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Estonia Lithuania
First posted on July 8th 2002, last revised on January 4th 2011

Latvia since 1991
Latvia 1949-1991
Latvia 1945-1949
Latvia 1939-1945
Latvia 1934-1939
Latvia 1922-1934
Latvia 1918-1922

For the History prior to 1918, click on Courland Gubernia, Livonia Gubernia, Vitebsk Gubernia

Historical Atlas : Latvia Page

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook, countries - Latvia
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Latvia
Links, General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from SSEES
Links, on History from Virtual Library History, from Virtual Library Economic and Business History
Organizations Baltische Historische Kommission, page in German; Latvia's History Commission, from MOFA Latvia
Latvijas Muzeju Biedriba (in Latvian)
Latvian Genealogical Society; Association of the Four Baltic Noble Corporations, Livonia, Estonia, Courland, and Oesel (Baltische Ritterschaften); click Livonia, Kurland (Livländische Ritterschaft; Kurländische Ritterschaft)
Institut für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen in Nordosteuropa at Universität Hamburg
Latvijas Institute
Latvijas Vestures Skolotaju Asociacija (Latvian History Teachers Association)
University of Latvia, Institute of Latvian History
Historical Dictionaries Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens, in German
Timelines Timeline, from timelines.ws, from BBC News
Accounts of History General, Modern History of Latvia, from vernet
History, Language, Identity and Culture of Latvia. A Brief Synopsis, from Lettland.nu
History of Latvia, from Latvian Institute
Article History of Latvia, from Wikipedia
General, Historical The Story of Latvia (1949), by Arveds Svabe
Specific Periods Articles : Latvian National Awakening, Latvian War of Independence, Soviet Occupation of Latvia in 1940/A>, Occupation of Lavia by Nazi Germany, The Holocaust in Latvia, Latvian Resistance Movement, Occupation of Latvia by the Soviet Union 1944-1945, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, from Wikipedia
Georg von Rauch, The Baltic States : The Years of Independence. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, 1917-1940, (1970) trsl. from the German by Gerald Onn, 1974, GB
Historiography Butkus Zenonas, Romantic Baltophylia in Latvian Historiography, Lietuvos Istorijos Studios 4
Evaluation of History, from MOFA Latvia
Szintra Liepina, Developments in the History Education in Latvia, on Euroclio
Politics General Political Resources on the Web : Latvia; For the Record 2000 : Livonia, from UN Human Rights System
Article Politics of Latvia, from Wikipedia
Political Parties, Movements Catergory : POlitical Parties in Latvia , Political Movements in Latvia , from Wikipedia
Political Histtory Concentration Camps Today : (Soviet) Latvia, from ATTAC
Foreign Relations Category : Foreign Relations of Latvia, from Wikipedia
Military Wars of Latvia 1800-1999, from ACED
Latvian War Museum, English directory
Article : Latvian War of Independence, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Latvia
Article Economy of Latvia, from Wikipedia
History of theNordic Exchange; Latvian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Development of the Latvian Textile Industry, from Latvian Subcontracting
Industrial Heritage in Latvia, by Andris Biedrins
Global Integrity : Latvia 2007
Latvia, from European Textile Network (historical sites)
Windmills in Latvia, from Windmill World
Social History
Ethnography Languages of Latvia, from Ethnologue
National Minorities of Latvia, from Latvian Institute
Assessment for Russians in Latvia, from Minorities at Risk; Russians in Latvia, History, Current Status and Prospects, from MOFA Latvia
Latvia, from European Centre for Minority Issues
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Latvia
Article : History of Russians in Latvia , from Wikipedia
Latvia, pp.3267-3296 in vol.5A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Latvia, from Kirken i Norge
Jewish Virtual History Tour : Latvia; Latvia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category Religion in Latvia, from Wikipedia
Article Latvian Orthodox Church : History, from Wikipedia
History of Regions see History of Courland (Kurzeme), History of Livonia (Vidzeme), Vitebsk Gubernia
History of Latgale, from Latgale Research Center, from Wikipedia
Local History History of Riga, from Wikipedia, from Virtual Jewish History Tour, from Riga Municipality Portal
History of Jelgava (Mitau), from Wikipedia
History of Liepaja (Libau), from About Liepaja
Institutions Transportation The State Lines of Latvia, from Mike's Railway Museum
History of Latvian Television
Latvia, from Airline History
Structurae : Latvia; Search Lighthouse Explorer for Latvia
Academic Institutions History of Riga Technical Universiy
Edifices Structurae : Belgium; Search Lighthouse Explorer for Belgium
Culture The Early History of Latvian Books, by Nicholas Viksnins
History of Latvian Literature, Music in Latvia, by Latvian Institute
History of Latvia's Film Industry, from Latfilma
Others Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Latvia
Freemasonry in Latvia : A Short Overview, from Grand Lodge of Latvia
Articles Latvia at the Olympics, Sport in Latvia, from Wikipedia; Sports in Latvia : A Historical Overview, from Latvian Institute
Disaster History by Country : Latvia, from Relief Web
Latvia : Bilateral Relations, from MOFA Latvia, with fils on history of relations with individual countries
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors of the United Kingdom to Latvia, from Wikipedia; Liste der deutschen Botschafter in Riga, from Wikipedia German edition; List of Soviet and Russian Ambassadors to Latvia, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Article : U.S. Ambassador to Latvia, from Wikipedia
Heads of Canadian Legation / Embassy in Riga (since 1991), from MOFA Canada
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Latvijas Statistika
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Latvia, from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
Historical Abortion Statistics - Latvia, from Johnston's Archive
Election Results from Psephos (since 1998); from IFES Election Guide (since 1998); from Electoral Geography 2.0 (since 1998)
Elections and Electoral Systems around the world : Latvia, from Area Studies, at Keele
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazette Flare, Union List of Official Gazettes : Latvia
Latvijas vestnesis 1995-2012
Hemerotheques Wikipedia : List of Online Newspaper Archives : Latvia
Newspapers (Periodicals), from National Library of Latvia : Digital Library
Periodika, from Digitales Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa, German language historical periodicals from Central and Eastern Europe
Specific Newspapers Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Latvia", search all issues; 162 Latvia articles, GB
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Online Yearbooks - Latvia Entries
Films on History/Society Latvia Film Archives linked by National Film Preservation Board (U.S.)
Filmarchives Online (Europe-wide); National Film Center of Latvia; Latvia State Archive of Audiovisual Documents
Article : Cinema of Latvia, from Wikipedia
Latvia, from Cinema of the World
List of Latvian Films, from Wikipedia; Latvia Film, from IMDb
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Herder-Institut : Bildarchiv
Eric Hammerin, Bildbank Riga
Riga in 1900, Historic Photo Album
Memorial photo album dedicated to Latvia's first President, Janis Cakste
Friedman Archives : Latvia Gallery of Images (1988 photos)
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons : Category : Historical Images of Latvia
Universal Collections
Items on Latvia
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports; scroll down
Airline Timetable Images : Latvia
Archival Deposits Online Search CIA Released Documents for Latvia
Archival Deposits Catalogue Online Latvia Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
P.K. Grimsted, Archives and manuscript repositories in the USSR, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belorussia, 1981, IA
Guide to the Hoover Institution Archives 1980, GB ; search for Latvia
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Latvia, from ILO, 45 docs. since 1921
Internet Law Library : Latvia
Verfassungen der Republik Lettland (Constitutions of the Republic of Latvia), from verfassungen.de, in German
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections Australian Treaty Series : Bilateral Treaties - Latvia
Documents : LETTONIE - RUSSIE, Traites et documents de base (docs in English); complete list (many of the docs available only in French)
Latvia, pp.515-557 in vol.9 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1972, GB
Document Collections European History Primary Sources : Latvia
F.G. von Bunge, Liv-, Est- und Kurländisches Urkundenbuch und Regesten vol.II : 1301-1367, 1855, vol.III : supplements, 1368-1393, 1857, vol.VI : supplements 1875, 2nd Series vol.1 : 1495-1500, 1900, 2nd Series vol.2 : 1501-1505, 1905, posted on Internet Archive
Monumenta Livoniae Antiqua. Sammlung von Chroniken, Berichten, Urkunden und andern schriftlichen Denkmälern und Aufsätzen, welche zur Erläterung der Geschichte Liv-, Ehst- und Kurland's dienen, vol.1 1835, vol.2 1839, vol.3 1840, vol.4 1844, vol.5 1847, posted on Internet Archive
Documents on Latvian history in English translation, posted by latvians.com
Making the History of 1989 : Latvia
Individual Documents
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO, National Mapping Agencies : Latvia : Latvian State Land Service (Zemesprojekts), Riga
collections click here
Maps, from National Library of Latvia, Digital Library
K.R. Kupffer, Baltische Landeskunde : Atlas (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
David Rumsey Historical Map Collection : Latvia
Latvia Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Latvia, Maps of the History of Latvia, Wikimedia Commons
Discus Media, The 1900 Collection, Maps of Yesteryear, Latvia
Latvia, hindsight Europe in the Year 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000, euratlas
Latvia, Contemporary Maps : Latvia 1921 (Andrees Handatlas 7th edition 1921 1st print, 2nd print, posted by M. Witkam
Latvia 1922, 1932, 1938, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Latvia, Courland, Livonia, Riga, Libau, Mitau, Wenden, Dvinsk, from EB 1911
Articles Letten, Kurland, Livland, Riga, Libau, Mitau, Dünaburg, Dünamünde, Wenden (scroll down), from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Mitau, Riga, Libau, Dvinsk (Dünaburg), Courland, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Parliamentary Debates
Tour Guides K. Baedeker, La Russie: manuel du voyageur, 1897, 1902, in French, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, Russland : Handbuch für Reisende, 1888, in German, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, St. Petersburg und Umgebung: Handbuch für Reisende 1901, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives Latvijas Arhivi (Latvian National Historical Archives); website does not offer an English version
Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Latvia, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 3 entries
Historical Research in Europe, listing of archives; click Atlas Search, Latvia, 13 entries
Foreign Ministry Archives Services of the European Union Member States : Latvia, from Consilium Europa
Musea Category : Museums in Latvia, from Wikipedia
Museum of the Occupation of Latvia 1940-1991
Monuments Category : Monuments and Memorials in Latvia, from Wikipedia
Tentative List : Latvia, World Heritage List, scroll down for Latvia; from UNESCO World Heritage
Windmills in Latvia, from Windmill World
Libraries Libraries in Latvia, from LibDex, 11 entries
History of the Latvian National Library, from The European Library
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Latvia, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Latvia Coins, from Don's World Coin Gallery
Stamps Latvia Stamps 1918, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer; Trekk fra Latvias historie illustrert ved hjelp av frimerker og post (Stages in Latvia's History, illustrated by postage stamps and letters), by J.F. Haanes, in Norwegian

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Latvia survey of bibliographies National Bibliography of Latvia, from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University Library
Latvian Resources of Bibliographic Information
bibliographic database National Bibliography Databases, from National Library of Latvia
EBSEES (European Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies)
Bibliographieportal zur Geschichte Ostmitteleuropas - LitDok Ostmitteleuropa
general bibliographies pp.163-192 in A. Plakans, Historical Dictionary of Latvia, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 1997 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies
serial publications State Archives of Latvia, Publications
University of Latvia, Institute of Latvian History, Publications
general bibliographies
Latvia entries
on Specific Issues
Concerning Latvia
Latvia Bibliography, from European Centre for Minority Issues
Publikationen, from IKGN
Northern Crusades Bibliography, from Crusades Encyclopedia
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Latvia National Library of Latvia : Digital-Library
Central and Eastern European Online Library
Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
Online Journals Links Newspapers (Periodicals), from National Library of Latvia : Digital Library
full text online Jahrbücher für die Geschichte Osteuropas 1936-2006, BSB
Historiography Article : Latvian Historiography, by A. Plakans, pp.545-546, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Adrian Webb, The Longman Companion to Central and Eastern Europe since 1919, London etc.: Longman 2002 [G]
Andrejs Plakans, The Latvians, a Short History, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 1995, 257 pp. [G]
Specific Topics Valentins Silamikelis, With the Baltic Flag through Three Occupations, Riga : Jumava, Engl. edition 2002, 317 pp. [G]
Frederic T. Harned, Latvia and the Latvians, pp.94-117 in : Zev Katz et al. (ed.), Handbook of Major Soviet Nationalities, NY : The Free Press 1975 [G]
Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Westport CT : Greenwood 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.9 O18h
Latvia, pp.98-100, in : Derek H. Aldcroft, Europe's Third World. The European Periphery in the Interwar Years. Leicester : UP 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 940.09724 A357e
Historical Dictionary A. Plakans, Historical Dictionary of Latvia, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 1997 [G]

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