensive system of the geography of the world, 1808, GB
The Edinburgh gazetteer, or geographical dictionary, 1822, GB, numerous entries on Hungary
Hungary, pp.278- in vol.6 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, Or, a Description of All the Parts of the World, on a new plan, 1827, GB
G. Landmann, A universal gazetteer: or, Geographical dictionary, 1836, GB, numerous entries on Hungary
Article : Hungary, p.383 in Th.C. Callicot, Hand-book of universal geography: being a gazetteer of the world, 1853, GB
Article Ungarn, from Stefan Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1857-1863, posted by Project Runeberg, in Danish
Austria-Hungary : Hungary, pp.143-150 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c.1910, GB
Ethnographical Kingdom of Hungary, pp.251-258 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Historical Louis Ellies Du Pin, L' Histoire Profane Depuis son commencement jusqu'la present vol.5 : 1000-1700, pp.48-49 : Histoire des Roiaumes de Pologne & de Hongrie pp.98-99 : Histoire des Roiaumes de Pologne & de Hongrie, pp.126-128 : Histoire des Roiaumes de Pologne, de Hongrie & de Boheme pendant le treizieme siecle, pp.167-168 : Histoire des Roiaumes de Pologne, de Hongrie & de Boheme pendant le quatorzieme siecle, pp.185-186 : Histoire des Roiaumes de Pologne, de Hongrie & de Boheme pendant le quatorzieme siecle, pp.205-207 : Histoire des Roiaumes d'Hongrie, de Boheme & de Pologne depuis l'an 1450, jusques vers l'an 1600, pp.252-255 : Histoire des Roiaumes d'Hongrie, de Boheme & de Pologne depuis la fin du xv. siecle, jusqu'au commencement du xviii, 1717, in French, GB
Ungern pp.242-311 in vol.2 of the 1st edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1794, in German, GB
Ungarn pp.306-380 in vol.2 of the 2nd edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1807, in German, GB
Ungarn, pp.375-459 in vol.2 of the 3rd edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1823, in German, GB
Histoire d'Hongrie et de Transilvanie, pp.218-333 [on 1619-1718] in vol.32 of Maximilian-Samson-Friedrich Schöll, Cours d'histoire des Etats Europeens, depuis le bouleversement de l'empire romain d'Occident jusqu'en 1789, 1832, in French, GB
Hungary, pp.1052-1056 in S.G. Goodrich, A history of all nations, from the earliest periods to the present, vol.1, 1866, GB
Specialist Article : Ungarische Eisenbahnen, from Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens (Encyclopedia of Railroads) 2nd ed. 1912-1923, in German
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Historic Tour Guides K. Baedeker, Austria, including Hungary, Transylvania, Dalmatia and Bosnia (1900), posted on Internet Archive
Algernon Bastard, The Gourmet's Guide to Europe (1903), posted by Gutenberg Library Online, chapter XI pp.196-207 on Austria and Hungary
Travelogues Henry Blount : A Voyage Into The Levant, 1634, from Modern History Sourcebook
D.T. Ansted, A Short Trip in Hungary and Transylvania in the Spring of 1862 (1862), IA
F.S. Beudant, Travels in Hungary in 1818 (1823), IA
Institutions Archives National Archives of Hungary
National Archives of States which annexed territory which used to belong to the Kingdom of Hungary : Austrian State Archives; Croatian State Archives; The National Archives of Romania; Archives Serbia, Archives of the Republic of Slovenia, Archives of Ukraine,
Regional Archives : Burgenländisches Landesarchiv
Musea Hungarian National Museum
National Museum of Transylvanian History (Romanian language); English language Wikipedia Article
Libraries National Szechenyi Library
State Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Hungary, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Hungarian coins 15th-20th century, from Collection Mirko Plavsic
Numismata : David Ruckser, Coins of Hungary
Stamps Rare Hungary Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery
Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . BIBLIOGRAPHIC AND PRINT SOURCES

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Eastern Central Europe
on Hungary Hungarian National Bibliography
Historia Hungariae, pp.503-504 in vol.8 of J.D. Reuss, Repertorium commentationum a societatibus litterariis editarum, 1810, GB
Ch.19 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Hungaricarum, Bohemicarum et Silesicarum, pp.512-532 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Historiography Article : Hungarian Historiography, by Attila Pok, pp.431-433, in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Eastern Central Europe Central and Eastern European Online Library
on Hungary Corvinus Library : Hungarian History
Hungarian Electronic Library
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories : Hungary, Romania, Croatia, Serbia, Ukraine,
Online Journals Links Directory of Open Access Journals
full text online Hungarian Electronic Library : Electronic Periodicals Archive
Journal of Hungarian Studies 1997-1997
Chronica. Annual of the Institute of History, University of Szeged, Hungary 2001-
Hungarian Studies Review, 1998-2001
table of contents online Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung 1952-, in German
General Accounts Peter F. Sugar (ed.), A History of Hungary, Indiana Univ. Press 1990, 432 pp.
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries Steve Bela Vardy (ed.), Historical Dictionary of Hungary, London : Scarecrow 1997, 704 pp.
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Europe 1750-1988, London : Palgrave 2000 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Hungary, 1913 pp. 957-958 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Austria-Hungary, 1878, pp.3-27, 1895 pp.339-340, 1898 pp.333-375, 1901 pp.410-426, 428-432, 1905 pp.442-459, 461-468, 1910 pp.609-623, 627-628
Other Article : Austria-Hungary : Hungary, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1902 pp.59-60 [G]
Article : Hungary, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.399-401, 1899 pp.413-415
Article : Austria-Hungary : Hungary, in : International Year Book 1900 p.98
Article : Austria-Hungary, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.71-77, 1908 pp.62-68, 1909 pp.65-71, 1913 pp.78-85, 1914 pp.76-83, 1916 pp.68-73, 1918 pp.63-69 [G]

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