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Finland Livonia
First posted on February 14th 2010






Terra Mariana disintegrated in the late 1550s. In 1561 the city of Reval (Tallinn) paid homage to King Erik of Sweden. In the Livonian War (1558-1583) Sweden established control over Estonia (which was slightly enlarged, by the annexation of the larger part of Wiek etc.).
In 1621 Sweden extended its possessions in the eastern Baltic by the conquest of the larger part of the Duchy of Livonia (Swedish Livonia) from Poland-Lithuania, in 1645 by gaining Ösel from Denmark.
Following the Swedish defeat in the Battle of Poltava 1709 (Great Northern War) in 1710 the Diet of Estonia switched allegiance from Sweden to the Russian Empire, in which Estonia Gubernia (1710-1918) maintained political autonomy.

Estonia 1660-1721 . Estonia 1561-1660

Livonia 1525-1561
Livonia 1346-1525

Estonia 1218-1346 . . . Livonia 1199-1346 . . . Denmark
The Eastern Baltic before the Crusades (-1199)

Historical Atlas : Estonia Page







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Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
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Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others



WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Article : Swedish Estonia, from Wikipedia
Article : Svenska Estland, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Links, General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from SSEES; from Internet Archive
Links, on History from Virtual Library History
Organizations Öpetatud Eesti Selts (Learned Estonian Society)
Estonian Museum Association
Eesti Genealoogia Selts (Estonian Genealogical Society); Association of the Four Baltic Noble Corporations, Livonia, Estonia, Courland, and Oesel (Baltische Ritterschaften); click Estonia, Livonia, Oesel (Estländische Ritterschaft; Livländische Ritterschaft; Oeselsche Ritterschaft)
Institut für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen in Nordosteuropa at Universität Hamburg
Historical Dictionary Estonica
Timelines Timeline of the History of Estonia, from Wikipedia
from timelines.ws
Accounts of History Article History of Estonia, from Wikipedia
History, from Estonica
E. Seraphim, Geschichte Liv-, Est- und Kurlands von der "Aufsegelung" des Landes bis zur Einverleibung in das russische Reich, vol.1, 1895, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods H.K.H. Almquist, Sverge och Ryssland, 1595-1611 : Tvisten om Estland, förbundet mot Polen .., 1907, in Swedish, posted on Internet Archive
Historiography
Military Wars of Estonia, from ACED
Article : Military History of Estonia, from Wikipedia
Category : Military of Estonia, from Wikipedia
Estonian Military History, from Visit Estonia
Svenskt Militärhistoriskt Bibliothek
Det Stora Nordiska Kriget, from Svenska Krig, in Swedish
Article : Andra Polska Kriget, 1600-1629, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Estonia
Article Economy of Estonia, from Wikipedia
Raimo Pullat and Lauri Suurmaa, Probate Inventories as Sources for the Study of the History of Luxury in Estonian Towns in the Early Modern Period (18th Century), IEHC 2006
Estonia, from European Textile Network (historical sites)
Baltic Sea Trade, from Baltic Connections
Ethnography Languages of Estonia, from Ethnologue
Ethnic Minorities in Estonia, from Estonia Page (1998)
Integration through Education ? The Russian-Speaking Minority and Estonian Society, by Karen Brown
Estonia, from European Centre for Minority Issues
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Estonia
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Estonia, from Kirken i Norge
Jewish Virtual History Tour : Estonia, from Jewish Virtual Library; Estonia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category Religion in Estonia, from Wikipedia
Religion, Eastern Orthodoxy in Estonia, from Estonica
Patron Saint Index : Estonia
Andres Andresen, The Reconfiguration of Lutheran Church Organization in the Baltic Region from the 1520s to 1917
History of Regions Hiiumaa : History (Dagö, Dagø), Harjumaa (Harrien), Virjumaa (Vironia, Wierland), Järvamaa (Jervia), Revelia, Läänemaa (Wiek), from Wikipedia
Counties of Estonia, Municipalities of Estonia, from www.statoids.com
Local History History of Tallinn (Reval), from Wikipedia
Article Narva, from Wikipedia
F.G. von Bunge, Die Revaler Rathslinie nebst Geschichte der Rathsverfassung und einem Anhange über Riga und Dorpat 1874, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Structurae : Estonia; Search Lighthouse Explorer for Estonia
Culture A Short History of Estonian Literature, from Estonian Literature Information Centre
A Brief History of the Estonian Book, by Lott / Moeldre
Article : Music of Estonia : History, from Wikipedia
Film, from Estonica
Architecture, from Estonica
Biographies Baltische Biographische Lexika (Baltic Biographical Lexica), in German
List of Estonians, from Wikipedia
J.F. von Recke, Allgemeines Schriftsteller- und Gelehrten-Lexikon der Provinzen Livland, Esthland und Kurland, vol.II : G-K, 1829, vol.III : L-R, 1831, Supplements vol.I : A-K, 1859, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Svenskt Biografisk Handlexikon, 1906, in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg
Biografica : flottan - en matrikel över flottans officerare 1687-1721, by Bengt Nilsson, in Swedish
Others Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Estonia
Category Disasters in Estonia, from Wikipedia
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
F.G. von Bunge, Einleitung in die Liv-, Esth- und curländische Rechtsgeschichte und Geschichte der Rechtsquellen, 1849, in German, posted on Internet Archive
F.G. von Bunge, Geschichte des Gerichtswesens und Gerichtsverfahrens in Liv-, est- und Curland, 1874, posted on Internet Archive

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Guvernörer över hertigdömet Estland, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
P.E. Damier, Wappen-buch sämmtlicher zur ehstländischen Adelsmatrikel gehöriger Familien, 1837, posted on Internet Archive
Archival Deposits Online Digital Archive, from Estonial National Archive
Archival Deposits Catalogue Online Estonia Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
2402 Livonica II, from Nationell Arkiv, Sweden
Constitutions, Laws Verfassungen der Republik Estland (Constitutions of the Republic of Estonia), from verfassungen.de, in German
Document Collections Baltic Connections : Exhibition
Individual Documents
Historical Maps click here
Baltic Provinces Ethnic, 1987, from Köztes Europa
Old City Maps, from NLE Cartography Collection
Old geographical maps from the NLE Cartography Collection
K.R. Kupffer, Baltische Landeskunde : Atlas (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Articles Estonia, Reval (Tallinn, Revel), from EB 1911
Article Esthonia, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 edition
Articles Esthland, Dagö, Narwa, Reval, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Narwa, Pernau, Reval, posted by DTBSWS
J. Chr. Nelckenbrecher, Taschenbuch eines Banquiers und Kaufmanns enthaltend eine Erklärung aller ein- und ausländischen Münzen ..., Berlin : Wever 1769, in German, entries Reval, posted by DTBSWS
Entry : Livonia pp.271-277, Estland pp.277-279. Letten/Litland pp.279-280,, in : T.G. Smoillett, The Present State of the World, vol.1 1768, posted on Google Books; Livonia listed under chapter "Sweden"
Institutions Archives Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Latvia, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 6 entries
Historical Research in Europe, listing of archives; click Atlas Search, Estonia, 23 entries
Foreign Ministry Archives Services of the European Union Member States : Estonia, from Consilium Europa
Estonian Historical Archives, English language page
National Archives of Estonia, page in Estonian
Musea Category : Museums in Estonia, from Wikipedia
Monuments Category : Monuments and Memorials in Estonia, from Wikipedia
Tentative List : Estonia, World Heritage List, scroll down for Estonia; from UNESCO World Heritage
Windmills in Estonia, from Windmill World
Libraries Libraries in Estonia, from LibDex, 19 entries
National Library of Estonia
History of the Estonian National Library, from The European Library
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coat of Arms of Estland (Reval) Gubernia, from Wikimedia Commons
Others

PRINTED REFERENCE
on Estonia Estonian National Bibliography, from Slavic and East European Library
Eesti Rahvus Bibliograafia (Estonian National Bibliography)
on Specific Issues
Concerning Estonia
Baltic Amber Bibliography Estonia
Estonia Bibliography, from European Centre of Minority Issues
Publikationen, from IKGN
Northern Crusades Bibliography, from Crusades Encyclopedia
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Estonia National Library of Estonia : E-Library
Central and Eastern European Online Library
Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
Online Journals full text online Digiteeritud eesti ajalehed (Digitised Estonian Periodicals, 1821-1944)
Estonian Journal of Archaeology, years 2000-2006 / vols. 4-10 online
Acta Historica Tallinensia, years 2000-2006 / vols.4-10 online
Online Yearbooks full text online
. . until 1789
Hollandsche Mercurius behelsende het gedenckweerdigste in Christenryck, vol.6 : 1655, 1656, vol.7 : 1656, 1657, vol.9 : 1658, 1659, vol.12 : 1661, 1662, vol.15 : 1664, 1665, vol.16 : 1665, 1670, vol.20 : 1669, 1670, vol.24 : 1673-1674, 1674, vol.27 : 1676-1677, 1677, vol.29 : 1678, 1679, vol.30 : 1679, 1680, vol.32 : 1681, 1682, vol.33 : 1682, 1683, vol.36 : 1685, 1686, vol.39 : 1688, 1689, in Dutch, GB
The Present State of Europe, or the Political and Historical Mercuries, containing all the Publick and Private Occurrences, Civil, Ecclesiastical and Military, that are most considerable in every court, vol.1 1690, vol.2 1691, vol.3 1692, vol.4 1693, vol.5 1694, vol.6 1695, vol.7 1696, vol.8 1697, vol.9 1698, vol.10 1699, vol.12, 1701, vol.14, 1703, vol.16, 1705, vol.17, 1706, vol.18, 1707, vol.20, 1709, vol.22, 1711, GB
Europische mercurius, vol.1, 1690, vol.2, 1691, vol.3, 1692, vol.4, 1693, vol.5, 1694, vol.6, 1695, vol.7, 1696, vol.8, 1697, vol.9, 1698, vol.10, 1699, vol.11, 1700, vol.12, 1701, vol.13, 1702, vol.14, 1703, vol.15, 1704, vol.16, 1705, vol.17, 1706, vol.19, 1708, vol.20, 1709, vol.21, 1710, vol.22, 1711, vol.23, 1712, vol.24, 1713, vol.25, 1714, vol.26, 1715, vol.27, 1716, vol.28, 1717, vol.29, 1718, vol.30, 1719, vol.31, 1720, vol.32, 1721, GB
The London almanack, 1693 GB
Il Mercvrio overo Historia de'correnti tempi, 1644, 1647 (I), 1647 (II), 1652 (III), 1655 (IV.1), 1655 (IV.2), 1657 (V.1), 1657 (V.2), 1667 (VI), 1667 (VIII), 1667 (IX), 1668 (X-XI), 1672 (XII), 1674 (XIII), 1684 (XIV), in Italian, GB
Mercure historique et politique, vol.1 : Nov. 1686 - Feb. 1687 , vol.2 : March-July 1687 , vol.3 : Aug.-Dec. 1687 , vol.4 : Jan.-June 1688, vol.5 : July-Dec. 1688, vol.6 : Jan.-June 1689, vol.7 : July-Dec. 1689, vol.8 : Jan.-June 1690, vol.9 : July-Dec. 1690, vol.10 : Jan.-June 1690, vol.11 : July-Dec. 1691, vol.12 : Jan.-June 1692, vol.13 : July-Dec. 1692, vol.14 : Jan.-June 1693, vol.15 : July-Dec. 1693, vol.16 : Jan.-June 1694, vol.17 : July-Dec. 1694, vol.18 : Jan.-June 1685, vol.19 : July-Dec. 1695, vol.20 : Jan.-June 1696, vol.21 : July-Dec. 1696, vol.22 : Jan.-June 1697, vol.23 : July-Dec. 1697, vol.24 : Jan.-June 1698, vol.25 : July-Dec. 1698, vol.26 : Jan.-June 1699, vol.27 : July-Dec. 1699, vol.28 : Jan.-June 1700, vol.29 : July-Dec. 1700, vol.30 : Jan.-June 1701, vol.31 : July-Dec. 1701, vol.32 : Jan.-June 1702, vol.33 : July-Dec. 1702, vol.34 : Jan.-June 1703, vol.35 : July-Dec. 1703, vol.36 : Jan.-June 1704, vol.37 : July-Dec. 1704, vol.38 : Jan.-June 1705, vol.39 : July-Dec. 1705, vol.40 : Jan.-June 1706, vol.41 : July-Dec. 1706, vol.42 : Jan.-June 1707, vol.43 : July-Dec. 1707, vol.46 : Jan.-June 1709, vol.47 : July-Dec. 1709, vol.49 : July-Dec. 1710, vol.50 : Jan.-June 1711, vol.51 : July-Dec. 1711, vol.55 : July-Dec. 1713, vol.56 : Jan.-June 1714, vol.57 : July-Dec. 1714, vol.58 : Jan.-June 1715, vol.59 : July-Dec. 1715, vol.60 : Jan.-June 1716, vol.61 : July-Dec. 1716, vol.62 : Jan.-June 1717, vol.63 : July-Dec. 1717, vol.64 : Jan.-June 1718, vol.66 : Jan.-June 1719, in French, GB
General Accounts on Eastern Europe Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Westport CT : Greenwood 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.9 O18h
Reinhard Wittram, Baltische Geschichte. Die Ostseelande Livland, Estland und Kurland 1180-1918 (Baltic History. The Baltic Lands of Livonia, Estonia and Courland, 1180-1918), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft (1954) 1973, in German
on Estonia Toivo U. Raun, Estonia and the Estonians, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 2001 [G]
Historical Dictionary Tojvo Miljan, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 2004