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Estonia Courland
First posted on February 12th 2010

The union of the states of the Brethren of the Sword (Terra Mariana) and of the Teutonic Knights disintegrated in 1525 when the Reformation had been introduced in the latter and the state of the Teutonic Knights was secularized. The Reformation also made inroads in Terra Mariana. Terra Mariana disintegrated, and foreign powers competed for territory : Denmark (in alliance with the Russian Empire), Sweden and Poland-Lithuania. After the devastating Livonian War 1558-1583, Denmark held on to the island of Oesel, Sweden to Estonia, while the newly-formed Duchies of Livonia and Courland, as well as Stift Courland (Stift Pilten) adhered to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (until 1569; from then onward to the Kingdom of Poland-Lithuania).
The Duchy of Livonia (since 1659 Grand Duchy) was divided in Pernau (in Polish : Parnawa, in Estonian : Pärnu) Voivodship, Dorpat (in Estonian : Tartu) Voivodship and Wenden (in Latvian : Cesis) Voivodship.
The city of Riga, located in Wenden Voivodship, maintained a degree of autonomy.
In 1621 the Swedes conquered Riga and most of Livonia; the diet of (the Swedish-occupied parts of) Livonia swore allegiance to the King of Sweden (Swedish Livonia); the remainder - part of Wenden Voivodship without its administrative center - was integrated into Poland-Lithuania as Inflanty Voivodship.

Livonia 1561-1621

Historical Atlas : Livonia Page
List of Wars, Livonia Page

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Country Profiles Articles : Duchy of Livonia, Dorpat Voivodeship, Parnawa Voivodeship, Wenden Voivodeship, from Wikipedia
Links, on History Category : Livonia, from Wikipedia
Kategori : Livland, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Organizations Öpetatud Eesti Selts (Learned Estonian Society)
Baltische Historische Kommission, page in German; Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes against Humanity; Latvia's History Commission, from MOFA Latvia
Estonian Museum Association; Latvijas Muzeju Biedriba (in Latvian)
Eesti Genealoogia Selts (Estonian Genealogical Society); Latvian Genealogical Society; Association of the Four Baltic Noble Corporations, Livonia, Estonia, Courland, and Oesel (Baltische Ritterschaften); click Estonia, Livonia, Oesel (Estländische Ritterschaft; Livländische Ritterschaft; Oeselsche Ritterschaft)
Institut für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen in Nordosteuropa at Universität Hamburg
Latvijas Institute
Historical Dictionary Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens, in German
Accounts of History general Uldis Balodis, Livonian History
Gustav von Bergmann, Geschichte von Livland, nach bossuetischer Art entworfen 1776, in German, posted on Google Books
E. Seraphim, Geschichte Liv-, Est- und Kurlands von der "Aufsegelung" des Landes bis zur Einverleibung in das russische Reich, vol.1, 1895, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods
Military Livland, Krieg, from Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens, in German
The Livonian War (1558-1583), from Russia the Great, from Wikipedia
William Urban, The Origin of the Livonian War, 1558, Lituanus 1983
Article : Andra Polska Kriget, 1600-1629, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Article Riga Castle, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances Baltic Sea Trade, from Baltic Connections
William Urban, Medieval Livonian Numismatics
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses, Estonia, Latvia, from Kirken i Norge
Jewish Virtual History Tour : Estonia, Latvia, from Jewish Virtual Library; Estonia, Latvia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category : Religion in Estonia, Religion in Latvia, from Wikipedia
Religion, Eastern Orthodoxy in Estonia, from Estonica
Patron Saint Index : Estonia, Patrons of Livonia
Andres Andresen, The Reconfiguration of Lutheran Church Organization in the Baltic Region from the 1520s to 1917
Anton Fahne, Livland: Ein Beitrag zur Kirchen- und Sittengeschichte , 1875, in German, posted on Internet Archive
A. Buchholtz, Geschichte der Juden in Riga bis zur Begründung der rigischen Hebräergemeinde im J. 1842, 1899, in German, posted on Internet Archive
History of Regions
Local History History of Riga, from Municipal Portal of Riga
Tartu History Timeline, from tartu.ee (Dorpat)
Riga, History of, from vest_ang
Institutions Structurae : Estonia; Search Lighthouse Explorer for Estonia, Latvia
Biographies Baltische Biographische Lexika (Baltic Biographical Lexica), in German
J.F. von Recke, Allgemeines Schriftsteller- und Gelehrten-Lexikon der Provinzen Livland, Esthland und Kurland, vol.II : G-K, 1829, vol.III : L-R, 1831, Supplements vol.I : A-K, 1859, in German, posted on Internet Archive
J.G. Frobien, Rigasche Biographieen, (1881) 1973, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Others Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
F.G. von Bunge, Einleitung in die Liv-, Esth- und curländische Rechtsgeschichte und Geschichte der Rechtsquellen, 1849, in German, posted on Internet Archive
F.G. von Bunge, Geschichte des Gerichtswesens und Gerichtsverfahrens in Liv-, est- und Curland, 1874, posted on Internet Archive

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Livonia
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Online Digital Archive, from Estonial National Archive
Archival Deposits Catalogue Online Estonia Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
P.K. Grimsted, Archives and manuscript repositories in the USSR, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belorussia, 1981, posted on Internet Archive
Dokumentesammlung des Herder-Instituts, mainly Baltic documents
Document Collections Baltic Connections : Exhibition
K.E. Napiersky (ed.), Russisch-Livländische Urkunden, 1868, documents until 1603, in German and Russian, posted on Google Books
Briefe und Urkunden zur geschichte Livlands in den jahren 1558-1562 1865, posted on Internet Archive
Individual Documents J.G.L. Napiersky, Die Erbebücher der Stadt Riga, 1384-1579, 1888, posted on Internet Archive
Das Liber Redituum der Stadt Riga 1881, posted on Internet Archive
Bodeckers Chronik livl?ndischer und rigascher Ereignisse, 1593-1638 1890, posted on Internet Archive
Salomon Henning's Lifflendische churlendische Chronica von 1554 bis 1590 ; und, Bericht in Religionssachen, 1857, posted on Internet Archive
Historical Maps Baltic Provinces Ethnic, 1987, from Köztes Europa
Old City Maps, from NLE Cartography Collection
Old geographical maps from the NLE Cartography Collection
K.R. Kupffer, Baltische Landeskunde : Atlas (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
List of Maps of the (former Swedish) Baltic Provinces, kept in RA Stockholm, Krigsarkivet, some of them clickable; comment in Swedish
Maps, on Uldis Balodis, Livonian History
Category : Maps of Livonia, from Wikimedia Commons
Institutions Archives State Archives of Latvia
Musea Category : Museums in Estonia, from Wikipedia
List of Museums in Latvia, from Wikipedia
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Coat of Arms, Vidzeme, from International Civic Heraldry
Coins The Coinage of the Baltic Countries, by Girts Eisters
Search Coin Archives for Livonia
Search Early Dated Coins for Livonia
William Urban, Medieval Livonian Numismatics
Swedish Livonia and Riga, from Medieval Coinage

on Estonia, Latvia Estonian National Bibliography, from Slavic and East European Library
Eesti Rahvus Bibliograafia (Estonian National Bibliography)
National Bibliography Databases, from National Library of Latvia
Baltische Historische Kommission, Publikationen (in German)
on Livonia
on Specific Issues
Concerning Livonia
Baltic Amber Bibliography Estonia
Publikationen, from IKGN
Livland, from Computatio
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Eastern Central Europe National Library of Estonia : E-Library
Central and Eastern European Online Library
Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
Online Journals full text online Livländische Geschichtsliteratur vol.2 1884, vol.4 1904, posted on Internet Archive
Baltische Monatsschrift 1859, posted on Internet Archive
General Accounts on Eastern Europe Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Westport CT : Greenwood 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.9 O18h
Reinhard Wittram, Baltische Geschichte. Die Ostseelande Livland, Estland und Kurland 1180-1918 (Baltic History. The Baltic Lands of Livonia, Estonia and Courland, 1180-1918), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft (1954) 1973, in German
on Estonia or Latvia Toivo U. Raun, Estonia and the Estonians, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 2001 [G]
Andrejs Plakans, The Latvians, a Short History, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 1995, 257 pp.
Specific Topics
Historical Atlas Latvijas Vestures Atlants, Riga 1998 [G]
Historical Dictionary Tojvo Miljan, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 2004
Andreis Plakans, Historical Dictionary of Latvia, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 2008

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