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Estonia Courland
First posted on March 27th 2004, last revised on February 12th 2010







Before the conquest of the territory which from 1199 to 1918 was known as Livonia by the (German) Brethren of the Sword in the years following 1199, this stretch of territory covering the parts of modern Latvia north of the river Dvina and southern and central regions of modern Estonia, this territory was inhabited by pagan speakers of Livonian and Estonian.
The Brethren of the Sword who regarded their campaigns into Livonia as crusades established a state centered on Riga and enforced the conversion of the local population to christianity. The land, in form of fiefs, was given out to German knights; the local population was reduced to the status of serfs.
Terra Mariana - the state of the Brethren of the Sword also covered Courland (Curonia, located to the south of the Dvina). In 1237 the state of the Brethren of the Sword was integrated into the state of the Teutonic Knights. In 1346 Estonia was acquired from Denmark.
The Reformation resulted in the disintegration of the state of the Teutonic Order. Livonia (with Courland, Estonia and Oesel) remained a unit until 1561, when it also disintegrated; the Livonian diet (now only for Livonia proper, without Courland, Oesel and Estonia) paid homage to the King of Poland. In 1621 Livonia (except for Polish Livonia) was conquered by and switched allegiance to Sweden, in 1710 Swedish Livonia switched allegiance to the Russian Empire. Under Poland, Sweden and the Russian Empire, into the 19th century, Livonia maintained a large degree of regional autonomy. The German minority, controlling the diet, the city councils and the priesthood, was in control of the country, the languages of administration, education and jurisdiction Latin and German. The ethnic Livonians and Estonians remained uneducated serfs. In 1819 in Livland Gubernia the serfs were emancipated. In the course of the 19th century the Russian central government gradually encroached on the control the Livonian estates (diet) had over the country. A number of Livonians converted to Russian Orthodox christianity. During the Russian Revolution and Civil War (1917-1922), the Republics of Latvia, comprising of Courland and southern Livonia, and of Estonia, comprising of northern Estonia and Reval (Estonia) Gubernia, were proclaimed, and prevailed. The declaration of Latvian / Estonian as official languages, and a land reform implemented as one of the first acts of the new republics broke the stranglehold of the German minority over the country.

Livland Gubernia 1710-1918 . Inflanty Voivodship 1621-1772 . Vitebsk Gubernia 1802-1918
Swedish Livonia 1621-1710 . Oesel Swedish 1645-1710 . Inflanty Voivodship 1621-1772
Livonia 1561-1621 . Oesel Danish 1560-1645
Terra Mariana 1199-1561
The Baltic Countries before the Crusades (-1199)

Historical Atlas : Livonia Page
List of Wars, Livonia Page







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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Articles : Livonia, Governorate of Livonia, Terra Mariana, from Wikipedia
Articles : Gouvernement Livland, Livländische Konföderation, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Livland, Svenska Livland, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Courland, Livonia and Estonia. Confidential Handbooks No.57, 1919, from the British Foreign Office, posted on the Web by jewishgen.org
K.J. von Blomberg, An account of Livonia: with a relation of the rise, progress, and decay of the Marian Teutonick Order, 1701, posted on Google Books
Links, on History Category : Livonia, from Wikipedia
Kategori : Livland, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Organizations Öpetatud Eesti Selts (Learned Estonian Society)
Baltische Historische Kommission, page in German; Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes against Humanity; Latvia's History Commission, from MOFA Latvia
Estonian Museum Association; Latvijas Muzeju Biedriba (in Latvian)
Eesti Genealoogia Selts (Estonian Genealogical Society); Latvian Genealogical Society; Association of the Four Baltic Noble Corporations, Livonia, Estonia, Courland, and Oesel (Baltische Ritterschaften); click Estonia, Livonia, Oesel (Estländische Ritterschaft; Livländische Ritterschaft; Oeselsche Ritterschaft)
Institut für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen in Nordosteuropa at Universität Hamburg
Latvijas Institute
Historical Dictionary Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens, in German
Timelines Robert von Toll, Chronologie der Ordensmeister über Livland, der Erzbischöfe von Riga und der Bischöfe von Leal, 1879, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Accounts of History general Uldis Balodis, Livonian History
Gustav von Bergmann, Geschichte von Livland, nach bossuetischer Art entworfen 1776, in German, posted on Google Books
Specific Periods Articles : Governorate of Livonia, Terra Mariana, from Wikipedia
Articles : Gouvernement Livland, Livländische Konföderation, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Svenska Livland, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
E. Seraphim, Geschichte Liv-, Est- und Kurlands von der "Aufsegelung" des Landes bis zur Einverleibung in das russische Reich, vol.1, 1895, in German, posted on Internet Archive
F.G. Bienemann, Die Statthalterschaftszeit in Liv- und Estland (1783-1796), 1886, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Erik Esvelt, The Swedish Empire in the Baltic Nations 1998
J. Eckardt, Livland im achtzehnten Jahrhundert : Umrisse zu einer livländischen Geschichte, 1876, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Historiography
Military Livland, Krieg, from Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens, in German
Economy & Finances Baltic Sea Trade, from Baltic Connections
Bruno von Gernet, Die Entwicklung des Rigaer Handels und Verkehrs im Laufe der Letzten 50 Jahre bis zum Ausbruche des Weltkrieges 1919, in German, posted on Internet Archive
William Urban, Medieval Livonian Numismatics
Ethnography
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses, Estonia, Latvia, from Kirken i Norge
Jewish Virtual History Tour : Estonia, Latvia, from Jewish Virtual Library; Estonia, Latvia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category : Religion in Estonia, Religion in Latvia, from Wikipedia
Religion, Eastern Orthodoxy in Estonia, from Estonica
Patron Saint Index : Estonia, Patrons of Livonia
Andres Andresen, The Reconfiguration of Lutheran Church Organization in the Baltic Region from the 1520s to 1917
Anton Fahne, Livland: Ein Beitrag zur Kirchen- und Sittengeschichte , 1875, in German, posted on Internet Archive
A. Buchholtz, Geschichte der Juden in Riga bis zur Begründung der rigischen Hebräergemeinde im J. 1842, 1899, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Paul Einhorn, Ueber die religioösen Vorstellungen der alten Völker in Liv- und Ehstland, 1857, posted on Internet Archive
History of Regions Peter Wilhelm Baron von Buxhövenden, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Provinz Oesell, 1838, posted by Google Books
Local History Tartu History Timeline, from tartu.ee (Dorpat)
Riga, History of, from vest_ang
F.G. Bunge, Die Stadt Riga im dreizehnten und vierzehnten Jahrhundert. Geschichte, Verfassung und Rechtszustand (1878) 1968, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Structurae : Estonia; Search Lighthouse Explorer for Estonia, Latvia
Culture
Biographies Baltische Biographische Lexika (Baltic Biographical Lexica), in German
J.F. von Recke, Allgemeines Schriftsteller- und Gelehrten-Lexikon der Provinzen Livland, Esthland und Kurland, vol.II : G-K, 1829, vol.III : L-R, 1831, Supplements vol.I : A-K, 1859, in German, posted on Internet Archive
J.G. Frobien, Rigasche Biographieen, (1881) 1973, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Others Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
F.G. von Bunge, Einleitung in die Liv-, Esth- und curländische Rechtsgeschichte und Geschichte der Rechtsquellen, 1849, in German, posted on Internet Archive
F.G. von Bunge, Geschichte des Gerichtswesens und Gerichtsverfahrens in Liv-, est- und Curland, 1874, posted on Internet Archive
A.K.H. Bergengruen, Die grosse moskowitische Ambassade von 1697 in Livland, 1892, in German, posted on Internet Archive
H.J. Krannhals, Die Influenza-Epidemie des Winters 1889-90 in Riga, 1891, in German, posted on Internet Archive

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Livonia
Population Figures
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers], scroll down for Estland
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Online Digital Archive, from Estonial National Archive
Archival Deposits Catalogue Online Estonia Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
P.K. Grimsted, Archives and manuscript repositories in the USSR, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belorussia, 1981, posted on Internet Archive
Katalog des schwedischen Generalgouverneur-archivs zu Riga , 1908, posted on Internet Archive
Dokumentesammlung des Herder-Instituts, mainly Baltic documents
Document Collections Baltic Connections : Exhibition
F.G. von Bunge, Liv-, Est- und Kurländisches Urkundenbuch und Regesten vol.II : 1301-1367, 1855, vol.III : supplements, 1368-1393, 1857, vol.VI : supplements 1875, 2nd Series vol.1 : 1495-1500, 1900, 2nd Series vol.2 : 1501-1505, 1905, posted on Internet Archive
Monumenta Livoniae Antiqua. Sammlung von Chroniken, Berichten, Urkunden und andern schriftlichen Denkmälern und Aufsätzen, welche zur Erläterung der Geschichte Liv-, Ehst- und Kurland's dienen, vol.1 1835, vol.2 1839, vol.3 1840, vol.4 1844, vol.5 1847, posted on Internet Archive
Briefe und Urkunden zur geschichte Livlands in den jahren 1558-1562 1865, posted on Internet Archive
Rikskansleren Axel Oxenstiernas skrifter och brefvexling vol.13 : 1635 1919, in Swedish, posted on Google Books
Individual Documents Livländische Reimchronik 1844, posted on Internet Archive
J.G.L. Napiersky, Die Erbebücher der Stadt Riga, 1384-1579, 1888, posted on Internet Archive
Das Liber Redituum der Stadt Riga 1881, posted on Internet Archive
Bodeckers Chronik livl?ndischer und rigascher Ereignisse, 1593-1638 1890, posted on Internet Archive
Salomon Henning's Lifflendische churlendische Chronica von 1554 bis 1590 ; und, Bericht in Religionssachen, 1857, posted on Internet Archive
The chronicle of Henry of Livonia trsl. by James A. Brundage, 1961, posted on Google Books
Historical Maps click here
City Panoramas 19th Century, from Historic Maps, Riga 1866
Alphabetism in the Baltic Provinces 1897, from Köztes Europa
Baltic Provinces Ethnic, 1987, from Köztes Europa
Old City Maps, from NLE Cartography Collection
Old geographical maps from the NLE Cartography Collection
K.R. Kupffer, Baltische Landeskunde : Atlas (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
List of Maps of the (former Swedish) Baltic Provinces, kept in RA Stockholm, Krigsarkivet, some of them clickable; comment in Swedish
Livland um 1270, Entstehung Livländische Städte, from EEO, text in German
Maps, on Uldis Balodis, Livonian History
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Articles Livonia, Pernau, Riga, Wenden, from EB 1911
Article Riga, Baltic Provinces, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 edition
Articles Livland, Dorpat, Pernau, Riga, Walk, Wenden, Esthen, Letten, Liven, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Pernau, Riga, posted by DTBSWS
J. Chr. Nelckenbrecher, Taschenbuch eines Banquiers und Kaufmanns enthaltend eine Erklärung aller ein- und ausländischen Münzen ..., Berlin : Wever 1769, in German, entries Riga, posted by DTBSWS
Tour Guides K. Baedeker, La Russie: manuel du voyageur, 1897, 1902, in French, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, Russland : Handbuch für Reisende, 1888, in German, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, St. Petersburg und Umgebung: Handbuch für Reisende 1901, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives State Archives of Latvia
Musea Category : Museums in Estonia, from Wikipedia
List of Museums in Latvia, from Wikipedia
Monuments
Libraries
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Coat of Arms, Vidzeme, from International Civic Heraldry
Coins The Coinage of the Baltic Countries, by Girts Eisters
Search Coin Archives for Livonia
Search Early Dated Coins for Livonia
William Urban, Medieval Livonian Numismatics
Swedish Livonia and Riga, from Medieval Coinage

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Estonia, Latvia Estonian National Bibliography, from Slavic and East European Library
Eesti Rahvus Bibliograafia (Estonian National Bibliography)
National Bibliography Databases, from National Library of Latvia
Baltische Historische Kommission, Publikationen (in German)
on Livonia
on Specific Issues
Concerning Livonia
Baltic Amber Bibliography Estonia
Publikationen, from IKGN
Northern Crusades Bibliography, from Crusades Encyclopedia
Lynn Nelson, A Bibliography of the Order of St. Mary of the Teutons, from ORB
Livland, from Computatio
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Eastern Central Europe National Library of Estonia : E-Library
Central and Eastern European Online Library
Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
Online Journals full text online Livländische Geschichtsliteratur vol.2 1884, vol.4 1904, posted on Internet Archive
Baltische Monatsschrift 1859, posted on Internet Archive
General Accounts on Eastern Europe Adrian Webb, The Longman Companion to Central and Eastern Europe since 1919, London etc.: Longman 2002 [G]
David G. Kirby, The Baltic World 1772-1993, London : Longman 1995
Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Westport CT : Greenwood 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.9 O18h
Reinhard Wittram, Baltische Geschichte. Die Ostseelande Livland, Estland und Kurland 1180-1918 (Baltic History. The Baltic Lands of Livonia, Estonia and Courland, 1180-1918), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft (1954) 1973, in German
on Estonia or Latvia Toivo U. Raun, Estonia and the Estonians, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 2001 [G]
Andrejs Plakans, The Latvians, a Short History, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 1995, 257 pp.
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionary Tojvo Miljan, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 2004
Andreis Plakans, Historical Dictionary of Latvia, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 2008