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Estonia Livonia
First posted on February 14th 2010

Terra Mariana disintegrated in 1558 and following. The last Prince-Bishop of Ösel-Wiek sold his territories to the King of Denmark (1560) who turned them, together with Stift Pilten (Courland), into an apanage for his brother, Duke Magnus. The territories of the Princebishopric of Ösel-Wiek were exchanged (1563) for territory the Duke of Lithuania, as Duke of Livonia, held on Ösel. Ösel & Pilten were intended to be the core of a larger Kingdom of Livonia which Duke Magnus, with Russian support, attempted to establish in the Livonian War; the project was abandoned in 1571.
In 1572, Ösel became a possession of the Kingdom of Denmark.
In 1645, Denmark ceded Ösel to Sweden; see Ösel under Swedish rule, 1645-1710.
In historical records the island appears as Osilia (Latin), Ösel (Swedish, German), Øsel (Danish), Oesel (German). Today it belongs to Estonia and is referred to as Saaremaa.

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Country Profiles Articles : Saaremaa : History, from Wikipedia
Articles : Saaremaa : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Ösel : Historia, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Article : Øsel : Historie, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Links, on History
Organizations Öpetatud Eesti Selts (Learned Estonian Society)
Estonian Museum Association
Eesti Genealoogia Selts (Estonian Genealogical Society); Association of the Four Baltic Noble Corporations, Livonia, Estonia, Courland, and Oesel (Baltische Ritterschaften); click Estonia, Livonia, Oesel (Estländische Ritterschaft; Livländische Ritterschaft; Oeselsche Ritterschaft)
Institut für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen in Nordosteuropa at Universität Hamburg
Baltische Historische Kommission, page in German
Historical Dictionary Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens, in German
Accounts of History general Articles : Saaremaa : History, from Wikipedia
Articles : Saaremaa : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Ösel : Historia, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Peter Wilhelm Baron von Buxhövenden, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Provinz Oesell, 1838, posted by Google Books
Specific Periods Article : Kingdom of Livonia, from Wikipedia
E. Seraphim, Geschichte Liv-, Est- und Kurlands von der "Aufsegelung" des Landes bis zur Einverleibung in das russische Reich, vol.1, 1895, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Erik Esvelt, The Swedish Empire in the Baltic Nations 1998
Economy & Finances
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses, Estonia, from Kirken i Norge
Jewish Virtual History Tour : Estonia, from Jewish Virtual Library; Estonia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category : Religion in Estonia, Religion, Eastern Orthodoxy in Estonia, from Estonica
Patron Saint Index : Estonia,
Andres Andresen, The Reconfiguration of Lutheran Church Organization in the Baltic Region from the 1520s to 1917
Anton Fahne, Livland: Ein Beitrag zur Kirchen- und Sittengeschichte , 1875, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Local History Article : Kuressaare : History, from Wikipedia
Article : Kuressaare : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Kuressaare : Historie, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Biographies Baltische Biographische Lexika (Baltic Biographical Lexica), in German
J.F. von Recke, Allgemeines Schriftsteller- und Gelehrten-Lexikon der Provinzen Livland, Esthland und Kurland, vol.II : G-K, 1829, vol.III : L-R, 1831, Supplements vol.I : A-K, 1859, in German, posted on Internet Archive
BR> Dansk Biografisk Leksikon (1887-1905, in Danish), posted by Project Runeberg
Others Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
F.G. von Bunge, Einleitung in die Liv-, Esth- und curländische Rechtsgeschichte und Geschichte der Rechtsquellen, 1849, in German, posted on Internet Archive
F.G. von Bunge, Geschichte des Gerichtswesens und Gerichtsverfahrens in Liv-, est- und Curland, 1874, posted on Internet Archive

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Ösel Island
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Online Digital Archive, from Estonial National Archive
2402 Livonica II, from Nationell Arkiv, Sweden
Archival Deposits Catalogue Online Katalog des schwedischen Generalgouverneur-archivs zu Riga , 1908, posted on Internet Archive
P.K. Grimsted, Archives and manuscript repositories in the USSR, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belorussia, 1981, posted on Internet Archive
Dokumentesammlung des Herder-Instituts, mainly Baltic documents
Document Collections
Individual Documents
Historical Maps click here
Old City Maps, from NLE Cartography Collection
Old geographical maps from the NLE Cartography Collection
K.R. Kupffer, Baltische Landeskunde : Atlas (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
List of Maps of the (former Swedish) Baltic Provinces, kept in RA Stockholm, Krigsarkivet, some of them clickable; comment in Swedish
Maps, on Uldis Balodis, Livonian History
Encyclopedia Entries
Article : Ösel, from Nordisk Familjebok 1st edition 1894, 2nd edition 1922, in Swedish
Institutions Archives
Musea Category : Museums in Estonia, from Wikipedia
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Coat of Arms, Saarema County, from Fahnenversand

Bibliographies general
on Estonia Estonian National Bibliography, from Slavic and East European Library
Eesti Rahvus Bibliograafia (Estonian National Bibliography)
Baltische Historische Kommission, Publikationen (in German)
on Ösel
on Specific Issues
Concerning Ösel
Baltic Amber Bibliography Estonia
Publikationen, from IKGN
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Eastern Central Europe National Library of Estonia : E-Library
Central and Eastern European Online Library
Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
Online Journals full text online Livländische Geschichtsliteratur vol.2 1884, vol.4 1904, posted on Internet Archive
Baltische Monatsschrift 1859, posted on Internet Archive
Estonian Journal of Archaeology, years 2000-2006 / vols. 4-10 online
Acta Historica Tallinensia, years 2000-2006 / vols.4-10 online
General Accounts on Eastern Europe Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Westport CT : Greenwood 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.9 O18h
Reinhard Wittram, Baltische Geschichte. Die Ostseelande Livland, Estland und Kurland 1180-1918 (Baltic History. The Baltic Lands of Livonia, Estonia and Courland, 1180-1918), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft (1954) 1973, in German
on Estonia Toivo U. Raun, Estonia and the Estonians, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 2001 [G]
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionary Tojvo Miljan, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 2004

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