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Prussia Russian Empire
First posted on July 8th 2002, last revised on January 4th 2011

Little is reported by written historical sources about Poland prior to 966, when Mieszko I. accepted baptism in the Catholic rite. His son Boleslaw Chrobry was crowned King of Poland in 1025. Between 1138 and 1320 Poland was fragmented into a number of duchies - Great Poland, Little Poland, Mazovia, Silesia, Pomerania; the Seniorate applied.
Wladyslaw Lokietek (1305-1333) reunited Poland (except for Silesia and Pomerania, who came under the sovereignty of the Holy Roman Empire), was crowned King of Poland in 1320. His son and successor Casimir III. the Great (1333-1370) began a policy of expansion in easterly direction. He was the last Polish king of the Piast dynasty. The marriage of his daughter Jadwiga to Jogaila (Jagiello), Grand Duke of Lithuania, in 1385, marking the begin of the Jagiellon Dynasty in Poland. As a result of this marriage, the hitherto pagan Lithuanians accepted Catholicism, but Poland and Lithuania remained separate political entities until the Union of Lublin of 1569. For the history since 1569, see Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1569-1795

Reformation and Counterreformation

Historical Atlas, Poland Page
List of Wars, Poland Page

Students' Paper : Kim, Jae Hee, History of Polish-Russian/Soviet Relations (2009)

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Country Profiles current Articles : Poland during the Piast Dynasty (966-1385), Poland during the Jagiellon Dynasty (1385-1569), from Wikipedia
historical M. Kromer, Polonia siue de sitv popvlis, moribvs, magistratibvs et repvblica regni, 1577, in Latin, GB
A. Gwagnin, K. Warszewicki, Rervm Polonicarvm Tomi tres, 1584, in Latin, GB
Links, on History from Virtual Library History
Categories History of Poland 966-1385, History of Poland 1385-1569, from Wikipedia
European History Primary Sources : Poland, from Virtual Library History
Organizations Polish Academy of Sciences, Tadeusz Manteuffel Institute of History, Institute of Archeology and Ethnology
The Head Office of the State Archives, Poland
Article : Polish Historical Society, from Wikipedia
The Immanuel Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute; Institute for Polish-Jewish Studies
Georg-Eckert-Institut : German-Polish Textbook Commission
Australian Polish Historical Society; Polish American Historical Association (PAHA)
Timelines Timeline, from from timelines.ws
Category : Years in Poland, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History General Accounts modern A Brief History of Poland, from Polonia Today; The History of Poland, by Mieczyslaw Kasprzyk; Political History of Poland, by F. Kobylarz
historical Jan Herburt z Fulsteina, Chronica sive historiae Polonicae compendiosa, ac per certa librorum capita, 1571, in Latin, GB
Histoire des Rois de Pologne, vol.1, 1733, vol.2, 1733, vol.3, 1733, vol.3, 2nd ed. 1748, in French, GB
Pierre-Joseph de la Pimpie Solignac, Histoire generale de Pologne vol.1, 1750, vol.2, 1747, vol.3, 1751, vol.4, 1750, vol.5, 1750, vol.6, 1780, in French, GB
F.A. Schmid, Abrege chronologique de l'histoire de Pologne, 1763, in French, GB
St. Jones, The history of Poland: from its origin as a nation to the commencement of the year 1795, 1795, GB
S.A. Dunham, The History of Poland, 1831, GB
J. Fletcher, The history of Poland: from the earliest period to the present time, 1839, GB
A Polish Exile, Outline of the history of Poland: from the earliest period to the present time, 1840, GB
T.A. Galecki, A sketch of the history of Poland, 1842, GB
Specific Periods Articles : Union of Lublin 1569, Poland under the Jagiellon Dynasty 1385-1569, Poland during the Piast Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Politics general Articles : General Sejm, from Wikipedia
Foreign Policy
Military modern account click here
Polish Renaissance Warfare 1450-1699, by S.A. Jasinski
Articles : List of Wars Involving Poland, Mongol Invasion of Poland (1240-1241), Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War (1409-1411), Hunger War (1414), Gollub War (1422), Polish-Teutonic War (1431-1435), Battle of Grotniki (1439), Thirteen Years' War (1454-1466), War of the Priests (1467-1479), Polish-Teutonic War (1519-1521), Northern Seven Years War (1563-1570), from Wikipedia
historical account
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Poland
Grzegorz Wojtowicz, The Origin and History of the Polish Money, Part 1
Piotr Guzowski, Peasant Credit Market in Poland in the Late Middle Ages and the Early Podern Period (15th and 16th Centuries), IEHC 2006
Piotr Guzowski, The Peasant Land Market in the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period (15th-16th Centuries), IEHC 2006
Windmills in Poland, from Windmill World
Article : Wielicka Salt Mine, from Wikipedia; from Showcaves
Gdansk, the past and present of the town and port, from Port Gdansk
Social History
Ethnography Oskar Halecki, Das Nationalitätenproblem im alten Polen (1916, in German), posted on Internet Archive
R.F. Kaindl, Polen: Mit einem geschichtlichen Überblick über die Polnisch-ruthenische Frage (1917, in German), posted on Internet Archive
Religion Poland Church History, from Family Search Research Wiki
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Poland, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Poland, from Jewish Virtual Library
Metropolitan Archdiocese of Gniezno, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Krakow, Diocese of Pelplin (Kulm), Diocese of Plock, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Poznan, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Przemysl, Diocese of Tarnow (Tyniec), Metropolitan Archdiocese of Warmia, Diocese of Wloclawek, from GCatholic
Protestantism in Poland and Bohemia, by J.A. Wylie, (Book 3 ch.19 of J.A. Wylie's History of Protestantism, 1878)
P. Wilczek, Jesuits in Poland according to A.F. Pollard (1892); Towarzystwo Jezusowe w Polsce (Jesuit Order, in Polish); Jesuici Serwis Krakowski
Panewniki Franciskanie (Polish language page of the Franciscan Order, Province Polonia); Ordo Fratrum Minorum, scroll down for Polonia; Franciscan Provinces with their Custodies and Convents, c.1350, from M. van der Heijden and B. Roest, click Bohemia (includes Poland)
Province of Poland, from Order of Saint Augustine
Search OSB (Order of Saint Benedict) for Poland
From the Dominican Friars in Poland, from Dominican History
Chr.G. von Friese, Kirchengeschichte des Königreichs Polen, 1786, in German, GB
E. Kneifel, Geschichte der Evangelisch-Augsburgischen Kirche in Polen
Poland - Index, from Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy
History of Regions Category Polish Historical Regions, from Wikipedia
Local History Articles Czestochowa : History, History of Krakow, Gniezno : History, Lublin : History, History of Poznan (Posen), Torun : History (Thorn), History of Warsaw, from Wikipedia
Gdansk, the past and present of the town and port, from Port Gdansk
Institutions Article : General Sejm (Sejm Walny), from Wikipedia
Culture Article Polish Literature from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1911 edition; Virtual Library of Polish Literature; Polish Literature, links from Slavophilia
Biographies List of Polish Monarchs, from Wikipedia
Biographies of Polish Saints, from Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon, in German

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); Poland and the Baltics, from Regnal Chronologies
Titles of European Hereditary Rulers : Poland
Lists of Ambassadors Ambassadors and envoys from Russia to Poland, from Wikipedia Polish Edition
List of Ambassadors from Poland to Russia, from Wikipedia; more detailed list from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Polscy ambasadorzy we Francji, from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Austriaccy ambasadorzy w Polsce (Austrian Ambassadors), from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Polscy ambasadorzy w Austrii, from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Kategoria:Weneccy ambasadorzy w Polsce (Venetian Ambassadors), from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Polscy ambasadorzy w Turcji, from Wikipedia Polish Edition
List of French representatives in Poland, of Poland in France pp.xxviii-xxxvi in vol.38 of F. Schoell, Cours d'histoire des etats Europeens 1833, in French, GB
Lists of Bishops List of Archbishops of Gniezno and of Primates of Poland, from Wikipedia
List of Bishops and Archbishops of Krakow, from Wikipedia
List of Bishops of Poznan, from Wikipedia
List of Bishops of Warmia, from Wikipedia
List of Bishops of Culm (Chelmno), from Wikipedia
List of Bishops of Vilnius, from Wikipedia
List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Ukraine, from Wikipedia
Economic Data The Marteau Early 18th-Century Currency Converter
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
Digital Library of Polish and Poland-Related News Pamphlets from the 16th to the 18th Century
Staatskalender Des Königreich Polens Historisches Jahrbuch, 1668, 1669, 1670, 1671, 1672, posted by UB Jena
Online Yearbooks P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde; entry : De l'Estat du Roy de Pologne, in French, 1613, pp.742-771, GB; 1614, pp.740-771, GB; 1616, pp.740-771, GB; 1617, pp.740-771, GB; 1621, vol.2 pp.3-36, GB; 1628, pp.742-773, GB; 1630, pp.527-549, GB; 1633, pp.742-743, GB; 1659, pp.499-515, GB
Die Durchlauchten Häuser in Europa : Der König in Pohlen 1702 pp.54-59, 1705 pp.70-108, 1708 pp.110-125, 1716 pp.138-153 1725 pp.116-130, in German, GB
Die Durchlauchtige Welt : König in Polen, 1710 pp.241-261, 1739 pp.258-281, in German, GB
Jährliches genealogisches Hand-Buch : von Pohlen und Chur-Sachsen, 1730 pp.111-125, 1732 pp.86-99, 1737 pp.90-98, 1738 pp.89-97, 1741 pp.89-98, 1742 pp.89-98, 1745 pp.100-110, 1746 pp.104-114, 1747 pp.107-117, 1749 pp.114-125, in German, GB
Neues genealogisch-schematisches Reichs- und Staats-Handbuch : Polen : siehe Sachsen 1748 pp.217-229, 1750 pp.267-275, 1752 pp.312-320, 1756 pp.323-330, 1758 pp.323-330, 1759 pp.331-339, 1760 pp.334-340, 1761 pp.339-346, 1762 pp.343-351, 1764 pp.341-343, 1765 pp.377-381, in German, GB
M. Gottlieb Schumanns genealogisches Handbuch : vom königlich polnischen und chur-sächsischen Hause 1758 pp.85-97, 1760 pp.85-97, in German, GB
Europäisches genealogisches Handbuch : vom königlich polnischen und chur-sächsischen Hause 1756 pp.87-98, 1766 pp.98-112, 1768 pp.100-114, 1770 pp.101-115, 1772 pp.96-110, 1774 pp.95-109, 1776 pp.96-110, 1780 pp.101-116, 1782 pp.102-118, 1784 pp.102-118, 1786 pp.105-122, 1788 pp.100-117, 1790 pp.104-120, 1792 pp.98-114, 1794 pp.95-111, 1800 pp.108-117, in German, GB
J.Ch. Poncelin de la Roche Tilhac, Etat des Cours de l'Europe et des Provinces de France pour l'annee ... vol.1 MDCCCLXXXIV 1783 pp.223-228, vol.2 MDCCCLXXXV, 1785 pp.237-247, vol.3 MDCCCLXXXVI, 1786 pp.216-224, in French, GB
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties Category : Treaties of Poland, from Wikipedia
M. Tetot, Repertoire des Traites de Paix, de Commerce, d'Alliance etc., Conventions et autres Actes conclus entre tous les Puissances du Globe, principalement depuis la Paix de Westphalie jusqu'a notre jours, I : Tableau Chronologique 1493-1866, 1866, posted on Internet Archive
Pologne, pp.136-137 in vol.1 of Table des traites entre la France et les puissances etrangeres, depuis la paix de Westphalie jusqu'a nos jours, 1802, GB
Source Catalogues Ch.30 : De Scriptoribus Historiae Polonicae, Lithuanicae, atque Moscoviticae, pp.746-764 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
J.D.A. Janocki, Specimen catalogi codicum manuscriptorum bibliothecae Zaluscianae, 1752, in Latin, GB
Document Collections Codex diplomaticus Poloniae vol.1, 1847, vol.2, 1848, vol.3, 1858, IA
Codex diplomaticus Warmiensis, vol.1, 1860, vol.3, 1874, IA
Codex diplomaticus majoris Poloniae documenta vol.1, 1877 vol.2, 1878, vol.3, 1879, vol.4, 1881, vol.5, 1908, IA
Skarby Dziedzictwa Narodowego (Treasures of National Heritage)
Individual Documents
Historical Maps click here
City Panoramas 1490, Krakau, City Panoramas 1600, Krakau, Danzig, Warschau, Vilnius, from Historic Maps
Poland Index, from Historic Cities
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article Polen, Geschichte von, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892 edition, in German
Political Pohlen, pp.547-584 in F.L. Bressler, Die Heutigen Christlichen Souverainen von Europa, 1698, in German, GB
Le Ceremonial de la Cour de Pologne, pp.388-445 in vol.2 of J.R. de Missy, Le Ceremonial diplomatique des cours de l' Europe, 1739, in French, GB
Gouvernement de Pologne, pp.589-643 in vol.2 of G. de Real de Curbon, La science du gouvernement, 1762, in French, GB
Poland, pp.44-76 in vol.4 of T.G. Smollett, The Present State of all Nations, GB
Geographical La Pologne, pp.106-157 in vol.1 of J. Vaissette, Geographie historique ecclesiastique et civile 1755, in French, GB
Poland, Lithuania, Polish Prussia and Courland, pp.567- in vol.1 of A.F. Büsching, A new system of geography 1762, GB
Of Poland, Lithuania, Polish Prussia and Courland, pp.55-74 in vol.2 of D. Fenning, J. Collyer, A new system of geography, or a general description of the world, 1765, GB
Historical De Regno Poloniae, pp.391-407 in J.C. Becmann, Historia Orbis Terrarum Geographica 1673, in Latin, GB
Louis Ellies Du Pin, L' Histoire Profane Depuis son commencement jusqu'la present vol.5 : 1000-1700, pp.48-49 : Histoire des Roiaumes de Pologne & de Hongrie pp.98-99 : Histoire des Roiaumes de Pologne & de Hongrie, pp.126-128 : Histoire des Roiaumes de Pologne, de Hongrie & de Boheme pendant le treizieme siecle, pp.167-168 : Histoire des Roiaumes de Pologne, de Hongrie & de Boheme pendant le quatorzieme siecle, pp.185-186 : Histoire des Roiaumes de Pologne, de Hongrie & de Boheme pendant le quatorzieme siecle, pp.205-207 : Histoire des Roiaumes d'Hongrie, de Boheme & de Pologne depuis l'an 1450, jusques vers l'an 1600, pp.252-255 : Histoire des Roiaumes d'Hongrie, de Boheme & de Pologne depuis la fin du xv. siecle, jusqu'au commencement du xviii, 1717, in French, GB
Chapter X : Poland, pp.303-328 in : Samuel von Pufendorf, An introduction to the history of the principal kingdoms and states of Europe, 1719, GB
Poland, pp.734-777 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
The History of Poland, pp.1-407 in vol.34 of The Modern Part of an Universal History, 1762, GB
The History of Poland, pp.1-176 in vol.31 of G. Sale et al., The Modern Part of an Universal History, 1783, GB
Polen pp.312-367 in vol.2 of the 1st edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1794, in German, GB
Travelogues Ch. d'Auteroche, A journey into Siberia: made by order of the king of France, 1770, GB
Poland, pp.230-234 in J. Carver, The New Universal Traveller 1779, GB
W. Coxe, Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark vol.1, 1784, vol.2, 1792, vol.3, 1787, vol.4, 1787, vol.5, 1791, GB
Institutions Archives State Archives of Poland
Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Poland, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 43 entries
Historical Research in Europe, listing of archives; click Atlas Search, Poland, 191 entries
Foreign Ministry Archives Services of the European Union Member States : Poland, from Consilium Europa
Musea Lists, Links Category : Museums in Poland, from Wikipedia
ICOM : Museums in Poland
Museum Websites National Museum in Krakow
Historical Museum of Warsaw
Monuments Category : Monuments and memorials in Poland, from Wikipedia
UNESCO World Heritage Site, List (search for Poland), Tentative Lists : Poland
Poland Index, from Showcaves, has historical mines
List of Castles in Poland, from Wikipedia
Windmills in Poland, from Windmillworld; List of Windmills in Poland, from Wikipedia
Category : Watermills in Poland, from Wikimedia
Category : Palaces in Poland, from Wikipedia
Libraries Libraries in Poland, from LibDex, 31 entries
History of the Polish National Library, from The European Library
Article : National Library of Poland, from Wikipedia
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Poland - Historical Flags, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from Heraldry of the World
Coins, Banknotes Poland, from Medieval Coinage
Search Coin Archives for Poland

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keywords Polen, Poland (site in German, most titles listed in English; hundreds of entries; publications mostly since 1970)
Search ISBN Database for Poland
RHS Bibliography, search for Polen
on Poland Bibliografia Historii Polskiej, Polish language site
Bibliography on Polish Heraldry, from Heraldica
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Poland Digital Library of Wielkopolska
Central and Eastern European Online Library
Digital Eastern Europe Library : History
National Digital Library, Poland
Kujawsko-Pomorska Digital Library, Silesian Digital Library, Lower Silesian Digital Library, Polish Federation of Digital Libraries
Online Journals full text online
Table of Contents
Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung 1952-, in German
Online Yearbooks Almanacco istorico, politico, militare, scientifico, 1794, 1795, in Italian, posted on Google Books
The Annual register, or a view of the history, politics and literature for the year 1758, 1759, 1759, 1802, 1760, 1761, 1761, 1762, 1762, 1787, 1762, 1805, 1763, 1764, 1765, 1766, 1766, 1767, 1766, 1793, 1767, 1800, 1769, 1770, 1770, 1771, 1771, 1772, 1772, 1773, 1773, 1774, 1774, 1778, 1775, 1780, 1777, 1778, 1778, 1779, Index 1758-1780, 1799, 1786, 1788, 1787, 1789, 1788, 1790, 1789, 1792, 1791, 1824, 1792, 1799, 1792, 1821, 1793, 1821, 1795, 1800, GB
Historiography Article : Polish Historiography, by E. Domanska, pp.720-723, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts M.B. Biskupski, The History of Poland, Westport : Greenwood 2000, KMLA Lib.Sign. 943.8 B622t
Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, Poland, an illustrated History, NY : Hippocrene 2000, KMLA Lib.Sign. 943.8 P746p
Article Poland, in Encyclopædia Britannica, Macropædia, Vol.25 pp.930-957; KMLA Lib. Sign. R 032 B862n v.25
Enno Meyer, Grundzüge der Geschichte Polens (Main Features of Polish History), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft 1977 [G]
Manfred Hellmann, Daten der Polnischen Geschichte (Dates in Polish History), München : dtv 1985 [G]
Norman Davies, Heart of Europe. A Short History of Poland, Oxford : UP (1984) 1986 [G]
Historical Section of the Foreign Office, Peace Handbooks : Poland. General Sketch of History 1569-1772; The Three Partitions; The Settlement of 1815, London : H.M.SO. 1919 [G]
Francis Dvornik, The Slavs in European History and Civilization, New Brunswick : Rutgers UP 1962 [G]
Specific Topics H. Jablonowski, Poland to the Death of Jan Sobieski, ch.24 / pp.559-570 in The New Cambridge Modern History vol.V : The Ascendancy of France 1648-1688, Cambridge UP 1964 [G]
J. Gierowski and A. Kaminski, The Eclipse of Poland, ch.20 (2) / pp.681-715 in The New Cambridge Modern History vol.VI : The Rise of Great Britain and Russia 1688-1725, Cambridge UP 1970 [G]
L.R. Lewitter, Poland under the Saxon Kings, ch.16 / pp.365-390 in The New Cambridge Modern History vol.VII : The Old Regime 1713-1763, Cambridge UP 1957 [G]
L.R. Lewitter, The Partitions of Poland, ch.12 / pp.333-359 in The New Cambridge Modern History vol.VIII : The American and French Revolutions 1763-1793, Cambridge UP 1971 [G]
Local, Regional History Zdzislaw Zygulski, Cracow, an Illustrated History, NY : Hippocrene 2001, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 943.86 Z99c
Historical Atlas W. Czaplinski, T. Ladogorski, The Historical Atlas of Poland, Wroclaw : State Cartographic Publishers 1986 [G]
Historical Dictionaries George Sanford, Adriana Gozdecka-Sanford, Historical Dictionary of Poland, Scarecrow 1994, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 943.6 S224h

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